Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease 11 th edition. Chapter 14 The Heart and Heart Disease. Circulation and the Heart. Circulation Continuous one-way circuit of the blood vessels Propelled by heart. Location of the Heart. Between the lungs Left of the midline of the body
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Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease11th edition
The Heart and Heart Disease
Three tissue layers
The sac that encloses the heart
Layers of the heart wall and pericardium. The serous pericardium covers the heart and lines the fibrous pericardium.
• Which layer of the heart wall is the thickest?
Checkpoint 14-1:What are the names of the innermost, middle, and outermost layers of the heart?
Checkpoint 14-2:What is the name of the sac that encloses the heart?
The heart as a double pump. The right side of the heart pumps blood through the pulmonary circuit to the lungs to be oxygenated; the left side of the heart pumps blood through the systemic circuit to all other parts of the body.
• What vessel carries blood into the systemic circuit?
The heart and great vessels.
• Which heart chamber has the thickest wall?
Checkpoint 14-3:The heart is divided into four chambers. What is the upper receiving chamber on each side called? What is the lower pumping chamber called?
Question: Which chamber of the heart receives oxygenated blood coming in from the lungs in the pulmonary veins?a. right atriumb. left ventriclec. left atrium
Valves of the heart (superior view from anterior, atria removed). (A) When the heart is relaxed (diastole), the AV valves are open and blood flows freely from the atria to the ventricles. The pulmonary and aortic valves are closed. (B) When the ventricles contract, the AV valves close and blood pumped out of the ventricles opens the pulmonary and aortic valves.ZOOMING IN • How many cusps does the right AV valve have? The left?
Pathway of blood through the heart.
Blood from the systemic circuit enters the right atrium (1) through the superior and inferior venae cavae, flows through the right AV (tricuspid) valve (2), and enters the right ventricle (3). The right ventricle pumps the blood through the pulmonary (semilunar) valve (4) into the pulmonary trunk, which divides to carry blood to the lungs in the pulmonary circuit.
Blood returns from the lungs in the pulmonary veins, enters the left atrium (5), and flows through the left AV (mitral) valve (6) into the left ventricle (7). The left ventricle pumps the blood through the aortic (semilunar) valve (8) into the aorta, which carries blood into the systemic circuit.
Checkpoint 14-4:What is the purpose of valves in the heart?
Blood vessels that supply the myocardium. Coronary arteries and cardiac veins are shown. (A) Anterior view. (B) Posterior view.
Opening of coronary arteries in the aortic valve (anterior view). (A) When the left ventricle contracts, the aortic valve opens. The valve cusps prevent filling of the coronary arteries. (B) When the left ventricle relaxes, backflow of blood closes the aortic valve and the coronary arteries fill.
Checkpoint 14-5:The myocardium must have its own vascular system to supply it with blood. What name is given to this blood supply to the myocardium?
Left and right sides of heart work together in cardiac cycle (heartbeat)
The cardiac cycle.
ZOOMING IN • When the ventricles contract, what valves close? What valves open?
Calculating cardiac output
Checkpoint 14-6:The cardiac cycle consists of an alternating pattern of contraction and relaxation. What name is given to the contraction phase?
Checkpoint 14-7: Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute. What two factors determine cardiac output?
Electrical energy stimulates heart muscle
Conduction system of the heart. The sinoatrial (SA) node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, and specialized fibers conduct the electrical energy that stimulates the heart muscle to contract.
• What parts of the conduction system do the internodal pathways connect?
Checkpoint 14-8:The heartbeat is started by a small mass of tissue in the upper right atrium. This structure is commonly called the pacemaker, but what is its scientific name?
Influences that allow heart to meet changing needs rapidly
Checkpoint 14-9:What system exerts the main influence on the rate and strength of heart circulation?
Checkpoint 14-10:What is a heart murmur?
Most common cause of death in industrialized countries is heart and circulatory system disease
Congenital heart disease often results from fetal development defects
Checkpoint 14-11:What is congenital heart disease?
Checkpoint 14-12:What types of organisms cause rheumatic fever?
Coronary arteries can degenerate
Checkpoint 14-13:Narrowing or blockage of the vessels that supply the heart muscle causes coronary artery disease. What degenerative process commonly causes narrowing of these vessels?
Question:What is the name of the fatty substance that builds up inside the vessel walls in atherosclerosis?a. plaqueb. lumenc. thrombus
Heart is unable to pump sufficient blood
How the heart can age
Risk factors that cannot be modified
Risk factors that can be modified
Checkpoint 14-14:What do ECG and EKG stand for?
Checkpoint 14-15:What technique is used to open a restricted coronary artery with a balloon catheter?
Question:The technique to restore normal heartbeat by either electric shock or drugs is known as:a. defibrillationb. cardioversionc. ablation