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“All significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts not only because of their historical development—in which they were transferred from theology to the theory of the state, whereby, for example, the omnipotent God became the omnipotent lawgiver—but also because of their systematic structure, the recognition of which is necessary for a sociological consideration of these concepts.” (Schmitt, Political Theology, MIT, p. 36)
By coining the concept of “sovereignty,” Bodin advances the separation between state (the sovereign structure) and government (the exercise of sovereignty) and allows to bring about the consolidation of the power of the state before Church, Empire, and other minor competitor forces.
-Secularization of a theological concept: the concept of sovereignty comes from the Bible where God is designed the Sovereign (Augustine also uses it, but just to refer to God)
“Whatever power and authority the sovereign prince confers upon others, his own person remains excepted. He always retains more authority than he gives away…” (348)
“For it is the law of God and of nature that we must obey the edicts and ordinances of him to whom God has given power to us, unless his edicts are directly contrary to the law of God, who is above all princes.”
Also, the laws that “concern the state of the kingdom and its basic form” must be respected… because they are “annexed and united to the crown”
People (and the Estates) owe predecessors? (349)to the sovereign... And must proceed by