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Gross Brain Overview: Part II . Basic Neuroscience James H. Baños, Ph.D. Overview. Organization Morphology Developmental/Evolutionary Cytoarchitectural 3-D Orientation to Internal Structures. How do we organize and characterize different parts of the brain?.

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Gross brain overview part ii l.jpg
Gross Brain Overview: Part II

Basic Neuroscience

James H. Baños, Ph.D.


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Organization

    • Morphology

    • Developmental/Evolutionary

    • Cytoarchitectural

  • 3-D Orientation to Internal Structures



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Morphology: brain?External Features


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Frog brain?

Rat

What’s changing?

Cat

Monkey

Human



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The term “gyrus” is sometimes used broadly and doesn’t always

refer to a single well-defined ridge on the surface of the brain.

The distinctions between large gyri are sometimes better seen in

coronal sections.


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Hemispheres always

Longitudinal

Fissure


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Lobes always

Central (Rolandic) Sulcus

Lateral (Sylvian) fissure

Parieto-occipital fissure


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Frontal always

Parietal

Temporal

Occipital

Lobes

Cingulate Gyrus

“Limbic Lobe”


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Brain Stem always

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Midbrain

Pons

Medulla


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Cerebellum: Superior Aspect always

  • 2 Hemispheres

  • Vermis

Ant


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Hemisphere always

Vermis

Hemisphere

Cerebellum: Posterior Aspect

Anterior Lobe

Primary Fissure

Posterior Lobe


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Cerebellum: Mid-Saggital always

Anterior Vermis

Posterior Vermis



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Developmental Origins always

  • Areas of the Brain can be characterized by the embryonic origins of the tissue.

  • Nervous system begins as a tube that differentiates into three vessicles:

    • Prosencephalon

    • Mesencephalon

    • Rhombencephalon

Three Vessicle Stage


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Developmental Origins always

  • Prosencephalon differentiates:

    • Telencephalon -- beginnings of hemispheres

    • Diencephalon

  • Rhombencehphalon differentiates

    • Metencephalon

    • Meyelencephalon

  • We use this terminology to describe the parts of the brain that develop from these vessicles

Five Vessicle Stage



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Organization always

  • Telencephalon

    • Cortex

    • Basal Ganglia

    • Limbic System

    • Hippocampus


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Organization always

  • Diencephalon

    • Thalamus

    • Hypothalamus


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Organization always

  • Mesencephalon

    • Midbrain


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Organization always

  • Metencephalon

    • Cerebellum

    • Pons


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Organization always

  • Myelencephalon

    • Medulla





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Major Internal Structures always

  • Ventricular System

  • Amygdala (helpful landmark)

  • Thalamus/Hypothalamus/brain stem

  • Basal Ganglia

    • Caudate Nucleus

    • Putamen

    • Globus Pallidus

  • Hippocampal formation

    • Hippocampus

    • Fimbria

    • Fornix

  • Major white matter landmarks

    • Corpus callosum

    • Internal capsule


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Evolution and Development always

Frog

Rat

Cat

Monkey

Human


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Evolution and Development always

Frog

Rat

Cat

Monkey

Human

?


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Evolution and Development always

Ventricles

Basal Ganglia

Hippocampus


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Evolution and Development always

Why not the thalamus?



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Ventricles always

Lateral Ventricles

Third Ventricle

Fourth Ventricle


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Ventricles always

  • Ventricles are connected (communicate)

    • Intraventricular Foramina (of Monroe)

      • Lateral Ventricles to Third Ventricle

      • Wide, oval hole

    • Cerebral Aqueduct (of Sylvius)

      • Third Ventricle to Fourth

      • Long, thin channel

    • Foramen of Magendie

      • Median aperture -- Fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space

    • Foramina of Luschka

      • Lateral apertures -- Fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space


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Ventricles always

Foramen of Monroe

Aqueduct of Sylvius

Foramina of Luschka

Foramen of Magendie


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Ventricles always


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Ventricles always


Ventricles39 l.jpg
Ventricles always


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Ventricles always


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Choroid Plexus and CSF always

  • Choroid Plexus

    • Spongy tissue located in the ventricles

    • Rich capillary bed

    • Pia Mater

    • Choroid endothelial cells

  • Produces CSF

    • About .35 ml per minute

    • Total volume 70-120 ml



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CSF Flow always

  • Lateral ventricles

  • Foramina of Monroe

  • 3rd ventricle

  • Aqueduct of Sylvius

  • 4th Ventricle

  • Foramen of Magendie/foramina of Lushka

  • Subarachnoid Space

  • Arachnoid granulations (absorption)

  • Superior sagittal sinus


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CSF Flow always


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CSF Absorption always

  • CSF flows to the dorsal surface of the brain, where arachnoid granulations form a one-way valve and let the excess CSF enter the veinous drainage of the superior sagittal sinus









Basal ganglia caudate nucleus l.jpg
Basal Ganglia -- Caudate Nucleus always

  • Basal Ganglia

    • Caudate Nucleus

    • Putamen

    • Globus Pallidus

    • Sometimes Amygdala











Hippocampus l.jpg

Hippocampal formation always

Fimbria

Fornix

Anterior Commissure

Amygdala

Hippocampus


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Hippocampus always


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Hippocampus always


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Coming up… always

  • Spinal cord

  • Basic Spinal Pathways


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