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Wilderness Viewpoints. Anthropocentric vs. Biocentric. Evolution of Wilderness System. 1872 - Designation of Yellowstone 1913 – Hetch-Hetchy 1916 – Establishment of National Park Service. Evolution of Wilderness System. 1929: L-20 Regulation on FS lands

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wilderness viewpoints
Wilderness Viewpoints

Anthropocentric

vs.

Biocentric

evolution of wilderness system
Evolution of Wilderness System
  • 1872 - Designation of Yellowstone
  • 1913 – Hetch-Hetchy
  • 1916 – Establishment of National Park Service
evolution of wilderness system3
Evolution of Wilderness System
  • 1929: L-20 Regulation on FS lands
    • Permitted uses today considered incompatible with wilderness but made it more difficult to implement them:
      • logging
      • grazing
      • road construction
      • mechanical devices
evolution of wilderness system4
Evolution of Wilderness System
  • 1935: Wilderness Society formed by Bob Marshall and Aldo Leopold
evolution of wilderness system5
Evolution of Wilderness System
  • 1939: U regulations on Forest Service land
    • Bob Marshall (Chief, F.S. Div. of Rec. and Lands)
    • Three use categories:
      • U-1: Wilderness (> 100,000 acres)
      • U-2: Wild areas (5,000 to 100,000 acres)
      • U-3: Roadless areas (managed for rec.use)
    • Grazing & mining permitted
evolution of wilderness system6
Evolution of Wilderness System
  • 1956: Howard Zahniser (Director of Wilderness Society) proposes first wilderness bill
  • 1964: Wilderness Act finally passed by Congress
national wilderness system
National Wilderness System

Wilderness Act of 1964

Created a national wilderness system.

Bob Marshall Wilderness Area

wilderness area
Wilderness Area

“An area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.”

Wilderness Act, 1964

Sunlight Basin, Shoshone NF

wilderness criteria
Wilderness Criteria
  • 5,000 acres minimum or adequate size to make preservation possible.
  • Unnoticeable human impact.
  • Opportunities for solitude and primitive recreation.
  • May contain features of ecological, geological, scientific, educational, historic, or scenic value.
wilderness study areas
Wilderness Study Areas
  • Areas being considered for designation as wilderness areas.
  • Undergo a formal study of their resources to assess their suitability for wilderness designation.
national wilderness system11
National Wilderness System

Eastern Wilderness Act of 1975

  • Made it possible to designate areas in the eastern U.S. as wilderness.
  • Less stringent concerning human impacts.
  • Smaller parcels allowed (1,000 acres minimum).
wilderness managers
Wilderness Managers
  • National Park Service
  • US Forest Service
  • US Fish & Wildlife Service
  • Bureau of Land Management
designation
Designation
  • Wilderness Study Areas designated by President.
  • Wilderness Areas designated by Congress.
is this use permitted
Is this use permitted?
  • Grazing?
  • Roads?
  • Mechanical devices?
  • Buildings?
  • Timber harvesting?
  • Mining?
  • Fire control?
  • Wilderness outfitters & guides?
  • Aircraft use?
arctic national wildlife refuge
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Coastal Plain: 1.5 million acres

slide18

Gwich’in Indians

Inupiat Eskimos

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