A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e
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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e. Chapter 8 Hard Drives. Objectives. Learn how the organization of data on floppy drives and hard drives is similar Learn about hard drive technologies Learn how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how to install a hard drive

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A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

Chapter 8

Hard Drives


Objectives

Objectives

  • Learn how the organization of data on floppy drives and hard drives is similar

  • Learn about hard drive technologies

  • Learn how a computer communicates with a hard drive

  • Learn how to install a hard drive

  • Learn how to solve hard drive problems

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Introduction

Introduction

  • Hard drive: most important secondary storage device

  • Hard drive technologies have evolved rapidly

    • Hard drive capacities and speeds have increased

    • Interfaces with the computer have also changed

  • Floppy disk will be presented before hard drives

    • Floppy disk is logically organized like a hard drive

  • Practical applications:

    • Managing problems occurring during drive installation

    • Troubleshooting hard drives after installation

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Learning from floppy drives

Learning from Floppy Drives

  • Floppy drives are an obsolescent technology

    • Replacements: CD drives and USB flash memory

  • Good reasons for studying floppy drive technology

    • Developing support skills for legacy applications

    • Building a foundation for hard drive support skill set

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How floppy drives work

How Floppy Drives Work

  • Main memory is organized logically and physically

  • Secondary storage devices are similarly organized

    • Physical storage: how data is written to media

    • Logical storage: how OS and BIOS view stored data

  • How data is physically stored on a floppy disk

    • Two types of floppy disk: 5 ¼ inch or 3 ½ inch

    • Subsystem: drive, 34-pin cable, connector, power cord

    • Formatting: marking tracks and sectors on a disk

    • Magnetic read/write heads read/write binary 1s and 0s

    • Heads attach to actuator arm that moves over surface

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-4 3 1 -inch, high-density floppy disk showing tracks and sectors

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-5 Inside a floppy disk drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How floppy drives work continued

How Floppy Drives Work (continued)

  • How data is logically stored on a floppy disk

    • Floppy drives are always formatted using FAT12

    • Cluster (file allocation unit): smallest grouping of sectors

    • The BIOS manages the disk as a set of physical sectors

    • OS treats the disk as list of clusters (file allocation table)

    • A 3 ½ inch high density floppy disk has 2880 clusters

      • A cluster contains one sector, which contains 512 bytes

  • Format floppy disk using Formator Windows Explorer

    • Structures and features added to the disk

      • Tracks, sectors, boot record, two FATs, root directory

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-6 Clusters, or file allocation units, are managed by the OS in the file allocation table, but BIOS manages these clusters as one or two physical sectors on the disk

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How to install a floppy drive

How to Install a Floppy Drive

  • It is more cost-effective to replace than repair a drive

  • A simple seven-step installation procedure:

    • 1. Turn off computer, unplug power cord, remove cover

    • 2. Unplug the power cable to the old floppy drive

    • 3. Unscrew and dismount the drive

    • 4. Slide the new drive into the bay

    • 5. If drive is new, connect data cable to motherboard

    • 6. Connect data cable and power cord to drive

    • 7. Replace the cover, turn on computer, verify status

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-8 Connect colored edge of cable to pin 1

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How hard drives work

How Hard Drives Work

  • Components of a hard drive:

    • One, two, or more platters (disks)

    • Spindle to rotate all disks

    • Magnetic coating on disk to store bits of data

    • Read/write head at the top and bottom of each disk

    • Actuator to move read/write head over disk surface

    • Hard drive controller: chip directing read/write head

  • Head (surface) of platter is not the read/write head

  • Physical organization includes a cylinder

    • All tracks that are the same distance from disk center

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-10 Inside a hard drive case

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-11 A hard drive with two platters

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Tracks and sectors on the drive

Tracks and Sectors on the Drive

  • Tracks on older drives held the same amount of data

  • Newer drives use zone bit recording

    • Tracks near center have smallest number sectors/track

    • Number of sectors increase as tracks grow larger

    • Every sector still has 512 bytes

    • Sectors identified with logical block addressing (LBA)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-13 Floppy drives and older hard drives use a constant number of sectors per track

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-14 Zone bit recording can have more sectors per track as the tracks get larger

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Low level formatting

Low-Level Formatting

  • Two formatting levels:

    • Low-level: mark tracks and sectors

    • High-level: create boot sector, file system, root directory

  • Manufacturer currently perform most low-level formats

    • Using the wrong format program could destroy drive

    • If necessary, contact manufacturer for format program

  • Problem: track and sector markings fade

    • Solution for older drives: perform low-level format

    • Solution for new drive: backup data and replace drive

  • Note: zero-fill utilities do not do low-level formats

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Calculating drive capacity on older drives

Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives

  • Constant number of sectors per track

  • The formula was straightforward:

    • Cylinders x heads x sectors/track x 512 bytes/sector

  • Example: 855 cylinders, 7 heads, 17 sectors/track

    • 855 x 7 x 17 x 512 bytes/sector = 52,093,440 bytes

    • Divide by 1024 twice to convert to 49.68 MB capacity

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Drive capacity for today s drives

Drive Capacity for Today’s Drives

  • The OS reports the capacity of hard drives

  • Accessing capacity data using Windows Explorer

    • Right-click the drive letter

    • Select Propertieson the shortcut menu

  • Calculating total capacity if drive is fully formatted

    • Record capacity of each logical drive on hard drive

    • Add individual capacities to calculate total capacity

  • Reporting total capacity (regardless of formatting)

    • Windows 2000/XP: use Disk Management

    • Windows 9x: use Fdisk

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Hard drive interface standards

Hard Drive Interface Standards

  • Facilitate communication with the computer system

  • Several standards exist:

    • Several ATA standards

    • SCSI

    • USB

    • FireWire (also called 1394)

    • Fibre Channel

  • The various standards will be covered

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


The ata interface standards

The ATA Interface Standards

  • Specify how drives communicate with PC system

    • Drive controller interaction with BIOS, chipset, OS

    • Type of connectors used by the drive

    • The motherboard or expansion cards

  • Developed by Technical Committee T13

  • Published by ANSI

  • Selection criteria:

    • Fastest standard that the motherboard supports

    • OS, BIOS, and drive firmware must support standard

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Table 8-1 Summary of ATA interface standards for storage devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


The ata interface standards continued

The ATA Interface Standards (continued)

  • Parallel ATA

    • Allows two connectors for two 40-pin data cables

    • Ribbon cables can accommodate one or two drives

  • EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics)

    • Pertains to how secondary storage device works

    • Drive follows AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI)

    • Four parallel ATA devices can attach with two cables

  • Serial ATA (SATA) cabling

    • Use a serial data path rather than a parallel data path

    • Types of SATA cabling: internal and external

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-16 A PC’s hard drive subsystem using parallel ATA

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-18 A hard drive subsystem using the new serial ATA data cable

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


The ata interface standards continued1

The ATA Interface Standards (continued)

  • DMA (direct memory access) transfer mode

    • 7 modes (0 - 6) bypassing CPU in transfer of data

  • PIO (Programmed Input/Output) transfer mode

    • 5 modes (0 - 4) involving CPU in data transfer

  • Independent device timing

    • Enables two drives to run at different speed

  • ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA/100) breaks the 137 GB barrier

    • Addressable space is 144 petabytes (1.44 x 1017 PB)

    • Must have support of board, BIOS, OS, IDE controller

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-21 The 137-GB barrier existed because of the size of the numbers used to address a sector

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


The ata interface standards continued2

The ATA Interface Standards (continued)

  • Configuring parallel ATA drives

    • Each of two IDE connectors supports an IDE channel

    • Primary/secondary channels each support two devices

    • EIDE devices: hard drive, DVD, CD and Zip drives

    • Devices in each channel configured as master/slave

    • Designate master/slave: jumpers, DIP switches, cable

  • Configuring serial ATA drives

    • One ATA cable supports one drive (no master/slave)

  • Use an ATA controller card in two circumstances:

    • IDE connector not functioning or standard not supported

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-22 A motherboard has two IDE channels; each can support a master and slave drive using a single EIDE cable

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-25 Rear of a serial ATA drive and a parallel ATA drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Scsi technology

SCSI Technology

  • Small Computer System Interfacestandards

    • For system bus to peripheral device communication

    • Support either 7 or 15 devices (depends on standard)

    • Provide for better performance than ATA standards

  • The SCSI subsystem

    • SCSI controller types: embedded or host adapter

    • Host adapter supports internal and external devices

    • Daisy chain: combination of host adapter and devices

    • Each device on bus assigned SCSI ID (0 - 15)

    • A physical device can embed multiple logical devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-28 Using a SCSI bus, a SCSI host adapter can support internal and external SCSI devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Scsi technology continued

SCSI Technology (continued)

  • Terminating resistor

    • Plugged into last device at the end of the chain

    • Reduces electrical noise or interference on the cable

  • Various SCSI standards

    • SCSI are SCSI-1, SCSI-2, and SCSI-3

      • Also known as regular SCSI, Fast SCSI, Ultra SCSI

    • Serial attached SCSI (SAS): compatible with serial ATA

    • Ensure all components of subsystem use one standard

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Other interface standards

Other Interface Standards

  • USB (Universal Serial Bus)

    • USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 accommodate hard drives

    • A USB device connects to a PC via a USB port

  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)

    • Uses serial transmission of data

    • Device can connect to PC via FireWire external port

    • Device also attaches to an internal connector

  • Fibre Channel

    • Rival to SCSI

    • Allows up to 126 devices on a single bus

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-31 This CrossFire hard drive holds 160GB and uses a 1394a or USB 2.0 connection

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How to select a hard drive

How to Select a Hard Drive

  • Hard drive must match OS and motherboard

  • BIOS uses autodetection to prepare the device

    • Drive capacity and configuration are selected

    • Best possible ATA standard is part of configuration

  • Selected device may not supported by BIOS

  • Troubleshooting tasks (if device is not recognized)

    • Flash the BIOS

    • Replace the controller card

    • Replace the motherboard

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Installations using legacy bios

Installations Using Legacy BIOS

  • Older hard drive standards that may be encountered

    • CHS (cylinder, head, track) mode for drives < 528 MB

    • Large (ECHS) mode for drives from 504 MB - 8.4 GB

    • The 33.8 GB limitation or the 137 GB limitation

  • How to install a drive not supported by BIOS

    • Let the BIOS see the drive as a smaller drive

    • Upgrade the BIOS

    • Replace the motherboard

    • Use a software interface between BIOS and drive

    • Substitute BIOS with ATA connector and firmware

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Steps to install a parallel ata drive

Steps to Install a Parallel ATA Drive

  • Components needed:

    • The drive itself

    • 80-conductor or 40-conductor data cable

    • Kit to make drive fit into much larger bay (optional)

    • Adapter card (if board does not have IDE connection)

  • Steps for installing parallel ATA drive:

    • Step 1: Prepare for the installation

      • Know your starting point

      • Read the documentation

      • Plan the drive configuration

      • Prepare your work area and take precautions

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-32 Plan for the location of drives within bays

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Steps to install a parallel ata drive continued

Steps to Install a Parallel ATA Drive (continued)

  • Steps for installing parallel ATA drive (continued):

    • Step 2: Set the jumpers or DIP switches

    • Step 3: Mount the drive in the drive bay

      • Remove the bay for the hard drive

      • Securely mount the drive in the bay

      • Connect the data cables to the drives (can be done later)

      • Re-insert (and secure) the bay in the case

      • Install a power connection to each drive

      • Connect the data cable to the IDE connector on board

      • Attach bay cover and other connections (if needed)

      • Verify BIOS recognizes device before adding cover

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-33 A parallel ATA drive most likely will have diagrams of jumper settings for master and slave options printed on the drive housing

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-41 Connect a power cord to each drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Steps to install a parallel ata drive continued1

Steps to Install a Parallel ATA Drive (continued)

  • Steps for installing parallel ATA drive (continued):

    • Step 4: Use CMOS setup to verify hard drive settings

    • Step 5: Partition and format the drive

      • If installing an OS, boot from Windows setup CD

      • If not, use Disk Management utility or Fdisk and Format

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-45 Standard CMOS setup

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Serial ata hard drive installations

Serial ATA Hard Drive Installations

  • No jumpers to set on the drive

  • Each serial ATA connector is dedicated to 1 drive

  • A simpler installation process:

    • Install the drive in the bay (like parallel ATA drive)

    • Connect a power cord to the drive

  • Documentation identifies which connector to use

    • Example: use red connectors (SATA1, SATA2) first

  • After checking connections, verify drive is recognized

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-48 This motherboard has four serial ATA connectors

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-49 American Megatrends, Inc. CMOS setup screen shows installed drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Installing a hard drive in a wide bay

Installing a Hard Drive in a Wide Bay

  • Universal bay kit: adapts a drive to a wide bay

  • Adapter spans distance between drive and bay

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Figure 8-52 Hard drive installed in a wide bay using a universal bay kit adapter

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Troubleshooting hard drives

Troubleshooting Hard Drives

  • Problems occur before and after installation

  • Problems may be hardware or software related

  • Hardware-related problems will be addressed

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Problems with hard drive installations

Problems with Hard Drive Installations

  • CMOS setup does not reflect new hard drive

    • Solution: Enable autodetection and reboot system

  • Error message: “ Hard drive not found.”

    • Reseat the data cable and reboot the PC

  • Error message: “No boot device available.”

    • Insert bootable disk and restart the machine

  • Error message 601 appears on the screen

    • Connect the power cord to the floppy disk drive

  • Error message: “Hard drive not present”

    • Restore jumpers to their original state

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Problems with hard drive installations continued

Problems with Hard Drive Installations (continued)

  • Things to check if CMOS setup does not show drive

    • Does your system BIOS recognize large drives?

    • Is autodetection correctly configured in CMOS setup?

    • Are the jumpers on the drive set correctly?

    • Are the power cord and data cable connected?

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How to approach a hard drive problem after the installation

How to Approach a Hard Drive Problem After the Installation

  • Some post-installation problems

    • Corrupted data files

    • A corrupted Windows installation

    • A hardware issue preventing system from booting

  • Preparation steps

    • Start with the end user: conduct an interview

    • Prioritize what you have learned

      • Example: make data backup your first priority

    • Be aware of available resources

      • Examples: documentation, Internet, Technical Support

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Hard drive hardware problems

Hard Drive Hardware Problems

  • Causes of problems present during boot:

    • Hard drive subsystem

    • Partition table

    • File system on the drive

    • Files required for the OS to boot

  • Some things to do if POST reveals problem

    • Check the jumper settings on the drive

    • Check the cable for frayed edges or other damage

    • Try booting from another media; e.g. setup CD

    • Check manufacturer Web site for diagnostic software

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Hard drive hardware problems continued

Hard Drive Hardware Problems (continued)

  • Bumps are bad

    • A scratched surface may cause a hard drive crash

    • Data may be recovered, even if drive is inaccessible

  • Invalid drive or drive specification

    • System BIOS cannot read partition table information

    • Boot from recovery CD and check partition table

    • To be covered in later chapters

  • Bad sector errors

    • Problem due to fading tracks and sectors

    • Solution: replace the drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Troubleshooting floppy drives and disks

Troubleshooting Floppy Drives and Disks

  • Table 8-4 has two columns

    • One identifies errors occurring before and after boot

    • Another displays troubleshooting tasks

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Table 8-4 Floppy drive and floppy disk errors that can occur during and after the boot

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

Table 8-4 Floppy drive and floppy disk errors that can occur during and after the boot (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Summary

Summary

  • Current floppy disks are 3 ½ inch, high-density disks

  • Floppy disk format: 80 tracks, each with 8 sectors

  • Hard drive physical organization: cylinders, tracks, sectors

  • Hard drive logical organization: boot record, file allocation tables, and root directory

  • Secondary storage device communicates with system using a standard, such as ATA or SCSI

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • Parallel ATA (or EIDE): allows connection of up to 4 devices

  • Serial ATA (SATA): specifies one cable per device

  • SCSI group: allow up to 7 or 15 physical devices and multiple logical devices per physical device

  • Other drive interface standards: USB, FireWire, Fibre Channel

  • Newly installed hard drives are usually automatically detected by BIOS

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


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