the appendicular skeleton
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The Appendicular Skeleton. Chapter 7. pectoral girdle = scapula (shoulder blade) + clavicle (collarbone) . Pectoral Girdle. supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment arrangement of bones good for mobility, but bad for stability. Features of the Scapula

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pectoral girdle
Pectoral Girdle
  • supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment
  • arrangement of bones good for mobility, but bad for stability
slide4
Features of the Scapula
  • glenoid cavity = depression where head of the humerus fits
  • acromionprocess = “point of the shoulder”
slide5
upper arm = humerus

Features of the humerus

  • trochlea & capitulum = projections that articulate with ulna & radius
slide6
Lower arm = ulna & radius
  • radius is on thumb side of arm
  • ulna is longer and forms point of elbow
slide7
wrist = carpals
  • two rows, each with 4 short bones → 8 total
slide8
hand = 5 metacarpals (palm) and 14 phalanges (fingers)
  • Metacarpals numbered 1-5 starting from thumb side
  • phalanges numbered 1-5 starting from thumb side - fingers consist of 3 bones (proximal, middle, distal) and thumb 2 bones (proximal & distal)
slide9
pelvic girdle = 2 coxal bones
  • functions include support for the trunk, attachments for the lower limbs, protection for the bladder, large intestine, & reproductive organs
slide10
each coxal bone has 3 parts:
    • ilium: largest portion, iliac crest articulates with sacrum
    • ischium: lowest portion, you sit on the ischial tuberosities
    • pubis: anterior portion, fuses at the pubic symphysis
slide11
Features of the pelvis
  • acetabulum – cup-shaped region that articulates with head of the femur
  • obturator foramen- large opening where nerves & blood vessels pass from the spinal cord to the lower limbs
slide12
upper leg = femur
  • longest bone in body
  • articulates with coxal bone, tibia and patella
slide13
knee cap = patella
  • sesamoid bone
  • protects knee joint
slide14
lower leg = tibia (shin bone) and fibula
  • tibia:
    • larger of the 2 bones
    • on medial side of leg
    • articulates with the femur and tallus bone in the ankle
  • fibula
    • smaller bone
    • on lateral side of leg
    • bears no weight
slide15
ankle = 7 tarsals
  • talus (B) is only free moving bone of ankle
  • calcaneus / heel (A) is largest tarsal bone
slide16
sole/arch of foot = metatarsals
  • numbered 1-5 starting medially
  • weak arches → possible flat feet
slide17
toes = phalanges
  • 3 in each, except 2 in big toe
  • named same as phalanges in hand
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