Halogenated hydrocarbons and addition polymers
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Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Addition Polymers. Halogenated Hydrocarbons. Halogens want to form 1 bond like H Can substitute directly for H on HC’s Many used to form plastics (polymers) Examples Methyl bromide Natural in the oceans Sterilizes soil Damages the ozone layer.

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Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Addition Polymers

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Halogenated hydrocarbons and addition polymers

Halogenated Hydrocarbonsand Addition Polymers


Halogenated hydrocarbons

Halogenated Hydrocarbons

  • Halogens want to form 1 bond like H

  • Can substitute directly for H on HC’s

  • Many used to form plastics (polymers)

  • Examples

    • Methyl bromide

      • Natural in the oceans

      • Sterilizes soil

      • Damages the ozone layer


Chlorinated methanes

Chlorinated Methanes

  • Methylene Chloride (dichloromethane)

    • Volatile liquid – common solvent

    • Used to extract caffeine from coffee beans

    • Possible carcinogenic

  • Chloroform (trichloromethane)

    • Volatile liquid – common solvent

    • First medical anesthetic

  • Carbon tetrachloride – solvent – fire extinguisher – no longer used


Cfc s

CFC’s

  • Chlorofluorocarbons or freons

  • All methane hydrogens replaced

  • Very unreactive

  • Boiling points below room temperatures

  • Used for air conditioning and refrigerators

  • May damage the ozone layer


Chlorinated ethenes

Chlorinated Ethenes

  • Vinyl chloride (chloroethene)

    • Starting point for common plastics

    • Carcinogen

  • Trichloroethene, TCE

    • Very stable solvent – not used much

  • Tetrachloroethene, PCE

    • Dry cleaning solvent

    • Common water pollutant


Plastics

Plastics

  • Flows under heat and pressure

    • All plastics are polymers

    • Not all polymers are plastics

  • Very prominent in our lives

    • 24 of top 50 chemicals used for polymers

    • Rising labor costs

    • Dwindling resources

    • Better properties


Synthetic polymers

Synthetic Polymers

  • Involved in 80% of organic chemical industry

  • Since 1976 US has produced more polymers than steel

  • More than 200 lbs per person per year


Synthetic polymers1

Synthetic Polymers

  • Some copy nature:

    • Rayon ↔ cellulose

    • Synthetic rubber ↔ natural rubber

    • Nylon ↔ protein

  • Many more don’t:

    • Polystyrene, Dacron, Teflon, Kevlar, polyesters


Polymers

Polymers

  • There are many polymers in nature – life

    • Proteins, starch, DNA, RNA, silk, wool, cotton

  • Herman Staudinger – 1920’s

    • Coined word “macromolecules”

    • Polymer comes from

      • Poly – many

      • Mer – parts

  • Polystyrene – one of first synthetic polymers

    • Why?


Addition polymers

Addition Polymers

  • Monomers must have C=C as in styrene

  • Monomers are all derivatives of ethene (ethylene)

  • Simplest is polyethylene –CH2(-CH2-CH2)n-CH2-

    • Molecular weight ~ 1 million g/mole

    • Branched – LDPE – sandwich bags – soft

    • Linear – HDPE – milk jugs – hard – tough

    • X-linked – CLPE – soft drink bottle caps – very rigid


H13 c5

H13 – C5

  • 1, 3 - 6, 9 - 15, 18, 27, 50, 51, 53, 54, 62, 63, 70, TiF-Ex’s 5.8, 5.9


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