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BACKGROUND OF THE NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE ROMAN MISSAL. In 1962 while Vatican II was still in session several English-speaking bishops met in Rome to discuss possibility of a uniform English translation of the liturgy for all English-speaking countries. .

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Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

BACKGROUND OF THE NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATIONOF THE ROMAN MISSAL


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In 1962 while Vatican II was still in session several English-speaking bishops met in Rome to discuss possibility of a uniform English translation of the liturgy for all English-speaking countries.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In 1963 bishops representing 10 countries formally established the International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL).


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The episcopal conferences were Australia, Canada, England and Wales, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, Scotland, South Africa, and the United States. The Philippines joined in 1967, becoming the 11th member of ICEL.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In 1964 the Commission drew up a formal mandate defining its structure: an episcopal board composed of the chairmen of the member conferences as governing body and an advisory board composed of experts for the work of translation.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Liturgists – MA, PhD, DL, SLL, SLD

Scripture Scholars – SSL, SSD

Theologians – STL, STD

Linguists – Language Teachers (Latin & English)

Anthropologists

Musicians, Poets, Literature


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The mandate included the provision to translate from the original Latin texts and the freedom of individual bishops’ conferences the right to amend or modify a particular text to reject the final result.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In June 29, 1969 the Congregation of Rites together with the Consilium ad exsequendam issued the Instruction Comme le prévoit regarding norms to be followed in translating liturgical texts.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

This document, which guided all works of translation until the appearance of another new Instruction from the Congregation for Divine Worship under Cardinal Francis Arinze called Liturgiamauthenticam in 2001, changing the rules of translation from the dynamic equivalence ofComme le prévoit to formal correspondence or literal translation.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Instruction on the vernacular translation of the Roman Liturgy which outlines the principles and rules for translation

Comme le Prevoit

1969

Congregation of Rites

Dynamic Equivalence

Sense Translation

1973 First and Second Edition

LiturgiamAuthenticam

March 28, 2001

Congregation for Dicvine Worship

Formal Correspondence

Literal Translation/Word for Word

2010 Roman Missal, Third Edition


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Dynamic Equivalence

Formal Correspondence

or Literal translation means that the Latin words and phrases are rendered as they stand, sometimes or often with no regard to the cultural, at times also linguistic, attributes of the audience. Translates the text of the source language (Latin) word-for-word, at the expense of the linguistic traits of the receptor language (vernacular).

Is a type of translation, which biblical translator Eugene Nida called “dynamic equivalence” considers the general meaning and message of the source language as a whole rather than the single words and phrases.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

“The translator must always keep in mind that the "unit of meaning" is not the individual word but the whole passage. The translator must therefore be careful that the translation is not so analytical that it exaggerates the importance of particular phrases while it obscures or weakens the meaning of the whole.”

Fidelity to the Latin text so that the richness of the Latin text could be shared

Clear allusions to the scriptures so that a clearer connection may be recognized between the Word of God and the liturgical texts.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In the liturgy the vernacular is the receptor language, while liturgical Latin is the source language.

Typical Liturgical language – Latin

original language

Receptor Language – English


Liturgiam authenticam 20

LiturgiamAuthenticam, 20

“it is to be kept in mind from the beginning that the translation of the liturgical texts of the Roman Liturgy is not so much a work of creative innovation as it is of rendering the original texts faithfully and accurately into the vernacular language”


Liturgiam authenticam 201

Liturgiam Authenticam, 20

“While it is permissible to arrange the wording, the syntax and the style in such a way as to prepare a flowing vernacular text suitable to the rhythm of popular prayer,


Liturgiam authenticam

Liturgiam Authenticam

  • liturgical translations need to preserve the “dignity, beauty, and doctrinal precision” of the original text.


Latin et cum spiritu tuo

Latin: Et cum spiritutuo.

1973

2010

And with your spirit.

And also with you.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

“And with your spirit” This is a closer translation of the Latin, “Et cum spiritutuo,” and it matches the response already exists in most other major languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The translation we have been using is adequate, but the revised translation is richer. The purpose of this greeting is not just to say “Hello” or “Good morning.” It alerts participants that they are entering sacramental realm and reminds them of their responsibilities during this time we will spend at prayer.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In addition, Jesus promised that he would be with his followers until the end of the age (Matthew 28:20). In English, we use a variant of it when we say farewell. “Goodbye” comes from “God be with you”


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Both the greeting and the reply come from the Bible. “The Lord be with you” appears as a greeting or encouragement in Judges 6:12, Ruth 2:4, 2 Chronicles 15:2, and Luke 1:28.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

“And with your spirit” is inspired by passages that conclude four of the New Testament epistles: 2 Timothy 4:22, Galatians 6:18, Philippians 4:23, Philemon 25. In almost every case, Paul addresses the words to the Christian community, not to one minister.


What it is

What it is.

In simple terms it is an ancient Greek and Roman formula of replying respectfully to a greeting. Applied to the liturgy, it is the assembly’s answer to the priest’s (or deacon’s) greeting “The Lord be with you”. Spirit here represents what is noblest in a person and it is to this that the greeting is returned.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

It is similar to our honorific addresses, like Your Reverence, Your Excellency, Your Honor, and so on. However, it is not the same as these, because spirit is not an honorific title but the innermost possession of a person.


What it is not

What it is not.

The word “spirit” in the response does not refer to the person of the Holy Spirit. The origin of this formula does not in any way allow us to do so. In fact, both Latin and English do not use the capital letter.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Neither does the word mean “priestly spirit”, because even the deacon, who does not yet possess the “priestly spirit”, receives this reply when he greets the assembly.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

It is useful to note that the greeting itself, which assures us of the Lord’s presence in our assembly, is more important than the reply.


Christ s presence in the liturgy

Christ’s Presence in the Liturgy

Through catechesis the faithful should be made aware of Christ’s presence in the assembly, in the proclaimed word, in the consecrated bread and wine, and in the priest that presides in the person of Christ.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Confiteor

I confess


Latin mea culpa mea culpa mea maxima culpa

Latin: Meaculpa, meaculpa, meamaximaculpa.

1973 Translation: I have sinned through my own fault. (compressed the triple mea culpa in one)

2010 Translation: through myfault, through my fault, through my most grievousfault.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

ConfíteorDeoomnipoténti et vobis,

fratres, quiapeccávinimis

cogitatióne, verbo,

ópere et omissióne:

mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.

I confess to almighty God,

and to you, my brothers and sisters,

that I have sinned through

my own fault

in my thoughts and in my words,

in what I have done,

and in what I have failed to do;


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Ídeo precor beátam Maríam semper Virginem,

omnesAngelos et Sanctos,

et vos, fratres,

oráre pro me ad Dóminum Deum nostrum

and I ask the blessed Mary, ever virgin,

all the angels and saints,

and you, my brothers and sisters,

to pray for me to the Lord, our God.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

ConfíteorDeoomnipoténti et vobis,

fratres,

quiapeccávinimis

cogitatióne, verbo,

ópere et omissióne:

I confess to almighty God

and to you, my brothers and sisters,

that I have greatly sinned,

in my thoughts and in my words,

in what I have done and in what I have failed to do,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.

Ídeo precor beátam Maríam semper Virginem,

omnesAngelos et Sanctos,

et vos, fratres,

oráre pro me ad Dóminum Deum nostrum.

And striking our breasts, we say:

through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault.

Therefore I ask the blessed Mary ever-Virgin,

all the Angels and Saints,

and you, my brothers and sisters

to pray for me to the Lord our God.


What it is1

What it is.

The admission “through my fault” restores the Latin triple mea culpa, which the 1973 translation simplified.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The restoration has its value in our time when the sense of sin is quickly vanishing from the consciousness of people. By publicly repeating the triple mea culpa the faithful are made aware of the pervading presence of sin in their personal lives as well as in society at large.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

“Through my fault” is redundant, as if we could commit sin through the fault of another. There are no occasions when we can pass the guilt of our sins to other people, because sin is always a free and deliberate choice.


What it is not1

What it is not.

The grammatical analysis of the Latin sentence shows that the triple mea culpa is in the nominative case: “my fault, my fault, my most grievous fault”. It should not have been translated with the preposition “through”.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The triple repetition of “through my fault” should not minimize its gravity. Sometimes the frequent repetition of a word, phrase, or sentence lessens their impact, as the Latin adage puts it: repetitanauseant). In Japanese culture “thank you” may be said many times, but “I am sorry” is suspected of being insincere, if said more than once.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Some languages, like Italian, Ilocano, and Bicol, translate mea culpa without the preposition.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Gloria in excelsisDeo

Glory to God in the highest


Gloria

Gloria

1973

2010

Glory to God in the highest,

and on earth peace to people of good will.

Glory to God in the highest,

and peace to his people on earth.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

2010

We praise you,

we bless you,

we adore you,

we give you thanks for your great glory,

Lord God, heavenly King,

O God, almighty Father.

Lord God, heavenly King,

almighty God and Father,

we worship you,

we give you thanks,

we praise you for your glory.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father,

Lord God, Lamb of God,

Lord Jesus Christ, Only Begotten Son,

Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father,


Litany invocation response

Litany: invocation & response

you take away the sin of the world

have mercy on us;

you are seated at the right hand of the Father: receive our prayer.

you take away the sins of the world,

have mercy on us;

you take away the sins of the world,

receive our prayer;

you are seated at the right hand

of the Father,

have mercy on us.


For 1973 2010 it is the same

For 1973 & 2010 it is the same

For you alone are the Holy One,

you alone are the Lord,

you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ,

with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

For you alone are the Holy One,

you alone are the Lord,

you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ,

with the Holy Spirit,

in the glory of God the Father. Amen


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Glória in excélsisDeo

et in terra pax homínibus

bonævoluntátis.

Glory to God in the highest,

and peace to his people on earth.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Laudámuste,

benedícimuste,

adorámuste,

glorificámuste,

grátiaságimustibi propter

magnamglóriamtuam,

Lord God, heavenly King,

almighty God and Father,

we worship you, we give you thanks,

we praise you for your glory.


God the father

God the Father

Dómine Deus, Rex celéstis,

Deus Pater omnípotens.

Lord God, heavenly King,

almighty God and Father,


God the son jesus christ

God the Son: Jesus Christ

Dómine Fili unigénite, Iesu Christe,

Dómine Deus, Agnus Dei, FíliusPatris,

Lord Jesus Christ,only Son of the Father,

Lord God, Lamb of God,


Litany invocation response1

Litany: invocation & response

qui tollispeccáta mundi,

miserérenobis;

you take away the sin of the world:

have mercy on us;


Litany invocation response2

Litany: invocation & response

qui tollispeccáta mundi,

Súscipe

deprecatiónemnostram.

Compressed the double qui tollispeccata mundi and misererenobisintoone


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Qui sedes ad déxteramPatris,

miserérenobis

you are seated at the right hand of the Father: 

receive our prayer.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Quóniamtusolus Sanctus,

For you alone are the holy One,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

tusolusDóminus,

tusolusAltíssimus,

IesuChriste,

cum Santo Spíritu:

You alone are the Lord,

you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ,

with the Holy Spirit,


Litany invocation response3

Litany: invocation & response

qui tollispeccáta mundi,

súscipedeprecatiónemnostram.

you take away the sins of the world,

receive our prayer;


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

Glória in excélsisDeo

et in terra pax homínibus

bonævoluntátis.

Glory to God in the highest,

and on earth peace to people of good will.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Laudámuste,

benedícimuste,

adorámuste,

glorificámuste,

grátiaságimustibi propter

magnamglóriamtuam,

We praise you,

we bless you,

we adore you,

we glorify you,

we give you thanks for your great glory,


God the father1

God the Father

Lord God, heavenly King,

O God, almighty Father.

Dómine Deus, Rex celéstis,

Deus Pater omnípotens.


God the son jesus christ1

God the Son: Jesus Christ

Dómine Fili unigénite, Iesu Christe,

Dómine Deus, Agnus Dei, FíliusPatris,

Lord Jesus Christ, Only Begotten Son,

Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father.


Litany invocation response4

Litany: invocation & response

qui tollispeccáta mundi,

miserérenobis;

you take away the sins of the world,

have mercy on us;


Litany invocation response5

Litany: invocation & response

qui tollispeccáta mundi,

súscipe

deprecatiónemnostram.

you take away the sins of the world,

receive our prayer;


Litany invocation response6

Litany: invocation & response

Qui sedes ad déxteramPatris,

miserérenobis.

You are seated at the right hand of the Father,

have mercy on us.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Quóniamtusolus Sanctus,

For you alone are the holy One,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

tusolusDóminus,

tusolusAltíssimus,

IesuChriste,

cum Santo Spíritu:

You alone are the Lord,

you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ,

with the Holy Spirit,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

in glória

Dei Patris.

Amen.

in the glory

of God the Father.

Amen.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Latin: et in terra paxhominibusbonaevoluntatis.

1973 Translation: and peace to his people on earth.

2010 Translation: and on earth peace to people of good will.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In Latin, the genitive case can either be possessive or objective. Thus, hominesbonaevoluntatis can mean people who possess good will (possessive genitive) or people who are the object of God’s goodwill (objective genitive).


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The Latin phrase can be translated literally choosing either the possessive or the objective case. The 2010 English version opted to use the possessive. As the phrase stands, God gives peace to people of good will.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Rather, it is God’s gracious gift to sinful humankind, his divine favor and initiative. In this hymn, the reference is to the goodwill or favor of God, not the good will of people. However, we can say “people of good will” only after God has favored them with his goodwill.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Credo in Deum,

Patremomnipotentem,

Creatoremcaeli et

terrae.

Et in Iesum Christum, Filium eiusunicum,

Dominum nostrum:

I believe in God,

the Father almighty,

Creator of heaven and earth,

I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son,

our Lord,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

qui conceptus est de SpirituSancto,

natus ex Maria Virgine,

passussubPontio Pilato,

crucifixus, mortuus, et

sepultus:

descendit ad inferos;

He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit,

and born of the Virgin Mary,

he suffered under Pontius Pilate,

was crucified, died and was buried;

he descended to the dead;


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

tertiadieresurrexit a mortuis;

ascendit ad caelos;

sedet ad dexteram Dei Patrisomnipotentis: indeventurusest

iudicarevivos et mortuos.

on the third day he rose again;

he ascended into heaven,

and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty;

he will come to judge the living and the dead.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Credo in Spiritum Sanctum,

sanctam Ecclesiamcatholicam,

sanctoramcommunionem,

remissionempeccatorum, carnisresurrectionem,

vitamaeternam.

Amen.

I believe in the Holy Spirit,

the holy catholic Church,

the communion of saints,

the forgiveness of sins,

the resurrection of the body,

and life everlasting.

Amen.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

Credo in Deum,

Patremomnipotentem,

Creatoremcaeli et

terrae.

Et in Iesum Christum, Filium eiusunicum,

Dominum nostrum:

I believe in God,

the Father almighty,

Creator of heaven and earth,

and in Jesus Christ, his only Son,

our Lord,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

qui conceptus est de SpirituSancto,

natus ex Maria Virgine,

passussubPontio Pilato,

crucifixus, mortuus, et

sepultus:

descendit ad inferos;

who was conceived by the Holy Spirit,

born of the Virgin Mary,

suffered under Pontius Pilate,

was crucified, died and was buried;

he descended into hell;


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

tertiadieresurrexit a mortuis;

ascendit ad caelos;

sedet ad dexteramDeiPatrisomnipotentis: indeventurusest

iudicarevivos et mortuos.

on the third day he rose again from the dead;

he ascended into heaven,

and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty;

from there he will come to judge the living and the dead.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

Credo in Spiritum Sanctum,

sanctam Ecclesiamcatholicam,

sanctoramcommunionem,

Remissionempeccatorum, carnisresurrectionem,

vitamaeternam.

Amen.

I believe in the Holy Spirit,

the holy catholic Church,

the communion of saints,

the forgiveness of sins,

the resurrection of the body,

and life everlasting.

Amen.


Latin descendit ad inferos

Latin: descendit ad inferos.

1973 Translation: He descended to the dead.

the cryptic “he descended to the dead”.

2010 Translation: he descended into hell.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • Hell state of final and damnation ultimate damnation due to mortal sin


What it is2

What it is.

The Apostles’ Creed in Latin states that Christ descendit ad inferos (not infernum). In antiquity, inferi was the lower realm of the universe and was believed to be the abode of the dead. In Christian belief it was where the just people, from the time of Adam and Eve, awaited the coming of the Savior.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

State of waiting by our forefathers for the coming of the Risen Savior


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In the liturgy, Holy Saturday is the day when the Church commemorates the descent of Jesus into the inferos in order to make the dead from the time of Adam and Eve ascend with him to heaven. This article of faith affirms that Jesus is the Savior of the entire humankind.


What it is not2

What it is not.

In the Apostles’ Creed the sentence “he descended into hell” does not mean that Jesus was sentenced to hell, as to a place of eternal damnation and punishment.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • CCC 1035


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The word “hell” here does not correspond to our contemporary understanding of hell. The next sentence “on the third day he rose again from the dead” clearly shows that the word “hell” in the Creed has a different meaning.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Before 1973 “hell” was used in the creed, but then it was changed to “he descended to the dead” in order to circumvent the problematic word “hell”.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Priest:

The Lord be with you.

People:

And also with you.

Priest:

Lift up your hearts.

People:

We lift them up to the Lord.

Priest:

Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.

People:

It is right to give him thanks and praise.

2010

Priest:

The Lord be with you.

People: 

And with your spirit.

Priest:

Lift up your hearts.

People:

We lift them up to the Lord.

Priest:

Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.

People: 

It is right and just.

PREFACE DIALOGUE


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Latin: Dignum et iustum est.

1973 Translation: It is right to give him thanks and praise.

2010 Translation: It is right and just.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

V.Dóminusvobíscum.

R. Et cum spíritutuo.

V.Sursumcorda.

R. Habémus ad Dóminum.

V.GrátiasagámusDóminoDeonostro.

R.Dignum et iustum est.

Priest: The Lord be with you.

People: And also with you.

Priest: Lift up your hearts.

People: We lift them up to the Lord.

Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.

People:  It is right to give him thanks and praise.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

V.Dóminusvobíscum.

R. Et cum spíritutuo.

V.Sursumcorda.

R. Habémus ad Dóminum.

V.GrátiasagámusDóminoDeonostro.

R.Dignum et iustum est.

Priest: The Lord be with you.

People: And with your spirit.

Priest: Lift up your hearts.

People: We lift them up to the Lord.

Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.

People:  It is right and just.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

When the priest exhorts us to “give thanks to the Lord our God”, we answer with enthusiasm and fervor: “It is right and just”. It is right, because God is worthy of all thanks. The great work of our salvation, which he accomplished in Jesus Christ, infinitely exceeds our ability to give thanks.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

It is just, because God, the Just One, shares with us his own righteousness whereby we become holy and righteous in his sight. It is therefore right and just to give thanks to the Lord our God.


Sanctus holy

Sanctus/ Holy

1973

2010

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts. 

Heaven and earth

are full glory.Hosanna in the highest.Blessed is he who comesin the name of the Lord.Hosanna in the highest.

Holy, holy, holy Lord,

God of power and might.

Heaven and earth

are full of your glory.Hosanna in the highest.Blessed is he who comesin the name of the Lord.Hosanna in the highest.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth.

Plenisuntcaeli et terra gloriatua.

Hosanna in excelsis.

Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.

Hosanna in excelsis.

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of power and might.

Heaven and earth are full of your glory.

Hosanna in the highest.

Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.

Hosanna in the highest.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth.

Plenisuntcaeli et terra gloriatua.

Hosanna in excelsis.

Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.

Hosanna in excelsis.

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts.

Heaven and earth are full of your glory.

Hosanna in the highest.

Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.

Hosanna in the highest.


Holy holy holy lord god of hosts

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts.

Latin: Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth(Eucharistic Prayers forReconciliation and for Various Needs)

Latin: Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth(Eucharistic Prayers I-IV).

1973 Translation: Holy, holy, holy Lord, God of power and might.

2010 Translation: Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts.


What it is3

What it is.

The new English version translates the Hebrew Sabaoth or “Lord of armies” (Is 6:13), which the Latin liturgy retains in the Sanctus: Dominus Deus Sabaoth. The 1973 translation avoids the martial nuance of the word “hosts” by the non-military, neutral phrase “God of power and might”.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

But it fails to communicate the prophet Isaiah’s vision of Yahweh Sabaoth, the Lord of the heavenly armies.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The 2010 version “God of hosts” is closer to the mark. “Hosts”, meaning an army, is archaic, but it possesses literary quality. Its meaning may not be obvious to many. “God of heavenly hosts” could be a neat solution, except that it would not pass for a literal translation.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Be it as it may, the phrase should be seen in the broader picture of Holy Mass in which the earthly liturgy is joined to the heavenly in the presence of an array of angels and saints.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

And so, with all the choirs of angels in heaven

we proclaim your glory

and join in their unending hymn of praise.

And so, with Angels and Archangels,

with Thrones and Dominations,

and with all the hosts and Powers of heaven,

we sing the hymn of your glory,

as without end we acclaim:


What it is not3

What it is not.

For Catholics, the word “hosts” refers more often than not to the Eucharistic bread. Obviously and humorously, children should be advised that there is no reference in the Sanctus to the bread for Holy Mass.


Aim of translation

Aim of translation

By means of words of praise and adoration that foster reverence and gratitude in the face of God’s majesty, His power, His mercy and His transcendent nature, the translations will respond to the hunger and thirst for the living God that is experienced by the people of our own time, while contributing also to the dignity and beauty of the liturgical celebration itself” (LiturgiamAuthenticam Art. 25).


Institution narrative

Institution Narrative

1973

Take this, all of you, and eat it:this is my body

which will be given up for you.

2010

Take this, all of you, and eat of it: 

forthis is my Body

which will be given up for you.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Take this, all of you,

and drink from it:

this is the cup of my blood,

the blood of the new

and everlasting covenant.  

It will be shed for you

and for allso that sins may be forgiven. 

Do this in memory of me.

Take this, all of you,

and drink from it: 

for this is the chalice of my Blood, the Blood of the new

and eternal covenant;

which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness

of sins. 

Do this in memory of me.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The phrase translates the Latin qui pro vobis et pro multiseffundetur. The Latin verb effundere can mean “pour out” or “shed”. However, the English phrase “to pour out” does not always include the condition of hurt or pain and can simply mean to empty out a vessel. It familiarly means expressing volubly and at length one’s thoughts or feelings of anger or sorrow.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Unlike the verb “to shed” (shed tears, shed blood), “to pour out” does not necessarily suggest sacrifice or suffering. The 1973 English translation is correct in rendering effundetur with the strong verb “to shed”.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

One reason brought forward to justify it is that “pour out” can refer to both chalice and blood, while “shed” applies only to blood. The syntax of the Latin text, however, points to “my blood” rather than “chalice” as the subject of the relative clause: hic estenimCalixsanguinismeinovi et aeterniTestamenti, qui pro vobis et pro multiseffundetur. After all, on Calvary, it was not a chalice that was poured out; it was Christ’s own blood that was shed.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In the context of the Last Supper of Jesus, effundere has a decidedly sacrificial undertone, which should not be passed over in catechesis. It is unfortunate that 2010 translation opted for the less specific verb “to pour out”, unmindful of its possible negative impact on the theology of Eucharistic sacrifice.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

pro multis

for many


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Matthew 26:27-28:

“Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying:

‘Drink from it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins.’ “


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Mark 14:24:

“He said to them, 'this is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed for many.’ “


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The Synoptic Gospels (Mt 26,28; Mk 14,24) make specific reference to “many” (plolnv) for whom the Lord is offering the Sacrifice, and this wording has been emphasized by some biblical scholars in connection with the words of the prophet Isaiah (53, 11-12).


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

It would have been entirely possible in the Gospel texts to have said “for all” (for example, cf. Luke 12,41); instead, the formula given in the institution narrative is “for many”, and the words have been faithfully translated thus in most modern biblical versions.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The Roman Rite in Latin has always said pro multisand never pro omnibus in the consecration of the chalice.


What it is4

What it is

The phrase “for many” is the literal translation of the Latin pro multis. The 2010 English translation points out that salvation is not automatic: it requires faith and acceptance on our part. It is a collaborative work in which God offers salvation and the grace to welcome it and we make the necessary effort to respond to the offer. On the other hand, the 1973 translation affirms that Christ’s salvation is universal: he died for all.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

On October 17, 2006 Cardinal Francis Arinze, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship sent a letter to the presidents of the conferences of bishops regarding the translation of pro multis. He directed them to correct the current translation “for all”, because the Latin text says “for many”. He affirmed that the phrase “for many” is the exact translation, while “for all” is not a translation but a catechetical explanation of the words Jesus pronounced over the cup.


What it is not4

What it is not

The phrase “for many” should not exclude anyone. Christ died for all and offers salvation to all. This is the underlying theology of the 1973 English version that translated pro multis as “for all”. The 1973 version is not a literal translation, but it expresses the universality of Christ’s work of redemption. On the other hand, “for many” reminds us that we must personally accept Christ’s offer of salvation.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In his book God Is Near Us. The Eucharist at the Heart of Life (Ignatius Press 2003, pp. 34-38), the future Pope Benedict XVI, Joseph Ratzinger explains that “both formulations, ‘for all’ and ‘for many’, are found in Scripture and tradition. Each expresses one aspect of the matter: on one hand, the all-embracing salvation inherent in the death of Christ, which he suffered for all men; on the other hand, the freedom to refuse, as setting a limit to salvation”.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

He firmly reminds those who oppose the translation “for all”: “It is a basic element of the biblical message that the Lord died for all—being jealous of salvation is not Christian”. Since neither translation can fully express at one time both the universality of salvation and the freedom of each person, “each needs correct interpretation, which sets it in the context of the Christian gospel as a whole”.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Thus, while “for many” is the literal translation of the Latin pro multis, “for all” is its correct theological interpretation. One does not exclude the other; rather they complement each other. “For many” and “for all” are both essential to the theology of salvation.


Mystery of faith

Mystery of Faith

Latin: Mysteriumfidei.

1973 Translation: Let us proclaim the mystery of faith.

2010 Translation: The mystery of faith.


Mysterium fidei 1

MysteriumFidei (1)

Mortem tuamannuntiamus,

Domine, et tuamresurrectionem

confitemur, donecvenias.

We proclaim your Death, O Lord, and profess your resurrection, until you come again.


Mystery of faith 1

Mystery of Faith (1)

Sakramentario

(Msgr. Jose Abriol)

Angkamatayan mo, Panginoonamingipinahahayag. Angmulimongpagkabuhay ay ipinagdiriwanghanggangsaiyongpagbabalik.

We proclaim your Death, O Lord, and profess your resurrection, until you come again.


Almost word for word and echoes 1 corinthians 11 26

(almost word for word and echoes 1 Corinthians 11:26)

Quotiescumquemanducamus

panemhunc et calicembibimus,

mortem tuamannuntiamus,

Domine, donecvenias.

When we eat this Bread and drink this Cup, we proclaim your death, O Lord, until you come again.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Sakramentario

(Msgr. Jose Abriol)

Tuwingtatanggapinnaminitongtinapay at kalis, kamatayan mo, Panginoon, amingipinahahayaghanggangsaiyongpagbabalik.

2010

When we eat this Bread and drink this Cup, we proclaim your death, O Lord, until you come again.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

1973

When we eat this bread and drink this cup, we proclaim your death, Lord Jesus, until you come in glory.

When we eat this bread and drink this Cup, we proclaim your death, O Lord, until you come again.


Based on galatians 6 14

based on Galatians 6: 14

1973

2010

Save us Savior of the world,

for by your Cross and Resurrection you have set us free.

Lord, by your cross and resurrection you have set us free. You are the Savior of the world.


Mysterium fidei 3

MysteriumFidei (3)

Salvátor mundi, salvanos,

qui per crucem et resurrectiónem tuam liberásti nos.

Save us Savior of the world,

for by your Cross and Resurrection you have set us free.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Sakramentario

(Msgr. Jose Abriol)

Sa pamamagitanngiyongkrus at Mulingpagkabuhay, iniligtas mo kami, O Manunubosngsanlibutan.

Save us Savior of the world,

for by your Cross and Resurrection you have set us free.


Proper to the philippines

Proper to the Philippines

Your death, O Lord, we commemorate . Amen.

Your glory as a risen Savior now we celebrate. Amen.

You return in glory we await. Amen.


Pater noster 1970 ecumenical version

Pater Noster 1970 Ecumenical Version

“Our Father in heaven,

holy be your name,

your kingdom come,

your will be done

on earth as in heaven.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Give us today our daily bread.

Forgive us our sins as we forgive

those who sin against us.

Do not bring us to the test

but deliver us from evil”.


What it is5

What it is.

The above 1970 ecumenical text of the Lord’s Prayer was adopted by Roman Catholics in the Philippines (1976), India, Pakistan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and other English-speaking countries in Asia. In 1990 New Zealand adopted the revised ecumenical version of 1988.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

In 1994 and again in 1997 the Congregation for Divine Worship (Prot. N. 1273/94, 1994 and Prot. N. 1273/94, 1997) noted that it had not given confirmation to any episcopal conference for an alternative version of the Lord’s Prayer, since it wanted all English-speaking Catholics to have a single version.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Although the Congregation for Divine Worship showed partiality to the 16th century English version of the Lord’s Prayer, which is found in the Book of Common Prayer, it has not made definitive decision on the matter.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Other English-speaking countries like the United States, Canada, and Great Britain continue to use the 16th century translation.


What it is not5

What it is not.

We should teach and use the current form approved by the Philippine bishops with no modifications. Music compositions should be faithful to the text.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Furthermore, at Holy Mass we are not to use any other version, especially the one that adds the doxology “For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory...” In the Roman Mass this doxology is the people’s response to the embolism.


Invitation to communion

INVITATION TO COMMUNION

1973

This is the Lamb of Godwho takes awaythe sins of the world.

Happy are those who are calledto his supper.

2010

Behold the Lamb of God,behold him who takes awaythe sins of the world.Blessed are those calledto the supper of the Lamb.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

Ecce Agnus Dei,

ecce qui tollit peccáta mundi.

Beáti qui ad cenam Agni vocáti sunt.

Behold the Lamb of God,behold him who takes awaythe sins of the world.Blessed are those calledto the supper of the Lamb.


Biblical foundation reference basis

Biblical Foundation/Reference/Basis

The next day he [John] saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world””

(John 1: 29)

Then the angel said to me, ‘Write this: Blessed are those who have been called to the wedding feast of the Lamb.

(Revelation 19:9)


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Latin: Domine, non sum dignusutintres sub tectummeum: sedtantumdicverbo, et sanabituranima mea.

1973 Translation: Lord, I am not worthy to receive you, but only say the word and I shall be healed.

2010 Translation: Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed.


Matthew 8 8 see luke 7 6 7

Matthew 8: 8 ; see Luke 7: 6-7

1973

2010

Lord, I am not worthythat you should enter under my roof,

but only say the wordand my soul shall be healed.

Lord, I am not worthyto receive you,

but only say the wordand I shall be healed.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

1973

Dómine, non sumdignus ut intressubtectum

meum:

sedtantum die verbo, et sanábituránima

mea.

Lord, I am not worthyto receive you,

but only say the wordand I shall be healed.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

2010

Dómine, non sumdignus ut intressubtectum

meum:

sedtantum die verbo, et sanábituránima

mea.

Lord, I am not worthythat you should enter under my roof,but only say the wordand my soul shall be healed.


What it is6

What it is.

The Latin text quotes the words of the centurion addressed to Jesus: “Lord, do not trouble yourself, for I am not worthy to have you come under my roof... But only speak/say the word, and let my servant be healed” (Matthew 8: 8 ; see Luke 7: 6-7).


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The pagan centurion had a slave, presumably a Jew, who was close to death. The centurion begged Jesus to heal him by only saying the word. He did not ask Jesus to come to his house, because by so doing Jesus would be ritually unclean. Jews were not allowed to enter pagan homes.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The adapted Latin formula replaced the word “servant” (Latin puer) with “soul” (Latin anima), but kept the other pertinent parts of the centurion’s words to Jesus. Exegetically, the application to Holy Communion is rather far-fetched. In fact, Jesus did not enter the centurion’s house.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Abstracting from the question of keeping in the liturgy the integrity of biblical passages, what matters here is not the story of the centurion, which has no connection with Holy Communion, but his attitude toward Jesus. His humility and faith are exemplary and truly edifying and should be emulated as an attitude of those who receive Holy Communion.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The new English version translates the Latin text literally. On the other hand, the 1973 translation simplified the Latin text by removing any reference to the biblical origin of the text. It also favored the modern holistic view of human beings by substituting the word “soul” with “I”.


What it is not6

What it is not.

When we say these words, we do not focus on our material dwelling and possibly on our material poverty. Some discourage communion in the hand, arguing that some hands are dirty. But Christ does not look at our external beauty and cleanliness as gauge for giving us his body. He looks rather at our interior disposition.


Chief aim of

Chief Aim of:

Dynamic equivalence

Formal correspondence

The chief aim of literal translation or formal correspondence is fidelity to the individual words and phrases and word order of the Latin text regardless of the characteristic traits of the receptor language.

Dynamic equivalence tries to convey the thought or message expressed by the source language.

the purpose of this approach is to identify the message contained in the original text apart from its linguistic form, which is considered a mere vesture that can be changed according to different cultural contexts.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Aims

Dynamic Equivalence

Formal Correspondence

For the sake of readability and easy comprehension, it does not adhere strictly to the grammatical structure of the original text but considers rather the requirements of the receptor language.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The message is the doctrine and spiritual riches of the Latin text, which the liturgy intends to communicate to a particular assembly. The assembly is the addressee for whose benefit the Latin text was prepared.

  • In this connection, it is a literal translation that follows even the word order of the source language. This is the type of translation required by Liturgiamauthenticam, which requires exact translation without omission, addition, paraphrase, or gloss.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

To help today’s liturgical assembly grasp the meaning of what was originally communicated, the message should normally be re-expressed using the linguistic patterns proper to the receptor language.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • The message is communicated, but not necessarily the grammatical and lexical elements of the source language.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

After the publication of the 1973 English Missal (Sacramentary) many observations were made on it, ranging from doctrinal to linguistic and socio-cultural issues.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

Conservatives accused ICEL of Pelagianism (human-centered theology),


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

feminists attacked its non-inclusive language,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • and strict-to-the rule liturgists lamented over its free translation that often seemed to depart from the original Latin,


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • while some objected to the inclusion of alternative opening prayers, which are not translations but new compositions.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

The new English translation of the Roman Missal, which adheres to the system of literal translation, may sound unfamiliar to modern English speakers. In several instances, the length of some prayers could make them difficult to read, much less proclaim. But as the Instruction Liturgiamauthenticam has explained, this setback will be resolved through catechesis. Furthermore, as time goes by the clergy and faithful will get used to them and the uneasiness will hopefully disappear.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • Several times the Congregation for Divine Worship reminded ICEL that its work was merely to translate the Latin texts, not to compose, add, or subtract anything new. ICEL argued that its mandate included alternative texts and reorganization of the Latin editiotypica for pastoral use.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • In 1976, in response to criticisms, ICEL reorganized itself to revise its translation. It was only in 1988 (and later in 1990, 1992, and 1997) that ICEL finally started producing revised texts and sending them by segments to the eleven bishops’ conferences for the next ten years. By 1997 the entire newly-translated Sacramentary was completed and approved by the eleven conferences of bishops. It was submitted to Rome for approval.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • In 2002, on the basis of the new instruction, the Congregation for Divine Worship rejected ICEL’s translation of the Roman Missal. In the wake of the rejection, Pope John Paul II established the committee Vox Clara composed of bishops from English-speaking countries to oversee the English translation of the liturgy. The following year, Cardinal Francis Arinze, Prefect of the Congregation, decreed the reorganization of ICEL with new statutes to govern its operations and a new set of members of the Advisory Committee.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

  • In 2004 the newly reorganized ICEL issued draft of the new translation of the Roman Missal in accord with Liturgiamauthenticam. Because of many substantial observations on the text, like lengthy sentences not suited to proclamation and the use of archaic and unfamiliar language, the draft was revised in 2005.


Question of lengthy text

Question of Lengthy Text

  • Father, all-powerful and ever-living God,

  • we do well always and everywhere to give you thanks

  • through Jesus Christ our Lord.

  • It is truly right and just, our duty and our salvation,

  • always and everywhere to give you thanks,

  • Lord, holy Father, almighty and eternal God,

  • through Christ our Lord.


Background of the new english translation of the roman missal

When he humbled himself to come among us as a man,

he fulfilled the plan you formed long ago

and opened for us the way to salvation.

Now we watch for the day,

hoping that the salvation promised us will be ours

when Christ our Lord will come again in his glory.

For he assumed at his first coming

the lowliness of human flesh,

and so fulfilled the design you formed long ago,

and opened for us the way to eternal salvation,

that, when he comes again in glory and majesty

and all is at last made manifest,

we who watch for that day

may inherit the great promise

in which now we dare to hope.


Question of proclamation

Question of Proclamation

Lord,

keep us true in the faith,

proclaiming that Christ your Son,

who is one with you in eternal glory,

became man and was born of a virgin mother.

Free us from all evil

and lead us to the joy of eternal life.

We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,...

Grant your people, O Lord, we pray,

unshakeable strength of faith,

so that all who profess that your Only Begotten Son

is with you for ever in your glory

and was born of the Virgin Mary

in a body truly like our own

may be freed from present trials

and given a place in abiding gladness.

Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,...


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