Understanding metals and non metals
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UNDERSTANDING METALS AND NON-METALS. 4) Reaction of metals with solutions of other metal salts. Cu + FeSO 4. Fe + CuSO 4. NO REACTION. Cu + MgCl 2. Let us Study the Rx of Na (Metal) with Cl (Non metal). Sodium (Na)

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UNDERSTANDING METALS AND NON-METALS

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Understanding metals and non metals

UNDERSTANDING

METALS AND NON-METALS


Understanding metals and non metals

4) Reaction of metals with solutions of other metal salts

  • Cu + FeSO4

Fe + CuSO4

  • NO REACTION

Cu + MgCl2


Understanding metals and non metals

Let us Study the Rx of Na (Metal) with Cl (Non metal)

Sodium (Na)

Silver coloured that reacts with H2O so instantly that flames are produce due to formation of H2 gas.

Chlorine(Cl)

Non-metal which is Greenish Colour & very poisonous.

But, when these two dangerous substances chemically combine, they form a compound known as Sodium chloridewhich is so safe that we eat it everyday.


Understanding metals and non metals

Formation of sodium Chloride

Ionic Bonds

The bond which are formed by give & take of electrons are called as ionic or electrovalent bonds.

Ionic Compounds

The compounds formed by the transfer of electrons are known as ionic compound


Understanding metals and non metals

1) Ionic compounds are solids & Hard

Properties of ionic compounds

2) They have high melting & boiling point

3)They are generally brittle

4)Generally, they are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents like kerosene, petrol etc.

5)They do not Conduct electricity in solid state but their aqueous or molten form conducts electricity.


Understanding metals and non metals

MINERALS

METALS

(Reactive)

(non reactive EgAu,Pt)

Compounds

Pure form

Naturally Occurring

Compounds of Metals

Other impurities

Minerals– The naturally Occurring compounds of metals

alongwith other impurities are known as minerals.


Understanding metals and non metals

ORES

OM

Minerals

Conveniently

Profitably

Ores–The minerals from which metals are extracted Profitably & Conveniently are known as ores.

Gangue– Ores contain metal compounds with some of

the impurities like soil, sand and rocky materials etc. These impurities are known as gangue.


Understanding metals and non metals

Metallurgy : The process used for extraction

of metals in their pure form from their ores is

calledMetallurgy

The process used for

Extraction

is called

Metallurgy

of metals in their pure form

from their ores


Understanding metals and non metals

Minerals:The naturally occurring compounds of metals along with other impurities are known as minerals

Occurrence of metals

Ores:The minerals from which metals are extracted profitable & conveniently are called as ores

Gangue:The impurities like soil, sand, rocky materials etc which are present in ores are called gangue.

Metallurgy:The process used for extraction of metals in their pure form their ores is known as metallurgy.


Understanding metals and non metals

Preliminary treatment

(Ore is concentrated by

removal of GANGUE)

Refining

(Purification

of impure

metal.)

Reduction

(separation of oxygen from a compound)

Washing

Chemical separation


Reactivity series of metals

Most reactive

Reactivity series of metals :-

Reactivity decreases

The arranging of metals in the decreasing order of their reactivity is called reactivity series of metals.

K - Potassium

Na - Sodium

Ca - Calcium

Mg - Magnesium

Al - Aluminium

Zn - Zinc

Fe - Iron

Pb - Lead

Cu - Copper

Hg - Mercury

Ag - Silver

Au - Gold

Least reactive


Extraction of metals of high reactivity

Extraction of Metals of High Reactivity

•K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al etc show high reactivity.

•Na, Ca and Mg occur in the form of metal chloride ieNaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2

•They are obtained by electrolysis of their molten chlorides

On eletrolysis

•metals are deposited at cathode and

•Chlorine is liberated at anode

For NaCl

•At cathode : Na+ + e-

•At anode :2Cl- - 2e-

For CaCl2

•At cathode :Ca2+ + 2e-

•At anode : 2Cl- - 2e-

For MgCl2

•At cathode : Mg2+ + 2e-

•At anode : 2Cl- - 2e-

Na

Cl2

Ca

Cl2

Mg

Cl2


Aluminium

ALUMINIUM

•Symbol : Al

•Colour : silvery white

•Atomic no (Z) : 13

•EC :2,8,3

•Valency : 3

•Chief ore : Bauxite (Al2O3.H2O)

•Bauxite contains

•30% to 70% Al2O3 and remaining is sand, silica (SiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc


Extraction of aluminium

Extraction of Aluminium

Extraction of Al involves two steps

  • Concentration of ore

  • Electrolytic reduction of alumina


Understanding metals and non metals

Step 1: Concentration of ore (or) Bayer’s process

a)Bauxite + aq caustic soda

Condition=heat at 140 to 150oC,under pressure, for 4-5 hrs

•Al2O3

(Amphoteric)

•Silica

•Iron oxide

(basic in nature)

b)NaAlO2

C)2Al(OH)3

2NaAlO2 + H2O

+ 2NaOH

Sodium Aluminate

Sodium silicate

+ NaOH

+ NaOH

does not dissolve (removed by filtration)

NaOH + Al(OH)3 (at 50oC)

+ 2H2O

Al2O3 + 3H2O


Electrolytic reduction of alumina

Electrolytic Reduction of Alumina

Alumina = Al2O3

Cryolite = AlF3.3NaF

Fluorspar = CaF2

At cathode : Al3+ + 3e-

At anode :2O2- - 4e-

Al

O2


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