Lx I The sounds of German
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 48

Lx I The sounds of German Lecture 5 – Week 6 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 51 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Lx I The sounds of German Lecture 5 – Week 6. I. Social and geographical variation II. Phonological integration of borrowed words. Social and geographical variation. Dialects - spoken more in the south (geog.) more in rural areas more by manual workers (social)

Download Presentation

Lx I The sounds of German Lecture 5 – Week 6

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Lx I The sounds of German

Lecture 5 – Week 6

I. Social and geographical variation

II. Phonological integration of borrowed words


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

  • Social and geographical variation

  • Dialects

  • - spoken more in the south (geog.)

  • more in rural areas

  • more by manual workers (social)

  • Even when not (no longer) speaking dialect, affect pronunciation of the standard language


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

  • The High German sound shift

/p, t, k//pf/ or /f/ , /ts/ or /s/, /x/ or /ç/

Standard vs. north of the Benrather Linie (just north of Cologne)

Pferd / paard

Zehn / tien , essen / eten

Ich / ik


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

  • The High German sound shift

/p, t, k//pf/ or /f/ , /ts/ or /s/, /x/ or /ç/

Standard vs. north of the Benrather Linie (just north of Cologne)

Pferd / paard (English pepper vs Pfeffer)

Zehn / tien (ten), essen / eten (eat)

Ich / ik (book vs. Buch)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

And …

/b, d, g//p, t, k/

In the standard: only /d/ /t/

Tochter vs. dochter (English daughter)

only in the very south:

/b/ /p/ and

/g/ /k/

Brot > prot

gesagt > ksagt


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

The High German sound shift …

Unshifted forms remain in the north, north

of the Benrather Linie (just north of Cologne):


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

2. Binnenhochdeutsche Konsonantenlenierung (High German consonant lenition or weakening)

In many parts of the centre and south, the voiceless consonants are not aspirated (much / at all) and so sound very like voiced consonants:

Kugel / Gugel(-hupf), tritt / dritt, Pein / Bein become homophones


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

sie singen so sauber ….: /s/ or /z/?

  • In standard German, <s> at the start of a word (im Anlaut) is pronounced /z/, so sang = /zaŋ/

  • but in the south, initial <s> is usually not voiced, i.e. is /s/, as in /saŋ/

  • On the other hand, some southerners say /z/ for /s/ in the middle of a word (im Inlaut), as in /bɪzl/ for /bɪsl/ (Bissel = Bisschen)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

“jut so!”

  • In the Rhineland, you will often hear an initial <g> /g/ pronounced instead as /j/, as in ju:t zo:! <gut so!>

  • This is alos a feature of Berlinish


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

leben or leven / lewen?

  • In some parts of the east and in the south-west, a medial <b> is pronounced like a fricative.

  • In dialect sometimes, even spelt as a fricative: leven / lewen (and cf. live, seven ….)

  • NB NOT our English /w/

  • It is a voiced bilabial fricative: ß


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Stolpern über den spitzen Stein?

  • We know that in standard German, <st> at the start of the word is pronounced /∫t/

  • But in the far north (Bremen, Hamburg, etc.), it is pronounced as in English <st>, /st/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Stolpern über den spitzen Stein?

  • We know that in standard German, <st> at the start of the word is pronounced /∫t/

  • But in the far north (Bremen, Hamburg, etc.), it is pronounced as in English <st>, /st/

  • and in Swabia, /st/ often becomes / ∫t/ even in the middle of / end of a word: .e.g. Ast /a∫t/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Geschichte oder Geschischte?

  • In the Rhineland, /∫/ is also used more widely than in the standard language:

  • it replaces /ç/:

  • “isch, Geschischte, Kirsche”

  • /ɪç/ >> /ɪ∫/, etc.

  • i.e. the palatal fricative is replaced by the palatal-alveolar fricative


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Ach, ich halte durch….

  • In standard German, we use /ç/ after a front vowel and after /r/, and /x/ after a back vowel: (they are in complementary distribution)

  • /x/ /ç/

  • Loch Löcher

  • Buch Bücher

  • Bach Bächer

  • ach ich

  • durch


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Ach, ich halte durch….

  • In Alemannic (= SW and Swiss), /ç/ does not occur; instead /x/

  • /ɪç/, /ax/ > /ɪx/, /ax/

  • Kuchen oder Kuhchen?

  • /ku:xn/ oder /ku:çn/

  • in Alemannic, there would be no difference ….


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Ach, ich halte durch….

  • In Bavarian and in Austria, the distribution of /ç/ and /x/ is a bit different

  • /x/ occurs after /r/, instead of /ç/

  • durch, Lerche


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

die richtige Chemie?

  • Standard German uses / ç/ for <ch> at the start of borrowed words like Chemie and China

  • In the south, people more commonly use /k/ (ie the homorganic stop)

  • and of course in the Rhineland, they might well say /∫/:

  • /çɛmi:/ /kɛmi:/ /∫ɛmi:/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/x/ and /k/ in word-final position (im Auslaut)

  • We’ve seen variation between /ç/ and /k/ for <ch> at the start of words

  • At the end of words, too, there is a tendency for speakers in the north to use /x/ or / ç / where southerners would use /k/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Guten Ta/x/ or guten Ta/k/? /x/ and /k/ in word-final position (im Auslaut)

  • after back vowel: trug /trʊx/ (or /trʊγ/ the voiced velar fricative) vs. trʊk

  • after front vowel: Sieg /zi:ç/ vs. / zi:k/

  • after consonant: Sarg /zarç/ vs / zark/

  • in the suffix –ig: /ho:nɪç/ vs. /ho:nɪk/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Guten Ta/x/ or guten Ta/k/? /x/ and /k/ in word-final position (im Auslaut) ….

  • The standard follows the south (i.e. -/k/, except for the suffix <-ig>

  • in the suffix –ig: the standard uses /ɪç/

  • the -/ɪk/ pronunciation stands out as southern in this context


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Pf and ts – the affricates

  • In Central and northern German especially, the /pf/ cluster is often reduced to /f/, as in : /fɛfɐ/ for /pfɛfɐ/ (Pfeffer)

  • In Berlin, initial /ts/ sometimes becomes /s/: /su:/ for /tsu:/ (zu)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/r/ and its allophones

  • allophone = predictable phonetic variant of a phoneme.

  • Its distribution is usually predictable on the basis of regional distribution or a regular phonological process

  • We’ve already met the allophones of /r/: [ɐ], [ʀ], [ʁ], [r]


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/r/ and its allophones …

1. [r] – an alveolar trill produced with the tip of the tongue (also called apical trill)

2. [ʀ] – uvular trill

3. [ʁ] – uvular fricative

4. [ɐ] – vocalic r (mid-low central vowel)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/r/ and its allophones …

a. Geographical distribution:

- the alveolar trill [r] is more widespread in the south, and in rural areas

- the uvular r allophones ([ʀ] and [ʁ]) are on more common in the north and in cities, but are on the rise generally


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/r/ and its allophones …

  • b. within-speaker variation:

  • - It is hard to predict when a speaker who uses the uvular r will use the trill ([ʀ]), and when the fricative ([ʁ])

  • To make matters more complicated, the fricative can be devoiced to a /χ/ (voiceless uvular fricative),

  • esp. after a back vowel and a following stop – e.g. warte: /vaχtə/ which can become indistinguishable from wachte: /vaxtə/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/r/ and its allophones …

  • c. Complementary distribution:

  • - vocalic /r/ (mid-low central vowel [ɐ] ) is used for the unstressed <–er> ending

  • NB even if there is a following inflectional ending:

  • Lehrer, des Lehrers: Lehr-[ɐ], des Lehr-[ɐs]

  • also after long vowels before consonants:

  • /fy:ɐtə/ führte(NB ɐ is non-syllabic here, should have an eyebrow underneath)

  • and often after long vowels in final position: wir /vi:ɐ/ vor /fo:ɐ/ (again non-syllabic)

  • in the unstressed prefixes ver-, er-, zer-, her-


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

/r/ and its allophones …

c. Complementary distribution:

- but speakers who use the alveolar trill [r] may not use the vocalic r at all …


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Regional variation in the vowels


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Tenser vowels in the south:

  • There is a tendency in the south to make the lax vowels somewhat tenser than in standard German, so that /ɪ/ becomes more like a short /i/, and /ɔ/ becomes more like a short /o/ (Milch, Motte)

  • This also applies to the diphthong /aɪ/, which tends to be closer in the south (klein)

  • Also in the south …. An unstressed /ə/ is more likely to sound like a short /e/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Schwäbeln und Ähnliches

There is a tendency in Swabia (SW)to replace e: with ɛ: , in words like Regen, lesen

i.e. To make the vowel sound like ä (Schwäbeln)

Meanwhile in much of the north and east-central German, all /ɛ: / are replaced by /e:/ (this is what I naturally do!)

(ich nehme vs. ich nähme become homophones)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Jo, jo …

In Bavaria, an <a> often sounds more like /ɔ/

Ja : /jɔ:/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Rounding: Trinkst du gern Mülch?

In Münsterland and in some other parts of the north, /ɪ/ can become rounded to become /Y/

(die Rundung)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Derounding: (Entrundung)

Some rounded vowels become de-rounded in many parts of the south and east-central German area:

müde becomes /mi:də/ instead of /my:də/

können becomes a homophone of kennen (both with ɛ)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

“Warum heißen keine Kinder in Sachsen Günther?”

… because with de-rounding of the vowel and consonant lenition, (so that /g/ and /k/, /d/ and /t/ are not distinguished), you would call Günther and all the Kinder would come running …!


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

II. Integrating borrowed phonemes …

Or

Heute Jazz im Restaurant oder big Mac auf dem Balkon?


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Integrating borrowed words

  • we’ve already seen how some phonemes are only “peripheral” in German ….

  • /Ʒ/ as in Journalist, Journal, Blamage

  • some Germans do not use this phoneme at all and replace it with / ∫/ (the voiceless equivalent – both are palatal-alveolar fricatives)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

A peripheral affricate

  • the affricate /t∫/ is also fairly peripheral, apart from its frequency in Deutsch (word-initially only in borrowed words like Tschechien …)


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Peripheral vowels: nasal vowels

  • a nasal vowel is like an ordinary vowel, but with the velum lowered, so that some air can escape through the nose as well as through the mouth

  • German does not have nasal vowels in any native words

  • the IPA marking for a nasal vowel is a tilda over the vowel, as in : ã, õ


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Peripheral vowels: nasal vowels

  • In words borrowed from French, some speakers do use nasal vowels –

  • Balkon, Restaurant, Chance, Parfum

  • /balkɔ~/ , /rɛstorã/ , / ∫ãns(ə)/, /parfœ~/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Peripheral vowels: nasal vowels ….

  • but many speakers do not have nasal vowels in their phoneme inventory. Instead, they replace the nasal vowel with an oral vowel, and add the nasality by adding a velar nasal ŋ

  • Balkon, Restaurant, Chance,

  • /balkɔŋ / , /rɛstoraŋ / / ∫aŋs(ə)/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Peripheral vowels: nasal vowels ….

  • …or the nasality is not preserved at all, in the case of Parfum (now also Parfüm)

  • /parfy:m/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Other strategies for the phonological integration of borrowed words

  • 1. replace voiced phonemes not used in German with their voiceless equivalents

  • Journalist: /Ʒʊrnalɪst/ >> / ∫ʊrnalɪst/

  • Manager: /mænɪdƷə / >> / mɛnɪt∫ɐ

  • esp. at the end of words, where a voiced obstruent is not possible (Auslautverhärtung): /bɪg mæk/ >> /bɪk mɛk /


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Other strategies for the phonological integration of borrowed words ….

  • 2. replace vowels with their nearest equivalents, e.g.

  • e.g. English /æ/ (mid-low front vowel) >> German /ɛ/ (mid front vowel)

  • Manager: /mænɪdƷə / >> / mɛnɪt∫ɐ

  • Big Mac /bɪg mæk/ >> /bɪk mɛk/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

So …. der Geck (“vain dandy”) becomes homophonous with der Gag : both /gɛk/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Other strategies for the phonological integration of borrowed words ….

  • 3. Pronounce morphemes* as their equivalent in German

  • e.g. suffix <er> as in Trainer

  • /ə/ >> /ɐ/

  • *a morpheme is the smallest unit of language that can carry meaning – it includes lexical morphemes like Hund, Arbeit, but also grammatical endings and prefixes and suffixes


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Other strategies for the phonological integration of borrowed words ….

  • 4. Replace diphthongs that don’t occur in German with a long monophthong of the first element:

  • - e.g. /eɪ/ as in Trainer

  • /eɪ/ >> /e:/ in /tre:nɐ/

  • - /oʊ/ as in homepage:

  • /oʊ/ >> /o: in /ho:mpe:t∫/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Other strategies for the phonological integration of borrowed words ….

5. Follow the spelling

- e.g. Spaghetti

Pronounce <sp> as in German, not as in Italian:

/∫p/


Lx i the sounds of german lecture 5 week 6

Other strategies for the phonological integration of borrowed words ….

6. Introduce glottal stops where they would naturally occur in German

- e.g. das Happy End

/hɛpi: ʔɛnt/


  • Login