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Grammar Vocabulary. Grammar: Irregular/Exceptions:. (from Greek prefix gram- / graph- : "to draw, to write“). t he rules about how to use words in a language.  English DOES have rules! We learn these in grammar class. But in English, we break all the rules! Why? .

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grammar vocabulary
Grammar Vocabulary
  • Grammar:
  • Irregular/Exceptions:

(from Greek prefix gram-/graph-: "to draw, to write“)

the rules about how to use words in a language

 English DOES have rules! We learn these in grammar class. But in English, we break all the rules! Why?

  • English has over one million words.
  • (French has <100,000 words. ) Why so many?

words or usages that break typical rules

part i english grows in england
Part I: English grows in England

http://www.earlyyearsresources.co.uk/history-geography-c406/geography-c427/british-isles-outline-map-p12705

United Kingdom

Scotland

Northern Ireland

Republic of Ireland

(Not part of UK)

England

Wales

Modern Day

before english
Before English…
  • Prehstoric/Stone Age (? - 1000 B.C.)

Illustration by Viktor MikhaylovichVasnetsov (PD-1923)

  • Contribution to the U.K.  Ancient Monuments
  • Contribution to English  None
slide5

The Celts Invade (? - 400 B.C.)

  • Contributions to the U.K.
  • Languages (Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, & Irish Gaelic) , Poetry, Art, & Music
  • Contributions to English
  • Mostly place names like Britain,
  • Dover, Thames River, CAMbridge (cam=
  • “crooked”), the River Avon (avon= “river”), BERKshire (berk= “hilly place”), EXeter, and OXford (ex/ox=“water”).
slide6

The Romans Invade (~40 - 400 A.D.)

The Romans push most Celts North and West. Some Celts stay and become Romans.

  • Contributions to the U.K.
  • Buildings, aqueducts, roads, etc.
                  •  Contributions to English (then)
  • Mostly place names: London, places ending in –CASTER/CESTER or –CHESTER (Latin for “camp”) such as Chester, Manchester, Winchester, Lancaster, Gloucester, etc.
english comes to england
English comes to England!
  • In the 400’s A.D., the Roman Empire was attacked by Germanic tribes. The Romans in England were called back to Rome to help.
  • Celts who had been “Romanized” were left helpless in England.
  • Germanic tribes wanted England’s farmland and its minerals (lead, copper, tin, silver).
  • These tribes spoke an ancient form of German.
slide9

Germanic Tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes) Invade

Romanized

Celts escape

to Scotland, Ireland, and Wales.

slide10

The Germanic Tribes invade in the 400’s.

  • By 1000 A.D., the tribes have mixed together.
  • The people are called Angelcynn (“Angle-kin” = “related to the Angles).
  • The Country is called Englaland (“The land of the Angles”).
  • The language, Anglo-Saxon, is called Englisc = Old English.
slide11

Hwæt we Gardena in geardagum,

þeodcyningaþrymgefrunon,

huðaæþelingasellenfremedon.

Oft ScyldScefingsceaþenaþreatum

monegummægþummeodosetlaofteah,

egsodeeorlas, syððanærestwearð

feasceaftfunden; he þæsfrofregebad,

weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndumþah

oðþæt him æghwylcþaraymbsittendra

oferhronradehyranscolde,

gombangyldan. þætwæs god cyning.

  • Old English: The first form of English

æ= ð/þ=

Hwæt = we= -dena=

in= dag= cyning=

hu= ða= oft=

eorl= fund= he=

under= weorð= ofer=

rade= scolde= gyld=

þæt= wæs= god=

beowulf
Beowulf
  • One of the oldest written works in Old English.
  • Written down ~700-1000?
  • Before it was written, it was an old story.
words we still use from old e nglish
Words we still use from Old English
  • the
  • that
  • and
  • am
  • is
  • are
  • I
  • me
  • you
  • he
  • his
  • it
  • run
  • laugh
  • speak
  • work
  • not
  • father
  • mother
  • wife
  • do
  • work
  • drink
  • eat
  • day
  • earth
  • heaven
  • sea
  • all
  • thing
  • steal
  • house
  • ship
  • bath
  • bridge
  • sheep
  • dog
  • wood
  • field
  • glee
  • here
  • there
  • and
  • many
  • more!
slide14

Old English words often changed forms in a different way than Modern English words.

  • Why? Over many years we have SIMPLIFIED English (Examples: past verb = “-ed” / plural nouns = “-s”)
  • But very old words people use every day stayed the same. So NOW they seem irregular.
  • NOUNS
  • wife/wives
  • man/men
  • woman/women
  • child/children
  • wolf/wolves
  • goose/geese
  • sheep/sheep
  • fish/fish
  • VERBS
  • be/am/is/are/was/were
  • run/ran
  • eat/ate/eaten
  • drink/drank/drunk
  • sing/sang/sung
  • say/said
  • speak/spoke/spoken
  • think/thought
who invades next
Who invades next?
  • The Christians (bringing Latin back!)
  • The Vikings (bringing Old Norse)
  • The Normans (bringing Old French)
  • What did they bring to English? Wait for the History of the English Language: Part II
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