halogenated hydrocarbons and addition polymers
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Addition Polymers

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 13

Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Addition Polymers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 160 Views
  • Uploaded on

Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Addition Polymers. Halogenated Hydrocarbons. Halogens want to form 1 bond like H Can substitute directly for H on HC’s Many used to form plastics (polymers) Examples Methyl bromide Natural in the oceans Sterilizes soil Damages the ozone layer.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Addition Polymers' - apria


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
halogenated hydrocarbons
Halogenated Hydrocarbons
  • Halogens want to form 1 bond like H
  • Can substitute directly for H on HC’s
  • Many used to form plastics (polymers)
  • Examples
    • Methyl bromide
      • Natural in the oceans
      • Sterilizes soil
      • Damages the ozone layer
chlorinated methanes
Chlorinated Methanes
  • Methylene Chloride (dichloromethane)
    • Volatile liquid – common solvent
    • Used to extract caffeine from coffee beans
    • Possible carcinogenic
  • Chloroform (trichloromethane)
    • Volatile liquid – common solvent
    • First medical anesthetic
  • Carbon tetrachloride – solvent – fire extinguisher – no longer used
cfc s
CFC’s
  • Chlorofluorocarbons or freons
  • All methane hydrogens replaced
  • Very unreactive
  • Boiling points below room temperatures
  • Used for air conditioning and refrigerators
  • May damage the ozone layer
chlorinated ethenes
Chlorinated Ethenes
  • Vinyl chloride (chloroethene)
    • Starting point for common plastics
    • Carcinogen
  • Trichloroethene, TCE
    • Very stable solvent – not used much
  • Tetrachloroethene, PCE
    • Dry cleaning solvent
    • Common water pollutant
plastics
Plastics
  • Flows under heat and pressure
    • All plastics are polymers
    • Not all polymers are plastics
  • Very prominent in our lives
    • 24 of top 50 chemicals used for polymers
    • Rising labor costs
    • Dwindling resources
    • Better properties
synthetic polymers
Synthetic Polymers
  • Involved in 80% of organic chemical industry
  • Since 1976 US has produced more polymers than steel
  • More than 200 lbs per person per year
synthetic polymers1
Synthetic Polymers
  • Some copy nature:
    • Rayon ↔ cellulose
    • Synthetic rubber ↔ natural rubber
    • Nylon ↔ protein
  • Many more don’t:
    • Polystyrene, Dacron, Teflon, Kevlar, polyesters
polymers
Polymers
  • There are many polymers in nature – life
    • Proteins, starch, DNA, RNA, silk, wool, cotton
  • Herman Staudinger – 1920’s
    • Coined word “macromolecules”
    • Polymer comes from
      • Poly – many
      • Mer – parts
  • Polystyrene – one of first synthetic polymers
    • Why?
addition polymers
Addition Polymers
  • Monomers must have C=C as in styrene
  • Monomers are all derivatives of ethene (ethylene)
  • Simplest is polyethylene –CH2(-CH2-CH2)n-CH2-
    • Molecular weight ~ 1 million g/mole
    • Branched – LDPE – sandwich bags – soft
    • Linear – HDPE – milk jugs – hard – tough
    • X-linked – CLPE – soft drink bottle caps – very rigid
h13 c5
H13 – C5
  • 1, 3 - 6, 9 - 15, 18, 27, 50, 51, 53, 54, 62, 63, 70, TiF-Ex’s 5.8, 5.9
ad