Phenomenology Qualitative Research Method. “Its Not Easy Being Green” By Ronda Hildebrand, Chris Bikakis, Carol Lewallen, Robin Koster & Rachel Wurth. Objectives At the end of this presentation, the learners will be able to.
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“Its Not Easy Being Green”
By Ronda Hildebrand, Chris Bikakis, Carol Lewallen,
Robin Koster & Rachel Wurth
State some of the key assumptions of phenomenology based research
Discuss the philosophical base of the method.
Indicate when this method is appropriate for research and identify appropriate research questions.
Discuss methods of data analysis and how results are presented
Analyze and critique published research done using this method.
Humans coconstitute situations.(Parse 2001)
Knowledge about human experience is expanded by allowing essences of phenomena to appear through descriptions without predictable prescriptions.(Parse 2001)
Knowledge about human experience is gained from retrospective descriptions of lived experiences. (Parse 2001)
Presuppositions and relationships are viewed as necessary to understanding and they should not be suspended.
Experiences can be understood in a new way by recognizing historical influences and meanings of past traditions.
Nursing is a human science that focuses on providing individualized care.
Nursing is holistic in nature.
Nursing is concerned with human responses and experiences.
Phenomenology is concerned with the subjective experience, which is considered to be more real and more important in the understanding of human nature and human experience.
It focuses on the person’s lived experience within a phenomenon, including shared meanings and commonalities.
Purposive sampling – participants have knowledge of a phenomenon
Small sample size – until saturation achieved
Usually relaxed interviews – from 30-120 minutes.
Conducted in comfortable environment or natural environment of participants
What are the lived experiences of being clinical educators?
What are women’s expectations and experiences of childbirth?
What is the lived experience of pain during childbirth?
What is the lived experience of adolescents living with depression?
What is the lived experience of cardiac patients waiting for a heart transplant?
What is the lived experience of grieving the loss of a loved one?
What are the essential features of loneliness?
What is the lived experience of families with a child who has cancer?
Phenomenological Research Analysis
Remember- the intention is not to generate theory or determine causality- but rather to describe and possibly understand the essence of the concept by giving voice to the human experience just as it is.
Multiple “methods’ devised-some common features simplified regarding data:
“Informational needs and the experiences of women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears”- next two slides.
Dealing with stigma
Several participants indicated a burden of shame when
they learned that their abnormal Pap smear was a result of
an HPV infection:
Many years ago when my aunt had cervical cancer
people were very supportive but they had no idea that
it had anything to do with HPV. But now it’s different.
I feel like I won’t get that support because no one is
going to feel sorry for someone who got a sexually
transmitted disease and then later developed cervical
cancer because of it . it’s like it’s your fault . it’s
Social stigma was also characterized by an altered self-image
represented by feeling contaminated, feeling a sense
of anger and unfairness because they considered themselves
at low risk for acquiring a sexually transmitted
infection. The terms clean and dirty were used to describe
a physical self-concept associated with social stigma:
The first lady [healthcare provider] I went to made me
feel like I wanted to zip myself up in a Ziploc bag. All
the information I got was that it was super serious and
it’s a communicable disease like hepatitis or HIV.
Validity- to increase the trustworthiness of the interpretations of the date
Reliability – to increase consistency of procedures/data generated.
Nurses’ Experiences of Drug Administration Errors
Critique of Phenomenology Study
Vulnerable and Strong
To describe the maternity care experiences of a sample of lesbian couples
Each participant lived the experience
Little is known
“Doing phenomenological research is a challenging,
exciting, and at times exhausting process. The
researcher is forced into a sometimes uncomfortable
self-awareness as she plums not only the meaning of
the phenomenon for participants but her own
responses. The final research product can provide a
real sense of satisfaction for the researcher, an often
expressed sense of meaningful contribution by the
research participants, and insight and understanding
for the reader.” Julie Donalek, 2004
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