UNDERSTANDING METALS AND NON-METALS. 4) Reaction of metals with solutions of other metal salts. Cu + FeSO 4. Fe + CuSO 4. NO REACTION. Cu + MgCl 2. Let us Study the Rx of Na (Metal) with Cl (Non metal). Sodium (Na)
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METALS AND NON-METALS
Fe + CuSO4
Cu + MgCl2
Silver coloured that reacts with H2O so instantly that flames are produce due to formation of H2 gas.
Non-metal which is Greenish Colour & very poisonous.
But, when these two dangerous substances chemically combine, they form a compound known as Sodium chloridewhich is so safe that we eat it everyday.
The bond which are formed by give & take of electrons are called as ionic or electrovalent bonds.
The compounds formed by the transfer of electrons are known as ionic compound
Properties of ionic compounds
2) They have high melting & boiling point
3) They are generally brittle
4) Generally, they are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents like kerosene, petrol etc.
5) They do not Conduct electricity in solid state but their aqueous or molten form conducts electricity.
(non reactive EgAu,Pt)
Compounds of Metals
Minerals– The naturally Occurring compounds of metals
alongwith other impurities are known as minerals.
Ores–The minerals from which metals are extracted Profitably & Conveniently are known as ores.
Gangue– Ores contain metal compounds with some of
the impurities like soil, sand and rocky materials etc. These impurities are known as gangue.
of metals in their pure form from their ores is
The process used for
of metals in their pure form
from their ores
Minerals:The naturally occurring compounds of metals along with other impurities are known as minerals
Occurrence of metals
Ores:The minerals from which metals are extracted profitable & conveniently are called as ores
Gangue:The impurities like soil, sand, rocky materials etc which are present in ores are called gangue.
Metallurgy:The process used for extraction of metals in their pure form their ores is known as metallurgy.
(Ore is concentrated by
removal of GANGUE)
(separation of oxygen from a compound)
The arranging of metals in the decreasing order of their reactivity is called reactivity series of metals.
K - Potassium
Na - Sodium
Ca - Calcium
Mg - Magnesium
Al - Aluminium
Zn - Zinc
Fe - Iron
Pb - Lead
Cu - Copper
Hg - Mercury
Ag - Silver
Au - Gold
• K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al etc show high reactivity.
• Na, Ca and Mg occur in the form of metal chloride ieNaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2
• They are obtained by electrolysis of their molten chlorides
• metals are deposited at cathode and
• Chlorine is liberated at anode
• At cathode : Na+ + e-
• At anode :2Cl- - 2e-
• At cathode :Ca2+ + 2e-
• At anode : 2Cl- - 2e-
• At cathode : Mg2+ + 2e-
• At anode : 2Cl- - 2e-
• Symbol : Al
• Colour : silvery white
• Atomic no (Z) : 13
• EC :2,8,3
• Valency : 3
• Chief ore : Bauxite (Al2O3.H2O)
• Bauxite contains
• 30% to 70% Al2O3 and remaining is sand, silica (SiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc
Extraction of Al involves two steps
a) Bauxite + aq caustic soda
Condition=heat at 140 to 150oC,under pressure, for 4-5 hrs
• Iron oxide
(basic in nature)
2NaAlO2 + H2O
does not dissolve (removed by filtration)
NaOH + Al(OH)3 (at 50oC)
Al2O3 + 3H2O
Alumina = Al2O3
Cryolite = AlF3.3NaF
Fluorspar = CaF2
At cathode : Al3+ + 3e-
At anode :2O2- - 4e-