Thermochemistry
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Thermochemistry. The study of heat changes that occur during chemical reactions and physical changes of state. What is energy?. Energy is the capacity to do work or to supply heat. Kinds of Energy. Potential energy- stored energy Kinetic energy- energy of motion

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Thermochemistry

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Thermochemistry

Thermochemistry

The study of heat changes that occur during chemical reactions and physical changes of state


What is energy

What is energy?

Energy is the capacity

to do work

or to supply heat.


Kinds of energy

Kinds of Energy

Potential energy- stored energy

Kinetic energy- energy of motion

Chemical potential energy- energy stored within the bonds of compounds.

Radiant energy- energy from the sun


Tps classify the type of energy

TPS- Classify the Type of Energy

WoodElectric socket

Moving baseball


What is the difference between heat and temperature

What is the difference between Heat and Temperature?

  • Heat (q) energy transferred between samples because of differences in temperature.

    Depends on particle

    • speed

    • number

    • size

    • type of particles.


What is the difference between heat and temperature1

What is the difference between Heat and Temperature?

  • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecular motion in a substance.

    Temperature does not depend on

    the size or type of object.


Increasing decreasing temp

Increasing/Decreasing Temp

Adding Heat (energy) increases temperature and increases kinetic energy .

Higher temperatures mean that the molecules are moving, vibrating and rotating with more energy.

What would removing heat do???


Energy heat transfer

Energy (Heat) Transfer

  • What happens if we bring two objects that are the same temperature in contact?

  • Now, what happens to the temperature if one object has a higher temperature than the other?


Law of conservation of energy

Law of Conservation of Energy

In any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed.

All energy can be accounted for as work,

stored energy or heat.


Warm up think about the types of energy kinetic potential and chemical potential

Warm Up- Think about the types of energy(kinetic, potential and chemical potential.

But it can change form

Think of your own example and write it down!!


Measuring heat important conversions

Measuring Heat- Important conversions

Cal = (C) Food Calorie

calorie = (cal) scientific calorie, amount of heat needed to raise 1g of water 1 degree C.

Joule = (J) SI unit of heat and energy

1 Cal = 1000cal = 1kcal = 4186J

1J = 0.239 cal


Try these

Try these!

  • Express 60.1 cal in units of joules.

    2. Express 975 J in cal and Cal.


Heat capacity

Heat Capacity

Amount of heat necessary to change an object’s temp. 1 degree.


Specific heat capacity c or cp

Specific Heat Capacity (C) or (Cp)

The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of the substance 1C.

Helps you determine how much energy it takes to heat an known mass of a substance from one temperature to another.

How much energy would it take to heat 50g of water from 50C to 100C?


Specific heat capacity c or cp1

Specific Heat Capacity (C) or (Cp)

Water- 4.2 J/gC

Alcohol- 2.4 J/gC

Wood- 1.8 J/gC

Aluminum- 0.90 J/gC

Glass- 0.5 J/gC

Check out the units!

These are the key to upcoming problems


What do you remember about direct and indirect proportions

What do you remember about Direct and Indirect Proportions?


Thermochemistry

Two quantities are directly proportional if dividing one by the other gives a constant value.

Y = k

X

What would the graph look like?


Thermochemistry

Two quantities are inversely proportional if their product gives a constant value.

XY = K

What would the graph look like?


Work on the pogil

Work on the POGIL

Hoping you get this done in about 30 min…


Specific heat capacity

Specific Heat Capacity

q = m  t C

q = energy (J)

m = mass (g)

 t = change in temperature (C)


Specific heat capacity1

Specific Heat Capacity

q = m  t C

q = energy (J)

m = mass (g)

 t = (Tfinal – T initial) = Change in temp


Doing specific heat problems

Doing specific heat problems

  • Write the equation q = m  t Cp

  • Manipulate equation to solve for the variable you want.

  • Plug the known values into the equation.

    Simple Huh?


During a phase change

During a phase change…

There is no change in temperature…

Q = mΔH

ΔH(fus) = Heat of fusion

ΔH(vap) = Heat of vaporization


Example problem 1

Example Problem 1

  • How much energy is required to raise the temperature of 15g of water from 25C to 75C? (The specific heat capacity of water is 4.18J/gC).


Practice 2 do the problem and discuss the process with your partner

Practice 2- Do the problem and discuss the process with your partner.

A particular sample of iron requires 562 J to raise it’s temperature from 35.0 °C to 70.0 °C. What is the mass of the sample? (Cp of iron is 0.449J/gC)


Problem 3

Problem 3

  • If 100 J of heat energy is applied to 75g of mercury (Cp=0.140J/gC). How much will the temperature of mercury increase?

  • What is the final temperature if the initial temperature is 45 °C


Problem 4

Problem 4

Calculate the energy required to heat 25.0 g of aluminum (Cp=0.897J/gC) from

19.5 °C to 50.5 °C.


Warm up

Warm Up

You have 10 minutes to finish the POGIL and/or the Copper Lab calculations.

Flip your POGIL to p.2 before turning it in.

Paper Clip your lab teams packets togthr


Homework

Homework

Any that you need me to look at with you?


Energy values

Energy Values

Really watch your changes in temperature because that determines the sign on q.

+q = endothermic, absorbs energy

-q = exothermic, releases energy


Energy in changes of state

Energy in changes of state…

Review the Freezing Point/Boiling Point graph from the beginning of the year.


What is happening with energy

What is happening with Energy

When the graph is increasing temperature, kinetic energy is changing because the molecules are moving faster.

When the graph plateaus, energy is still being absorbed, but it is being used to break intermolecular forces… potential energy is changing.


Remember the processes

Remember…. The Processes

EndothermicExothermic

Δ H Vaporization =-Δ H Condensation

Δ H Fusion = -Δ HSolidification


To calculate the change in energy

To Calculate the change in Energy…

Use q = mΔtC for sections of the graph where kinetic energy changes.

Use q = m ΔH (process) for sections of the graph


How can we measure the energy

How can we measure the energy?

Calorimeter- devices used to measure the amount of heat absorbed or released during a chemical or physical change


Important vocabulary terms

Important Vocabulary Terms

System- specific area where you are focusing your attention

Surroundings – everything outside the system


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