The appendicular skeleton
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The Appendicular Skeleton. Chapter 7. pectoral girdle = scapula (shoulder blade) + clavicle (collarbone) . Pectoral Girdle. supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment arrangement of bones good for mobility, but bad for stability. Features of the Scapula

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The Appendicular Skeleton

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The appendicular skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton

Chapter 7


The appendicular skeleton

pectoral girdle = scapula (shoulder blade) + clavicle (collarbone)


Pectoral girdle

Pectoral Girdle

  • supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment

  • arrangement of bones good for mobility, but bad for stability


The appendicular skeleton

Features of the Scapula

  • glenoid cavity = depression where head of the humerus fits

  • acromionprocess = “point of the shoulder”


The appendicular skeleton

upper arm = humerus

Features of the humerus

  • trochlea & capitulum = projections that articulate with ulna & radius


The appendicular skeleton

Lower arm = ulna & radius

  • radius is on thumb side of arm

  • ulna is longer and forms point of elbow


The appendicular skeleton

wrist = carpals

  • two rows, each with 4 short bones → 8 total


The appendicular skeleton

hand = 5 metacarpals (palm) and 14 phalanges (fingers)

  • Metacarpals numbered 1-5 starting from thumb side

  • phalanges numbered 1-5 starting from thumb side - fingers consist of 3 bones (proximal, middle, distal) and thumb 2 bones (proximal & distal)


The appendicular skeleton

pelvic girdle = 2 coxal bones

  • functions include support for the trunk, attachments for the lower limbs, protection for the bladder, large intestine, & reproductive organs


The appendicular skeleton

  • each coxal bone has 3 parts:

    • ilium: largest portion, iliac crest articulates with sacrum

    • ischium: lowest portion, you sit on the ischial tuberosities

    • pubis: anterior portion, fuses at the pubic symphysis


The appendicular skeleton

Features of the pelvis

  • acetabulum – cup-shaped region that articulates with head of the femur

  • obturator foramen- large opening where nerves & blood vessels pass from the spinal cord to the lower limbs


The appendicular skeleton

upper leg = femur

  • longest bone in body

  • articulates with coxal bone, tibia and patella


The appendicular skeleton

knee cap = patella

  • sesamoid bone

  • protects knee joint


The appendicular skeleton

lower leg = tibia (shin bone) and fibula

  • tibia:

    • larger of the 2 bones

    • on medial side of leg

    • articulates with the femur and tallus bone in the ankle

  • fibula

    • smaller bone

    • on lateral side of leg

    • bears no weight


The appendicular skeleton

ankle = 7 tarsals

  • talus (B) is only free moving bone of ankle

  • calcaneus / heel (A) is largest tarsal bone


The appendicular skeleton

sole/arch of foot = metatarsals

  • numbered 1-5 starting medially

  • weak arches → possible flat feet


The appendicular skeleton

toes = phalanges

  • 3 in each, except 2 in big toe

  • named same as phalanges in hand


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