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Normal X-Ray Anatomy. Axial and Appendicular Skeleton William Ursprung, DC. Lesson Objectives. Identify anatomical structures on plain film radiographs Identify the views commonly used to radiograph the skeletal system

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Normal X-Ray Anatomy

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Normal x ray anatomy

Normal X-Ray Anatomy

Axial and Appendicular


William Ursprung, DC

Lesson objectives

Lesson Objectives

  • Identify anatomical structures on plain film radiographs

  • Identify the views commonly used to radiograph the skeletal system

  • Utilize a basic search pattern to screen plain film radiographs for pathology

Basic rules for interpretation

Basic Rules for Interpretation

  • Plain films are a 2 dimensional gray scale image of a 3 dimensional anatomical structure

  • Four basic densities

    • Metal = very bright (white)

    • Bone = bright (white)

    • Water/soft tissue = (various shades of gray)

    • Air = dark (black)

Basic rules for interpretation1

Basic Rules for Interpretation

  • Rule of thumb for radiographs: min. of 2 views that are offset by 90° for any body part

  • ABOLTS search pattern

    • A = anatomy

    • B = breaks or step defects in the cortex

    • O = opacities (ie blastic lesion, impacted fx)

    • L = lucencies (ie lytic lesion, displaced fx)

    • T= trabecular architecture

    • S = soft tissues (swelling, mass, fascial planes)

Cervical spine

Cervical Spine

Anterior posterior open mouth

Anterior Posterior Open Mouth

Anterior posterior lower cervical

Anterior Posterior Lower Cervical

Lateral cervical

Lateral Cervical

Cervical oblique

Cervical Oblique

Thoracic spine

Thoracic Spine

Posterior anterior chest

Posterior Anterior Chest

Anterior posterior thoracic spine

Anterior Posterior Thoracic Spine

Lateral thoracic spine

Lateral Thoracic Spine

Lumbar spine

Lumbar Spine

Ap lumbar

AP Lumbar

Lateral lumbar

Lateral Lumbar

Pelvis and hips

Pelvis and Hips

Ap pelvis

AP Pelvis

Ap pelvis1

AP Pelvis



Normal shoulder

Normal Shoulder

Normal shoulder1

Normal Shoulder

Elbow and forearm

Elbow and Forearm

Normal elbow

Normal Elbow

Normal elbow1

Normal Elbow



Wrist and hand

Wrist and Hand

Normal wrist

Normal Wrist

Normal wrist1

Normal Wrist

Normal hand

Normal Hand

Normal hand1

Normal Hand

Normal x ray anatomy


Normal knee

Normal Knee

Ankle and foot

Ankle and Foot

Normal ankle

Normal Ankle

Normal ankle1

Normal Ankle

Normal ankle2

Normal Ankle

Boehler s angle

Boehler’s Angle

Normal foot

Normal Foot

Normal foot1

Normal Foot

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