The End of World War I. I. Propaganda. With the prospect of victory fading, war time governments were obliged to devise means of persuading their own citizens that the sacrifice was worthwhile and those in the enemy camp that it was not. A. Domestic Propaganda.
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With the prospect of victory fading, war time governments were obliged to devise means of persuading their own citizens that the sacrifice was worthwhile and those in the enemy camp that it was not
a.) Large number of discontented ethnic, religious, and social groups within the British, French, and Russian Empires
b.) principal targets were Islamic populations of North Africa, Egypt, India, and Southern Russia
c.) German Emperor’s Damascus speech in 1898 established him as protector of the 300 million Muslims on the earth– jihad –holy war
d.) German finances poured into Islamic nationalist movements
e.) Emigres from Russian Poland, Finland, Ukraine, Georgia, and Armenia received subsidies and encouragement from German officials for “national liberation” movements against Russian oppression– Russian Social Democratic Party (Bolshevik)
f.) Ultimately unsuccessful– Easter rebellion in Ireland 1916 is example
2. Entente countermeasures conflict with Fischer thesis because allied powers had developed war aims as grandiose and aggressive as Germany
A. Interallied economic cooperation-- enstranglement
Paris Economic Conference held June 1916– Britain, France, Italy Russia, Belgium, Portugal and Japan met to discuss ways of giving permanent form to the measures of inter-allied economic cooperation– preferential tarridffs, pooling of raw materials and shipping, joint management of financial and currency affairs
B. Provocation of insurrection
D. Idea of Islamic holy war against the West is not as powerful as hatred for Turkish overlords
E. This strategy was effective in curtailing the Ottoman Empire’s capacity to fulfill its obligations to its Germanic allies
While the Russian withdrawal was initially a benefit to the Alliance, it actually ended up contributing to their defeat.