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Wilderness Viewpoints. Anthropocentric vs. Biocentric. Evolution of Wilderness System. 1872 - Designation of Yellowstone 1913 – Hetch-Hetchy 1916 – Establishment of National Park Service. Evolution of Wilderness System. 1929: L-20 Regulation on FS lands

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Wilderness Viewpoints

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Wilderness Viewpoints

Anthropocentric

vs.

Biocentric


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Evolution of Wilderness System

  • 1872 - Designation of Yellowstone

  • 1913 – Hetch-Hetchy

  • 1916 – Establishment of National Park Service


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Evolution of Wilderness System

  • 1929: L-20 Regulation on FS lands

    • Permitted uses today considered incompatible with wilderness but made it more difficult to implement them:

      • logging

      • grazing

      • road construction

      • mechanical devices


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Evolution of Wilderness System

  • 1935: Wilderness Society formed by Bob Marshall and Aldo Leopold


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Evolution of Wilderness System

  • 1939: U regulations on Forest Service land

    • Bob Marshall (Chief, F.S. Div. of Rec. and Lands)

    • Three use categories:

      • U-1: Wilderness (> 100,000 acres)

      • U-2: Wild areas (5,000 to 100,000 acres)

      • U-3: Roadless areas (managed for rec.use)

    • Grazing & mining permitted


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Evolution of Wilderness System

  • 1956: Howard Zahniser (Director of Wilderness Society) proposes first wilderness bill

  • 1964: Wilderness Act finally passed by Congress


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National Wilderness System

Wilderness Act of 1964

Created a national wilderness system.

Bob Marshall Wilderness Area


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Wilderness Area

“An area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.”

Wilderness Act, 1964

Sunlight Basin, Shoshone NF


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Wilderness Criteria

  • 5,000 acres minimum or adequate size to make preservation possible.

  • Unnoticeable human impact.

  • Opportunities for solitude and primitive recreation.

  • May contain features of ecological, geological, scientific, educational, historic, or scenic value.


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Wilderness Study Areas

  • Areas being considered for designation as wilderness areas.

  • Undergo a formal study of their resources to assess their suitability for wilderness designation.


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National Wilderness System

Eastern Wilderness Act of 1975

  • Made it possible to designate areas in the eastern U.S. as wilderness.

  • Less stringent concerning human impacts.

  • Smaller parcels allowed (1,000 acres minimum).


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Wilderness Managers

  • National Park Service

  • US Forest Service

  • US Fish & Wildlife Service

  • Bureau of Land Management


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Designation

  • Wilderness Study Areas designated by President.

  • Wilderness Areas designated by Congress.


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Is this use permitted?

  • Grazing?

  • Roads?

  • Mechanical devices?

  • Buildings?

  • Timber harvesting?

  • Mining?

  • Fire control?

  • Wilderness outfitters & guides?

  • Aircraft use?


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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Coastal Plain: 1.5 million acres


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Brooks Range, ANWR


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Gwich’in Indians

Inupiat Eskimos


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