Grammar vocabulary
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Grammar Vocabulary. Grammar: Irregular/Exceptions:. (from Greek prefix gram- / graph- : "to draw, to write“). t he rules about how to use words in a language.  English DOES have rules! We learn these in grammar class. But in English, we break all the rules! Why? .

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Grammar Vocabulary

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Grammar vocabulary

Grammar Vocabulary

  • Grammar:

  • Irregular/Exceptions:

(from Greek prefix gram-/graph-: "to draw, to write“)

the rules about how to use words in a language

 English DOES have rules! We learn these in grammar class. But in English, we break all the rules! Why?

  • English has over one million words.

  • (French has <100,000 words. ) Why so many?

words or usages that break typical rules


History of the english language

History of the English Language

Part I


Part i english grows in england

Part I: English grows in England

http://www.earlyyearsresources.co.uk/history-geography-c406/geography-c427/british-isles-outline-map-p12705

United Kingdom

Scotland

Northern Ireland

Republic of Ireland

(Not part of UK)

England

Wales

Modern Day


Before english

Before English…

  • Prehstoric/Stone Age (? - 1000 B.C.)

    Illustration by Viktor MikhaylovichVasnetsov (PD-1923)

  • Contribution to the U.K.  Ancient Monuments

  • Contribution to English  None


Grammar vocabulary

  • The Celts Invade (? - 400 B.C.)

  • Contributions to the U.K.

  • Languages (Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, & Irish Gaelic) , Poetry, Art, & Music

  • Contributions to English

  • Mostly place names like Britain,

  • Dover, Thames River, CAMbridge (cam=

  • “crooked”), the River Avon (avon= “river”), BERKshire (berk= “hilly place”), EXeter, and OXford (ex/ox=“water”).


Grammar vocabulary

  • The Romans Invade (~40 - 400 A.D.)

The Romans push most Celts North and West. Some Celts stay and become Romans.

  • Contributions to the U.K.

  • Buildings, aqueducts, roads, etc.

  •  Contributions to English (then)

  • Mostly place names: London, places ending in –CASTER/CESTER or –CHESTER (Latin for “camp”) such as Chester, Manchester, Winchester, Lancaster, Gloucester, etc.


  • English comes to england

    English comes to England!

    • In the 400’s A.D., the Roman Empire was attacked by Germanic tribes. The Romans in England were called back to Rome to help.

    • Celts who had been “Romanized” were left helpless in England.

    • Germanic tribes wanted England’s farmland and its minerals (lead, copper, tin, silver).

    • These tribes spoke an ancient form of German.


    Grammar vocabulary

    The Indo-European Roots of the Old Germanic Languages


    Grammar vocabulary

    • Germanic Tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes) Invade

    Romanized

    Celts escape

    to Scotland, Ireland, and Wales.


    Grammar vocabulary

    • The Germanic Tribes invade in the 400’s.

    • By 1000 A.D., the tribes have mixed together.

    • The people are called Angelcynn (“Angle-kin” = “related to the Angles).

    • The Country is called Englaland (“The land of the Angles”).

    • The language, Anglo-Saxon, is called Englisc = Old English.


    Grammar vocabulary

    Hwæt we Gardena in geardagum,

    þeodcyningaþrymgefrunon,

    huðaæþelingasellenfremedon.

    Oft ScyldScefingsceaþenaþreatum

    monegummægþummeodosetlaofteah,

    egsodeeorlas, syððanærestwearð

    feasceaftfunden; he þæsfrofregebad,

    weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndumþah

    oðþæt him æghwylcþaraymbsittendra

    oferhronradehyranscolde,

    gombangyldan. þætwæs god cyning.

    • Old English: The first form of English

    æ=ð/þ=

    Hwæt =we= -dena=

    in=dag=cyning=

    hu=ða= oft=

    eorl=fund=he=

    under=weorð= ofer=

    rade=scolde=gyld=

    þæt=wæs=god=


    Beowulf

    Beowulf

    • One of the oldest written works in Old English.

    • Written down ~700-1000?

    • Before it was written, it was an old story.


    Words we still use from old e nglish

    Words we still use from Old English

    • the

    • that

    • and

    • am

    • is

    • are

    • I

    • me

    • you

    • he

    • his

    • it

    • run

    • laugh

    • speak

    • work

    • not

    • father

    • mother

    • wife

    • do

    • work

    • drink

    • eat

    • day

    • earth

    • heaven

    • sea

    • all

    • thing

    • steal

    • house

    • ship

    • bath

    • bridge

    • sheep

    • dog

    • wood

    • field

    • glee

    • here

    • there

    • and

    • many

    • more!


    Grammar vocabulary

    • Old English words often changed forms in a different way than Modern English words.

    • Why? Over many years we have SIMPLIFIED English (Examples: past verb = “-ed” / plural nouns = “-s”)

    • But very old words people use every day stayed the same. So NOW they seem irregular.

    • NOUNS

    • wife/wives

    • man/men

    • woman/women

    • child/children

    • wolf/wolves

    • goose/geese

    • sheep/sheep

    • fish/fish

    • VERBS

    • be/am/is/are/was/were

    • run/ran

    • eat/ate/eaten

    • drink/drank/drunk

    • sing/sang/sung

    • say/said

    • speak/spoke/spoken

    • think/thought


    Who invades next

    Who invades next?

    • The Christians (bringing Latin back!)

    • The Vikings (bringing Old Norse)

    • The Normans (bringing Old French)

    • What did they bring to English? Wait for the History of the English Language: Part II


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