ENGL 3815 Survey of Popular Culture
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ENGL 3815 Survey of Popular Culture Fall 2013 PH 321 Dr. David Lavery. Survey of Popular Culture. Marxism. Marxism. Survey of Popular Culture. My students, communists, at Wa Dong Shi Dah, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China (April, 1981). Survey of Popular Culture. Marxism.

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Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

ENGL 3815 Survey of Popular Culture

Fall 2013

PH 321

Dr. David Lavery


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Marxism

Survey of Popular Culture

My students, communists, at Wa Dong Shi Dah, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China (April, 1981)


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Marxism

Part Three:Marxism

7. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels—Ruling Class and Ruling Ideas

8.Karl Marx—Base and Superstructure

9. Frederick Engels—Letter to Joseph Bloch

10. Theodor W. Adorno—On Popular Music

11. Antonio Gramsci —Hegemony, Intellectuals and the State

12. Tony Bennett—Popular Culture and the 'turn of Gramsci'

13. John Storey—Rockin' Hegemony: West Coast Rock and Amerika's War in Vietnam (discussion led by Sherrie Michael)

14.  Christine Gledhill—Pleasurable Negotiations

15. Stuart Hall—The Rediscovery of 'Ideology': Return of the Repressed in Media Studies

16. Ernesto Laclau with Chantal Mouffe—Post-Marxism without Apologies


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Karl Marx (1818-83). German economist, philosopher, sociologist

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Karl Marx (1818-83).

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

“The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is the ruling force in society , is at the same time its ruling intellectual force.”—Marx and Engels

“Freedom of the press is limited to those who own one.”—A. J. Leibling

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Marxism

Survey of Popular Culture

  • Opening of The Communist Manifesto

  • A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies.

  • Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?

  • Two things result from this fact:

    • I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power.

    • II. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a manifesto of the party itself.

    • To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages.


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

7. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels—Ruling Class and Ruling Ideas

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

9. Frederick Engels—Letter to Joseph Bloch

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Alienation

The estrangement the proletariat feels from the work of his/her hands, the products of his/her labor.

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

“All that is solid melts into air.”

“The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.”—Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Authenticity

In Marxism, describes a life lived according to the rational needs and ambitions of the individual, free from the imposed “false consciousness” of a capitalized society.

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Base-superstructure: Both terms associated (initially) with classical Marxist theory. The 'base' refers to the economy and modes of production (e.g. feudal, capitalist). The 'superstructure' refers to the social, cultural, legal and other arrangements which operate in relation to a particular economic base. For example, compare the social and political institutions of a feudal economy with those institutions which are seen to typify late twentieth-century Western economies. (Storey Glossary)

[Mass]Think on Base/Superstructure

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

8.Karl Marx—Base and Superstructure

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Co-Optation

In Neo-Marxism, the ability of a capitalist society to subsume criticism/opposition into its media content (advertising, media texts). Todd Gitlin famously observed that capitalism tends to transform “the desire for real change into the availability of novel goods.”

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

  • Co-Optation

  • Ronald Reagan regularly used a song with the following lyrics as entrance music at campaign stops.

    • I had a buddy at Khe Sahn

    • Fighting off the Viet Cong

    • They're still there, he's all gone

    • He had a little girl in Saigon

    • I got a picture of him in her arms

    • Down in the shadow of the penitentiary

    • Out by the gas fires of the refinery

    • I'm ten years down the road

    • Nowhere to run, ain't got nowhere to go

    • I'm a long gone Daddy in the U.S.A.

    • Born in the U.S.A.

    • I'm a cool rocking Daddy in the U.S.A.

    • Born in the U.S.A.

    • --Bruce Springsteen, “Born in the USA”

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Marxism

Survey of Popular Culture

Cultural Hegemony

“Cultural hegemony is the philosophic and sociological concept, originated by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, that a culturally-diverse society can be ruled or dominated by one of its social classes. It is the dominance of one social group over another, e.g. the ruling class over all other classes. The theory claims that the ideas of the ruling class come to be seen as the norm; they are seen as universal ideologies, perceived to benefit everyone whilst only really benefiting the ruling class.”—Wikipedia.

Hegemony: Term associated with the work of Antonio Gramsci, referring to the way in which dominant groups in society, through processes of intellectual/moral leadership, seek to win the consent of subordinate groups in society. Hegemony theory, especially as deployed by neo-Gramscian cultural theorists, stresses process of incorporation and resistance in the cultural field. Moreover, texts, practices and commodities have to be made to mean; texts do not mean anything outside the conflictual context in which meanings are articulated/contested. See also articulation above; bricolage above.

Hegemony explained on the Theory.org Gramsci page.


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

11. Antonio Gramsci —Hegemony, Intellectuals and the State

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). Italian cultural theorist and philosopher.

Watch a Lecture About Gramsci | Watch a Documentary in Italian on Gramsci (nice visuals) | Theory.org’s Gramsci Page


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

11. Antonio Gramsci —Hegemony, Intellectuals and the State

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

12. Tony Bennett—Popular Culture and the 'turn of Gramsci'

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Dialectic [Hegelian]

The engagement of thesis and antithesis, yielding synthesis, which, according to the German philosopher Hegel, governs both intellectual and material history. Marx applied such a principle in his own conception of history, with capitalist society playing the role of thesis, the proletariat as antithesis, and the new communist society that would result as the synthesis

  • Thesis

  • Antithesis

  • Synthesis

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Marxism

Dominant Culture

“The dominant culture is the culture of the dominant social grouping. It is not necessarily the culture of the majority (though it often is) but rather the culture of those who have the resources, assets, and means by which to control the cultural mileaux of a society. The dominant social groupings sphere of influence affects language, fashion, norms, values, behaving, and thinking

Dominant cultures always contain scripts and programs which support the economic and political interests of the dominant social groupings, and ensure uninterrupted operation of The System. For example, in western societies the dominant cultures emphasize hard work and achievement (i.e., wage slavery), respect for property owners, and individual responsibility for the manifestation of individual reality. These cultural/ideological prescriptions ensure people accept wage slavery and, more importantly for those who benefit from the exploitation and callous disregard for human life, dignity, and right, blame themselves when they are unable to find an acceptable niche within which to jack themselves into The System.” (Spirit Wiki)


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Bricolage

Term often associated with youth and subcultures. Products are combined and transformed in ways not intended by their producers; commodities are rearticulated to produce 'oppositional' meanings. See the work of Dick Hebdige and his readings of punk and other subcultures. (Storey’s Glossary)

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

14.  Christine Gledhill—Pleasurable Negotiations

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

False Consciousness

“Marxist theory that people are unable to see things, esp. exploitation, oppression, and social relations, as they really are; the hypothesized inability of the human mind to develop a sophisticated awareness of how it is developed and shaped by circumstances” (Dictionary.com)

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Todd Gitlin (1943- ). Americn sociologist and media critic.

“The genius of consumer society is its ability to convert the desire for change into a desire for novel goods.”—Todd Gitlin, Inside Prime Time


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Fetishism

To deify or give unnatural significance or meaning to objects. Marx argued that capitalism fetishizes commodities/objects.

More on Commodity Festishism.

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

The Frankfurt School

“The “Frankfurt School” refers to a group of German-American theorists who developed powerful analyses of the changes in Western capitalist societies that occurred since the classical theory of Marx. Working at the Institut fur Sozialforschung in Frankfurt, Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s, theorists such as Max Horkheimer, T.W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowenthal, and Erich Fromm produced some of the first accounts within critical social theory of the importance of mass culture and communication in social reproduction and domination. The Frankfurt School also generated one of the first models of a critical cultural studies that analyzes the processes of cultural production and political economy, the politics of cultural texts, and audience reception and use of cultural artifacts (Kellner 1989 and 1995).”—Douglas Kellner

“Where Arnold and Leavis saw ‘anarchy,’ the Frankfurt School see only ‘conformity’: a situation in which ‘the deceived masses’ (133) are caught in a ‘circle of manipulation and retroactive need in wich the unity of the system grows ever strong” (Storey 62).

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Walter Benjamin (1892-1940)

Read “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979). German/American philosopher and Marxist.


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Theodore Adorno (1903-1969). German sociologist and critic.


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

According to the Frankfurt School . . .

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

10. Theodor W. Adorno—On Popular Music

The Two Spheres of Music

Standardization

Pseudo-Individualization

Popular Music and “Leisure Time”

The Social Cement

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

13. John Storey—Rockin' Hegemony: West Coast Rock and Amerika's War in Vietnam

Shellie Michael

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Ideology

(a) Views, beliefs, values and opinions of a particular group or class; systematised body of ideas; (b) material practices (e.g. holidays; the celebration of Christmas); (c) ideological forms (as in the way texts offer a particular view or (distorted) perspective of the world. (Storey’s Glossary)

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

15. Stuart Hall—The Rediscovery of 'Ideology': Return of the Repressed in Media Studies

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Interpellation

“Taken from the work of Althusser and refers to the ways in which texts and institutions seem to 'speak to', 'hail' or 'address' subjects as unique individuals. Adverts, for example, seem to interpellate/address subjects in specific ways (especially the direct address 'You!'). Interpellation also operates alongside ideology (e.g. the capitalist notion of the unique individual). See the work of Judith Williamson.”—Storey’s Glossary

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

John Berger (1926- ). British art critic, Marxist, novelist.

Watch Ways of Seeing Clips)


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

John Berger (1926- ). British art critic, Marxist, novelist.


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Neo-Marxism/Post-Marxism

“Neo-Marxism is a loose term for various twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, usually by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions, such as: critical theory, psychoanalysis or Existentialism (in the case of Sartre). . . .

As with many uses of the prefix neo-, many theorists and groups designated as neo-Marxist have attempted to supplement the perceived deficiencies of orthodox Marxism or dialectical materialism. Many prominent neo-Marxists, such as Herbert Marcuse and other members of the Frankfurt School, were sociologists and psychologists.

Neo-Marxism comes under the broader framework of the New Left. Neo-Marxism is also used frequently to describe opposition to inequalities experienced by Lesser Developed Countries in a globalized world.” (Wikipedia)

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Part Three:Marxism

16. Ernesto Laclau with Chantal Mouffe—Post-Marxism without Apologies

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Repressive State Apparatus (RSA)

“Althusser suggests that ideology is institutional, informing and structuring the operations of political administrations, media, art, etc. When such ideological state apparatuses fail to win the consent of subjects, then states will use repressive measures - where RSA refers to police force, army, prison system, etc.”—Storey’s Glossary

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Louis Althusser (1918-1990). French Marxist philosopher.

“On 16 November 1980, Althusser strangled his wife Hélène to death, following a period of mental instability. There were no witnesses, and the exact circumstances are debated with some claiming it was deliberate, others accidental. Althusser himself claimed not to have a clear memory of the event, saying that, while he was massaging his wife's neck, he discovered he had strangled her. Althusser was diagnosed as suffering from diminished responsibility, and he was not tried, but instead committed to the Sainte-Anne psychiatric hospital. Althusser remained in hospital until 1983. Upon release, he moved to Northern Paris and lived reclusively, seeing few people. He continued to work and write, but published little. A notable exception is his autobiography, L'Avenir dure longtemps, in which Althusser describes the killing (among other topics). He died of a heart attack on 22 October 1990 at the age of 72. Much of his post-1980 work has been published posthumously.”

--Wikipedia


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Surplus Value

“In Marxist economics, the amount by which the value of the worker's product exceeds the wage the worker is paid, viewed as the source of capitalist profit.”—Webster’s Dictionary

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Wants/Needs

According to Ivan Illich (Toward a Theory of Needs), capitalism confuses needs—food, housing, clothing, etc.—with “wants”--longed-for material acquisitions, whose desirability is instilled via advertising and other mass media instruments.

Marxism


Engl 3815 survey of popular culture fall 2013 ph 321 dr david lavery

Survey of Popular Culture

Koyaanisqatsi (Godfrey Reggio, 1982. Music by Philip Glass.

koyaanisqatsi (Hopi): life out of balance, crazy life, life about to change into something else.

Marxism


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