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Recognizing Disturbances in Sentence Flow. The Three Most Common Mistakes. 1. Fragment: A fragment is an incomplete sentence. Ex. Incorrect: I didn’t go to the concert. Because I don’t like the band. Correct: I didn’t go to the concert because I don’t like the band.

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the three most common mistakes
The Three Most Common Mistakes
  • 1. Fragment: A fragment is an incomplete sentence.
  • Ex. Incorrect: I didn’t go to the concert. Because I don’t like the band.
  • Correct: I didn’t go to the concert because I don’t like the band.
the three most common mistakes1
The Three Most Common Mistakes
  • 2. Missing/Incorrect Relative Pronouns: Relative pronouns are words that might appear in multiple phrases and clauses within a single sentence. The most common are “that,” “who,” and “which.”
  • Ex. Incorrect: William Kellogg was the man which lived in the late 19th century and had some weird ideas about raising children.
  • Correct: William Kellogg was the man who lives in the late 19th century and had some weird ideas about raising children.
the three most common mistakes2
The Three Most Common Mistakes
  • 3. Dangling or Misplaced Modifier: Modifiers are descriptive words or phrases that change other words. We know them as adjectives and adverbs. A misplaced or dangling modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies/ describes.
  • Incorrect: After they had been sharpened, the teachers distributed the pencils.
  • Correct: The teachers distributed the pencils after they had been sharpened.
slide5

Avoid writing sentences that correctly separate nonessential information.

  • Recognize and fix sentences that incorrectly separate nonessential information.
fixing fragments
Fixing Fragments
  • One method is to connect it to an independent clause to complete the thought.
  • D,I
  • ID

Incorrect: Because I was running late.

Correct: Because I was running late, I missed the bus.

Incorrect: Whenever the dog barks.

Correct: My little sister cries whenever the dog barks.

fixing fragments cont d
Fixing Fragments Cont’d
  • Another way to fix fragments is to drop the words or phrases that make the sentence a fragment.

Incorrect: I missed the bus, was running late.

Correct: I missed the bus.

fixing missing or incorrect relative pronouns
Fixing missing or incorrect Relative Pronouns
  • THAT is used for things
  • WHO is used for people
  • WHICH is used for multiple things or as a more formal version of “that”
  • WHOSE is used to indicate possession
  • WHOM is used for people who are objects or after prepositions
examples
Examples
  • Incorrect: Sally was the one that bought the car.
  • Correct: Sally was the one who bought the car.
  • Incorrect: The Senator’s campaign is the one that stands out amongst all the others.
  • Correct: The Senator’s campaign is the one which stands out amongst all the others.
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