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1. Social Work With Older Adults: Changing Practice Paradigms

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3. 3 DEFINING RESILIENCE Resilience is concerned with individual variations in response to risk. Resilience refers to the positive pole of individual differences in people’s response to stress and adversity, as well as hope and optimism in the face of adversity (Rutter, 1987, pp. 316–317). not defined in terms of the absence of pathology or heroics. Rather, it is an ability to cope with adversity, stress, and deprivation (Begun, 1993, pp. 28–29).

4. 4 DEFINING RESILIENCE (cont.) Resilience is the ability to maintain continuity of one’s personal narrative and a coherent sense of self following traumatic events (Borden, 1992, p. 125). normal development under difficult conditions (Fonagy, Steele, Steele, Higgitt, & Target, 1994, p. 233).

5. 5 Risk and Resilience Theory: Basic Assumptions Resilience is a biopsychosocial and spiritual phenomenon. involves a transnational dynamic process of person-environment exchanges. encompasses an adaptational process of goodness-of-fit. occurs across the life course with individuals, families, and communities experiencing unique paths of development.

6. 6 Risk and Resilience Theory: Basic Assumptions (cont.) Resilience is linked to life stress and people’s unique coping capacity. involves competence in daily functioning. may be on a continuum—a polar opposite to risk. may be interactive, having an effect in combination with risk factors. is enhanced through connection or relatedness with others.

7. 7 Risk and Resilience Theory: Basic Assumptions (cont.) Resilience is expressed and affected by multilevel attachments, both distal and proximal, including family, school, peers, neighborhood, community, and society; consequently, resilience is a function of micro-, exo-, meso-, and macro-factors. is affected by the availability of environmental resources. is influenced by power differentials. From Greene (2002b, pp. 41-42)

8. 8 Intervention Strategies: The Resilience Enhancing Interventions Practitioners who use a resilience-based approach to social work practice, Acknowledge client loss, vulnerability, and future. Identify the client’s source of stress. Recognize client stress. Stabilize or normalize the situation. Help clients take control.

9. 9 Practitioners who use a resilience-based approach to social work practice, Provide resources for change. Promote client self-efficacy. Collaborate in client self-change. Strengthen a client’s problem-solving abilities. Address positive emotions. Intervention Strategies: The Resilience Enhancing Interventions (cont.)

10. 10 Practitioners who use a resilience-based approach to social work practice, Listen to client stories. Make meaning of client’s critical events. Help clients find the benefits of adverse events. Assist clients in transcending the immediate situation. From Greene & Armenta (in press). Intervention Strategies: The Resilience Enhancing Interventions (cont.)

11. 11 Feedback / Questions

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