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AP Psychology Review. Test Taking Strategies. General Tips for Test Taking Multiple Choice Section Free Response Questions. General Tips for Test Taking. Know the structure of the test Multiple Choice Section - 100 questions A-E Column format

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test taking strategies
Test Taking Strategies
  • General Tips for Test Taking
  • Multiple Choice Section
  • Free Response Questions
general tips for test taking
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Know the structure of the test
    • Multiple Choice Section - 100 questions
      • A-E
      • Column format
      • Questions taken from every unit on a percentage basis
ap psychology exam structure
AP Psychology Exam Structure

History and Approaches 2-4%

Research Methods 8-10%

Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10%

Sensation and Perception 6-8%

States of Consciousness 2-4%

Learning 7-9%

Cognition 8-10%

Motivation and Emotion 6-8%

Developmental Psychology 7-9%

Personality 5-7%

Testing and Individual Differences 5-7%

Abnormal Psychology 7-9%

Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7%

Social Psychology 8-10%

ap psychology exam structure1
AP Psychology Exam Structure

Research Methods 8-10%

Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10%

Cognition 8-10%

Social Psychology 8-10%

Abnormal Psychology 7-9%

Developmental Psychology 7-9%

Learning 7-9%

Motivation and Emotion 6-8%

Sensation and Perception 6-8%

Personality 5-7%

Testing and Individual Differences 5-7%

Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7%

History and Approaches 2-4%

States of Consciousness 2-4%

ap psychology exam structure2
AP Psychology Exam Structure

History, Approaches and Research Methods 10-14%

Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10%

Cognition 8-10%

Social Psychology 8-10%

Abnormal Psychology 7-9%

Developmental Psychology 7-9%

Learning 7-9%

Motivation and Emotion 6-8%

Sensation and Perception 6-8%

Personality 5-7%

Testing and Individual Differences 5-7%

Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7%

States of Consciousness 2-4%

general tips for test taking1
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Know the structure of the test
    • Free Response Section - 2 questions
      • No choice
      • Multiple parts
free response question 2009 1
Free Response Question 2009 #1

1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an example of how each of the following could affect their performance. Definitions without application do not score.

• Extrinsic motivation

• Punishment

• Proactive interference

• Endorphins

• Vestibular system

• Divergent thinking

• Introversion

free response question 2009 2
Free Response Question 2009 #2

2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to prepare students for a written test and a road test.

(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not score.

• Cognitive map

• Cerebellum

• Observational learning

• Human factors

(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the written test. Definitions without application do not score.

• Reticular formation

• Predictive validity

• Semantic memory

general tips for test taking2
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Make good use of your time and be aware of time restraints
    • Multiple Choice - 70 minutes (100 questions)
    • Free Response - 50 minutes (2 questions)
  • Bring a watch to the test
  • Directions on exam (see next slide)
general tips for test taking3
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Make good use of your time and know your time restraints
  • “Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go on to other questions and come back to the ones you have not answered if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will know the answers to all of the multiple-choice questions.”
general tips for test taking4
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Read the directions carefully
    • “Mark the one best answer”
    • “Mark all correct answers”
    • AP Psychology test says:
  • “Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.”
general tips for test taking5
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Know how the test is graded
    • Multiple Choice
      • 2/3 of overall grade
      • 100 Points
    • Free Response
      • 1/3 of overall grade
      • 50 Points
    • 150 Total Points
general tips for test taking6
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Is there an adjustment for guessing?
    • 1.25 points off for each incorrect answer
    • 1 point off if the question is left blank
general tips for test taking7
General Tips for Test Taking
  • About Guessing

“Many students wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. In this section of the exam, as a correction for random guessing, one-fourth of the number of questions you answer incorrectly will be subtracted from the number of questions you answer correctly. If you are not sure of the best answer but have some knowledge of the question and are able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices, your chance of answering correctly improved, and it may be to your advantage to answer such a question.”

guessing on the ap psychology exam
Guessing on the AP Psychology Exam
  • Why you should guess on the AP Psychology Exam
  • Jim answers 70 questions and is unsure about the other 30.
    • If he leaves the 30 questions blank, he gets 70 points.
      • 70 – (0)( ¼) = 70
    • If he guesses at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 5, or 6, correct and 24 incorrect.
      • 76 – (24)( ¼) = 70       No difference.  He breaks even.
    • If he can eliminate one incorrect choice and guess at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 4, or 7.5, correct.  To be safe, let’s call it 7.
      • 77 – (23)( ¼) = 71.25   He comes out 1.25 points ahead.
guessing on the ap psychology exam1
Guessing on the AP Psychology Exam
  • Why you should guess on the AP Psychology Exam
    • If he can eliminate two incorrect choices and guess at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 3, or 10, correct.
      • 80 – (20)( ¼) = 75      He comes out 5 points ahead.
    • If he can eliminate three incorrect choices and guess at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 2, or 15, correct.
      • 85 – (15)( ¼) = 81.25  He comes out 11.25 points ahead.
general tips for test taking8
General Tips for Test Taking

Section I: Multiple Choice

[ _____ - (1/4 X _____ )] X 1.000 = __________

Number CorrectNumber WrongMultiple-Choice Score(If less than zero, enter zero)

Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to reflect that change.

1999 – two questions 1.0204

2007 – one question 1.0101

general tips for test taking9
General Tips for Test Taking

Section II: Free Response (Assumes one 8 point and one 10 point question)

(3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____

Question 1 Question 2 Free Response

(Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score

Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth.

general tips for test taking10
General Tips for Test Taking

Section III: Composite Score

______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score

Score Score

Section IV: Final Score

general tips for test taking11
General Tips for Test Taking

5

Section I: Multiple Choice

[ _____ - (1/4 X _____ )] X 1.000 = __________

Number CorrectNumber WrongMultiple-Choice Score(If less than zero, enter zero)

Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to reflect that change.

74

69

20

general tips for test taking12
General Tips for Test Taking

Section III: Composite Score

______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score

Score Score

Section IV: Final Score

69.00

general tips for test taking13
General Tips for Test Taking

Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and 8 point question)

(3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____

Question 1 Question 2 Free Response

(Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score

Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth.

15

18.75

6

33.75

6

general tips for test taking14
General Tips for Test Taking

Section III: Composite Score

______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score

Score Score

Section IV: Final Score

69.00

33.75

102.75

general tips for test taking15
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Don’t waste time with extremely difficult questions
  • Don\'t waste time pondering difficult-to-answer questions excessively. If you have no idea at all, just guess (if there is no penalty for doing so) and go on. If you need to devote a good deal of time to the question, skip it and mark it so you can return to it later if time permits.
general tips for test taking16
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Are charts, graphs, drawings, etc. on the test?
  • Are there names on the test?
general tips for test taking17
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Keep to the level of the test
  • Adopt the appropriate level of sophistication for the test. Don\'t read things into questions. Sometimes students make things more complex that they were intended to be. Often, simple-looking questions are just what they appear to be.
  • AP Psychology test appears to go from easiest questions to the hardest questions.
general tips for test taking18
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Ask questions if you can
  • Unless it is explicitly forbidden, don\'t hesitate to ask the examiner to clarify a question when necessary. Many examiners will graciously provide a great deal of useful information.
  • AP Psychology test: You cannot ask any questions.
general tips for test taking19
General Tips for Test Taking
  • If possible, review your answers
  • If you complete all of the questions and still have some time remaining, review the test. Make sure that you have recorded your answers correctly, especially when using a scanner sheet. If you were unsure of some answers, go back and reconsider them.
tips for multiple choice questions
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Question Structure

Stem 1.Which of the following is responsible for focusing the image on the retina?

Decoys/distracters A. cornea

B. optic nerve

C. rods

D. cones

Correct Answer E. lens

tips for multiple choice questions1
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Anticipate the answer

As you read the stem of each multiple choice question, anticipate the answer if you can, before looking at the options. If the answer you anticipated is among the options, it is likely to be the correct one.

tips for multiple choice questions2
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Anticipate the answer

When Shelly first had cable television service installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on channel 9. This memory problem represents

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)

tips for multiple choice questions3
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Anticipate the answer

When Shelly first had cable television service installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on channel 9. This memory problem represents

(A) memory decay

(B) retrograde amnesia

(C) reconstruction errors

(D) retroactive interference

(E) proactive interference

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)

tips for multiple choice questions4
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Anticipate the answer

When Shelly first had cable television service installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on channel 9. This memory problem represents

(A) memory decay

(B) retrograde amnesia

(C) reconstruction errors

(D) retroactive interference

(E) proactive interference

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)

tips for multiple choice questions5
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Completely read each question and every answer

Always read each question completely. Continue reading even if you find your anticipated answer among the options. There may be a more complete option farther down the list.

tips for multiple choice questions6
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Completely read each question and every answer

Which of the following is evidence of the reliability of a new intelligence test?

(A) A correlation of +0.90 exists between scores on the new test and scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

(B) The test predicts students’ ability to succeed in college.

(C) The correlation between scores for identical twins taking the test is +0.90.

(D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained from a diverse sample of several thousand participants.

(E) The correlation between scores of participants who take two forms of the test is +0.90.

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #70)

tips for multiple choice questions7
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Completely read each question and every answer

Which of the following is evidence of the reliability of a new intelligence test?

(A) A correlation of +0.90 exists between scores on the new test and scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

(B) The test predicts students’ ability to succeed in college.

(C) The correlation between scores for identical twins taking the test is +0.90.

(D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained from a diverse sample of several thousand participants.

(E) The correlation between scores of participants who take two forms of the test is +0.90.

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #70)

tips for multiple choice questions8
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Re-phrase complicated questions

If the question is too complex try to re-phrase it into a form you can understand.

“In their deliberations and discussions regarding the process of developmental maturation, the advocates of the importance of nurture in the nature/nurture controversy emphasize which of the following concepts?”

Which of the following do those who believe in nurture believe?

tips for multiple choice questions9
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Stick to the subject matter

Watch for answers that have nothing to do with the subject matter of the course or have nothing to do with the subject matter of the particular unit the question is testing.

tips for multiple choice questions10
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Stick to the subject matter

Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to psychology was in the area of

(A) intelligence testing

(B) visual perception

(C) psychopathology

(D) comparative psychology

(E) classical conditioning

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #34)

tips for multiple choice questions11
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Stick to the subject matter

Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to psychology was in the area of

(A) intelligence testing

(B) visual perception

(C) psychopathology

(D) comparative psychology

(E) classical conditioning

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #34)

tips for multiple choice questions12
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Watch for help

Look for answers or help within other questions of the test.

tips for multiple choice questions13
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Watch for help

Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth?

(A) Social learning theory

(B) Psychoanalytic

(C) Behavioral

(D) Humanistic

(E) Psychodynamic

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #05)

tips for multiple choice questions14
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Watch for help

Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth?

(A) Social learning theory

(B) Psychoanalytic

(C) Behavioral

(D) Humanistic

(E) Psychodynamic

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #05)

tips for multiple choice questions15
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Watch for help

The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that

(A) most behavior can be explained by operant conditioning principles

(B) all humans have peak experiences

(C) all humans are by nature good

(D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and suffering

(E) self-actualization can happen only through therapy

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #49)

tips for multiple choice questions16
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Watch for help

The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that

(A) most behavior can be explained by operant conditioning principles

(B) all humans have peak experiences

(C) all humans are by nature good

(D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and suffering

(E) self-actualization can happen only through therapy

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #49)

tips for multiple choice questions17
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Use “all of the above” to your advantage

On items that have "all of the above" as an option, if you know that just two of the options are correct, you should choose "all of the above."

If you are confident that one of the options is incorrect, you should eliminate this option and "all of the above" and choose from the remaining options.

AP Psychology exam has not had any “all of the above” or “none of the above” questions

tips for multiple choice questions18
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Use qualifiers and 100% words

Qualifiers: often, sometimes, perhaps, may, generally, some, seldom, usually, ordinarily, etc.

Options that use qualifiers tend to be correct.

100% words: never, none, no, every, always, all, only, entirely, necessarily, completely, totally, etc.

Options that represent broad, sweeping generalizations tend to be incorrect.

tips for multiple choice questions19
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Use flaws within the test to your advantage

Many writers of test questions make mistakes that you can use to help determine the correct answer.

common flaws in multiple choice items
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #1
  • The incorrect options are highly implausible

The part of the brain responsible for higher order thinking is the:

A. cerebrum

B. pupil

C. repression

D. pituitary gland

E. mania

common flaws in multiple choice items1
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #1
  • The incorrect options are highly implausible

The part of the brain responsible for higher order thinking is the:

A. cerebrum

B. pupil

C. repression

D. pituitary gland

E. mania

common flaws in multiple choice items2
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #2
  • Equivalence and/or contradictions among options allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.

Which of the following is a anxiety disorder?

A. manic depression

B. bipolar disorder

C. phobia

D. dissociative amnesia

E. psychogenic amnesia

common flaws in multiple choice items3
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #2
  • Equivalence and/or contradictions among options allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.

Which of the following is a anxiety disorder?

A. manic depression

B. bipolar disorder

C. phobia

D. dissociative amnesia

E. psychogenic amnesia

common flaws in multiple choice items4
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #3
  • Content information in other items provides the answer.
  • Flaw #4
  • The correct option is more detailed and/or more specific than all the other options.
  • Flaw #5
  • The correct option is longer than all the other options.
common flaws in multiple choice items5
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #6
  • There is grammatical inconsistency between the stem and the incorrect options but not the correct option.
  • Flaw #7
  • The incorrect options include certain key words that tend to appear in false statements (i.e. always, must, never, and so on).
common flaws in multiple choice items6
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #8
  • There is a resemblance between the stem and correct option but not the incorrect options.

Skinner and the other behaviorists would promote which of the following therapies?

A. psychoanalysis

B. humanistic therapy

C. behavioral therapy

D. Gestalt therapy

E. cognitive therapy

common flaws in multiple choice items7
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw #8
  • There is a resemblance between the stem and correct option but not the incorrect options.

Skinner and the other behaviorists would promote which of the following therapies?

A. psychoanalysis

B. humanistic therapy

C. behavioral therapy

D. Gestalt therapy

E. cognitive therapy

common flaws in multiple choice items8
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items

Flaw #1 - The incorrect options are highly implausible

Flaw #2 - Equivalence and/or contradictions among options allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.

Flaw #3 - Content information in other items provides the answer.

Flaw #4 - The correct option is more detailed and/or more specific than all the other options.

Flaw #5 - The correct option is longer than all the other options.

Flaw #6 - There is grammatical inconsistency between the stem and the incorrect options but not the correct option.

Flaw #7 - The incorrect options include certain key words that tend to appear in false statements (i.e. always, must, never, and so on).

Flaw #8 - There is a resemblance between the stem and correct option but not the incorrect options.

tips for multiple choice questions20
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

Learn how to quickly eliminate options that are high implausible. Many questions have only two plausible options, accompanied by "throwaway" options for filler. You should work at spotting these implausible options so that you can quickly discard them and narrow your task.

tips for multiple choice questions21
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

According to Benjamin Whorf’s linguistic relatively hypothesis, which of the following is true?

(A) Individuals have a natural predisposition to walk in the first two years of life.

(B) Individuals learn positive instances of reinforcement faster than they learn negative instances.

(C) Children learn “object permanence” much sooner than Piaget proposed in his cognitive theory.

(D) Different languages predispose those individuals who speak them to think about the world in different ways.

(E) Children learn quantifying behaviors through their interactions with adults before learning qualifying behaviors.

tips for multiple choice questions22
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

According to Benjamin Whorf’s linguistic relatively hypothesis, which of the following is true?

(A) Individuals have a natural predisposition to walk in the first two years of life.

(B) Individuals learn positive instances of reinforcement faster than they learn negative instances.

(C) Children learn “object permanence” much sooner than Piaget proposed in his cognitive theory.

(D) Different languages predispose those individuals who speak them to think about the world in different ways.

(E)Children learn quantifying behaviors through their interactions with adults before learning qualifying behaviors.

tips for multiple choice questions23
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

Which of the following is an example of a metacognition?

(A) Explaining the significance of the client’s dreams to their disorder.

(B) Protecting the terminal buttons of the neuron from destruction by enzymes in the spinal cord.

(C) Viewing personality disorders as adjustments to the environment.

(D) Understanding the role of various parts of the brain in motor coordination.

(E) Knowing the effectiveness of different strategies for learning statistical formulas.

tips for multiple choice questions24
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

Which of the following is an example of a metacognition?

(A) Explaining the significance of the client’s dreams to their disorder.

(B) Protecting the terminal buttons of the neuron from destruction by enzymes in the spinal cord.

(C) Viewing personality disorders as adjustments to the environment.

(D) Understanding the role of various parts of the brain in motor coordination.

(E) Knowing the effectiveness of different strategies for learning statistical formulas.

tips for multiple choice questions25
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

A college student experiences a lost of sensation in her right arm before exams. Doctors can find no physiological basis for her condition. This student is most likely experiencing which of the following kinds of disorders?

(A) Somatoform

(B) Dissociative

(C) Anxiety

(D) Mood

(E) Personality

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #64)

tips for multiple choice questions26
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions

Eliminate implausible answers

A college student experiences a lost of sensation in her right arm before exams. Doctors can find no physiological basis for her condition. This student is most likely experiencing which of the following kinds of disorders?

(A) Somatoform

(B) Dissociative

(C) Anxiety

(D) Mood

(E) Personality

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 #64)

free response section
Free Response Section

Test Structure

  • 2 Free Response (Essay) Questions
  • Required to do both
free response section1
Free Response Section

Time Structure

  • 50 minutes to complete both essays
  • Can break up your time on the essays any way you want
  • Watch your time. Don’t get caught short on essay #2
free response section2
Free Response Section

Scoring

  • Essays are 1/3 of the overall score
  • Each essay 1/6 of the overall score
  • Each essay will have a specific number of points (6-12)
  • Points are then mathematically changed to equal 25 for a perfect essay
general tips for test taking20
General Tips for Test Taking

Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and 8 point question)

(3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____

Question 1 Question 2 Free Response

(Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score

Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth.

15

18.75

6

33.75

6

general tips for test taking21
General Tips for Test Taking

Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and 8 point question)

(4.1667 X _______) + (2.083 X ________ ) = _____

Question 1 Question 2 Free Response

(Out of 6) (Out of 12) Score

Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth.

12.5

25

6

37.5

6

free response section3
Free Response Section

Style of the Questions

  • One essay tends to be unit based
  • One essay tends to go across units
  • Questions tend to be relatively specific
  • Application questions with listing of terms
free response question 2009 11
Free Response Question 2009 #1

1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an example of how each of the following could affect their performance. Definitions without application do not score.

• Extrinsic motivation

• Punishment

• Proactive interference

• Endorphins

• Vestibular system

• Divergent thinking

• Introversion

7 points

free response question 2009 21
Free Response Question 2009 #2

2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to prepare students for a written test and a road test.

(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not score.

• Cognitive map

• Cerebellum

• Observational learning

• Human factors

(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the written test. Definitions without application do not score.

• Reticular formation

• Predictive validity

• Semantic memory

7 points

free response question 2008 1
Free Response Question 2008 #1

1 The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first baby. Both parents-to-be have had a psychology course and are looking forward to applying the principles they learned from theories and research that address child development.

A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each of the following four researchers.

• Skinner’s operant conditioning

• Bandura’s social learning theory

• Ainsworth’s attachment research

• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles

B. Provide a specific example of actions the Smith-Garcias might take to raise their child to produce positive outcomes using each of the theories below to address the corresponding psychological concept.

• Skinner’s operant conditioning: tantrum management

• Bandura’s social learning theory: sharing behavior

• Ainsworth’s attachment research: self-reliance

• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles: self-esteem

8 points

free response question 2008 2
Free Response Question 2008 #2

Abstract

2. We conducted a variation of Ash’s (1951) conformity study in which participants made judgements about the length of lines. We randomly assigned participants to one of two conditions and told them that the study involved perceptual abilities. In the first condition, participants estimated the length of lines after hearing five people pretending to be participants (confederates) give inaccurate estimates. In the second condition, participants estimated the length of lines without hearing estimates of confederates. As we expected, participants in the first condition were less accurate in their estimates in line length, demonstrating the tendency to conform to majority influence.

A. How would each element below be related to the specific content of the experiment reported in the abstract?

• Control group

• Deception

• Operational definition of the dependent variable

• Hypothesis

• Debriefing

B. How might participants’ estimates on line length in the study be related to the following?

• Cognitive dissonance

• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

7 points

free response question 2007 1
Free Response Question 2007 #1

1. Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School, is determined to make friends. When she attends the first psychology club meeting she finds herself in the room with twenty strangers who seem to know each other well. She plans to attend a few more meetings before deciding whether she will join.

A. Demonstrate how each of the following could HELP play a role in Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different example for each concept. Definitions will not score.

• The mere-exposure effect

• Mnemonic device

• Schachter two-factor theory

• Locus of control

B. Demonstrate how each of the following could HINDER Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different example for each concept. Definitions will not score.

• In-group bias

• Regression

• Operant conditioning

• Circadian rhythm.

8 points

free response question 2007 2
Free Response Question 2007 #2

2. Often misunderstood, schizophrenia is a psychological disorder affecting one percent of the population. In addition, to treating the disorder, psychologists work to identify its nature and origins.

• Identify two characteristics symptoms used to diagnose schizophrenia.

• Discuss a research finding that supports a genetic basis for schizophrenia.

• What is the dopamine hypothesis regarding the origins of schizophrenia?

• Describe how medications used to treat schizophrenia affect the actions of neurotransmitters at the synapses.

• Identify a risk inherent in using medications in the treatment of schizophrenia.

• People sometimes confuse schizophrenia with dissociative identify disorder (DID). Identify two key characteristics that differentiate DID from schizophrenia.

8 points

free response section4
Free Response Section

Scoring

  • Points are given for correct responses
  • Points are not removed unless you contradict yourself
  • Points for not removed for Handwriting/Spelling/Grammar
free response section5
Free Response Section
  • Helpful Hints – Before Writing
    • Read both essays
    • Think through your answer before you start writing
    • Try to determine the point values for the question
    • Write an outline/notes on the essay question sheet
    • If you are not sure take a logical guess.
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Free Response Section
  • Writing the Essays
  • Format of the Answer
    • Write your answers in essay form.
    • DO NOT outline, write bullets, etc.
    • Follow the format of the the question.
    • Use paragraphs to separate the different sections
    • Underline key points and concepts
    • Define and give examples
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Free Response Section
  • Writing the Essays
  • Do not worry if you cannot answer all of the question
  • Try to avoid compound or complex sentences. Style does not get you points
  • Avoid circular definitions
  • Be complete but to the point
  • DO NOT restate the question.
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Free Response Section
  • Writing the Essays
  • Introductions and conclusions are NOT needed.
  • DO NOT concept bomb the answer
  • Answer the question Don’t try to be cute
  • Define any concepts in the question
free response question 1992 1
Free Response Question 1992 #1

1. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are different learning methods.

Their differences lie in

A. the extent to which reinforcement depends on the behavior of the learner;

B. the type of behavior to which each method applies.

Their similarities are that they both produce the following basic phenomena.

A. Acquisition

B. Extinction

C. Spontaneous recovery

D. Generalization

E. Discrimination

Describe these differences and similarities, giving examples to illustrate your answer.

free response question 1992 2
Free Response Question 1992 #2

2. Briefly discuss the cause(s) and treatment(s) of depression from the perspective of each of the following psychological approaches.

A. Psychodynamic/psychoanalytical

B. Biological/medical

C. Cognitive

free response question 1993 1
Free Response Question 1993 #1

1. Design and describe an experiment to measure the relationship between rehearsal/repetition of a list of words and later recall of that same list of words. In your answer you should formulate a hypothesis and include a description of each of the following.

A. Population

B. Subject selection

C. Independent variable

D. Dependent variable

E. Experimental group

F. Control group

G. Potential confounding variables

H. A method of reducing experimenter bias

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Free Response Question 1993 #2

2. Describe the therapeutic procedure called systematic desensitization. Select a specific disorder for which this therapy is effective and explain how the basic phenomena listed below play a part in successful treatment.

A. Anxiety hierarchy

B. Relaxation

C. Generalization

D. Extinction

free response question 1994 1
Free Response Question 1994 #1

1. Design an experiment to determine whether a new drug that is supposed to reduce hyperactivity in children actually does. Your essay should include an identification and description of all of the components of your experimental design, including sampling, independent and dependent variable, controls, and the method that you would employ to evaluate the outcome.

free response question 1994 2
Free Response Question 1994 #2

2. One of the most useful generalizations in psychology is that “behavior is adaptive.” Explain this generalization and then identify each of the following and describe how each could be adaptive.

A. Repression

B. Conformity

C. Imprinting

D. Displaced aggression

E. Lost of information from short-term memory

free response question 1995 1
Free Response Question 1995 #1

1. Compare and contrast the experimental method and the survey method in terms of their suitability for investigating the hypothesis that frustration leads to aggressive behavior.

In comparing and contrasting the two methods, be sure to identify and discuss each of the following.

A. Independent variable

B. Dependent variable

C. Control

D. Experimenter and response bias

E. Ethical issues

free response question 1995 2
Free Response Question 1995 #2

2. Define each of the following concepts and explain how each contributes to the phenomena of prejudice.

A. Stereotyping

B. Self-fulfilling prophecy

C. Fundamental attribution error

D. Projection

E. Schema

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Free Response Question 1996 #1

1. Discuss how social and biological factors have an impact on each of the following in the individual.

A. Body weight

B. Perception

C. Alcoholism

D. Extraversion

E. Schizophrenia

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Free Response Question 1996 #2

2. Professor Jackson believes that frustration increases the need for achievement. She decides to test her hypothesis with her introductory psychology class of about 100 students. The first 50 students who arrive for class one day are taken to a separate room and given a series of easy puzzles to complete. Professor Jackson then asks each student about his or her professional goals. She rates the statement of each on a 7-point scale for strength of achievement motivation.

When they arrive, the remaining students are taken to another room and given a series of difficult puzzles by Professor Jackson’s teaching assistant, Jim. Jim also asks each student about his or her professional goals and, like Professor Jackson, then rates the statement of each on a 7-point scale.

The group given the difficult puzzles has, on the average, higher achievement motivation scores than the group given the easy puzzles. Professor Jackson concludes that her hypothesis is supported.

Show how each of the following aspects of Professor Jackson’s experimental design is flawed. Indicate how you would correct each problem.

A. Sampling

B. Assignment of participants

C. Dependent variable

D. Control for experimenter bias

E. Control of confounding variables (You need cite only one.)

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Free Response Question 1997 #1

1. Many people are concerned about the effects of the use of physical punishment to modify the undesirable behavior of children.

A. Basing your answer on psychological knowledge, apply each of the following in an argument against the use of physical punishment.

  • Modeling
  • Classical conditioning of fear
  • Displacement

B. How would psychologists use the following processes to modify children’s undesirable behavior?

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Extinction
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Free Response Question 1997 #2

2. Although personality is generally consistent throughout the life span, some people exhibit personality changes.

A. How do each of the following help to explain BOTH continuity and change in personality?

  • Biological factors
  • Learning factors
  • Situational factors
  • Cognitive factors

B. How would any TWO of the above interact to produce changed in the trait of shyness?

free response question 1998 1
Free Response Question 1998 #1

1. Read the following abstract of a student research project on bystander intervention and then answer the questions that follow.

The ten participants in the study were unaware of its purpose. The first five who signed up to be tested were assigned to the Alone condition and the next five were assigned to the With Others condition. The Alone condition was run in the morning and the With Others condition in the afternoon.

In the Alone condition, each of the five participants was asked to wait alone in a room. While the participant waited, a female voice in the next room screamed out, asking for help. In the With Others condition, each one of the five participants was asked to wait in a room with several confederates of the researcher. During this waiting period, a male voice in the next room screamed out, asking for help.

In each condition, the percentage of participants who responded to the cry for help was recorded.

A. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this study.

B. Identify four flaws in the design of this study and the recommendations you would make to correct these flaws.

C. Discuss the ethical issue raised by the design of this study.

D. Use you knowledge of research in social psychology to describe the likely results of this study if correct methodology had been used.

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Free Response Question 1998 #2

2. A. Describe fully the distinctive emphasis of the cognitive approach to human behavior and mental processes. In your essay, by sure to specify how the cognitive approach differs from the following psychological approaches.

  • Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral
  • Biological

B. Give an example of the contribution of cognitive theory to the understanding of each of the following.

  • Memory
  • Depression
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Free Response Question 1999 #1

1. A. Describe the role of each of the following mechanisms in determining an individual’s eating habits and body weight.

  • Biological Mechanisms Learning Mechanisms
  • Body or brain chemistry Reinforcement
  • Brain structure Modeling
  • Genetics Cultural factors

B. Select one biological and one learning mechanism and discuss the implications of each for weight management.

free response question 1999 2
Free Response Question 1999 #2

2. In a study, researchers use a photograph taken in a public park to examine how people perceive, learn, and remember information. In the photograph, a woman is standing near a man who is seated on a park bench. The woman appears to be shouting at the man.

Participants in the study are exposed to the photograph for ten seconds and then are shown, each for ten second, several other photographs of people interacting. When all the photographs have been shown, the participants are asked about what they saw in the “public park” photograph. A significant number of participants describe the man as being the aggressor in an apparent disagreement with the woman.

Describe how each of the following concepts helps explain the perception of these participants. Be sure to begin by defining each concept in psychological terms.

  • schema
  • retroactive interference
  • representativeness heuristic
  • confirmation bias
  • framing
free response question 2000 1
Free Response Question 2000 #1

1. Your high school is proposing moving to a system in which grades are not longer given or used to evaluate student progress.

Define each of the following concepts and state how each might either positively or negatively change student behavior under such a system.

a. Extrinsic motivation

b. Arousal theory (Yerkes-Dodson Law)

c. Learned Helplessness

d. Self-fulfilling prophecy

free response question 2000 2
Free Response Question 2000 #2

2. The police chief of New City states publicly that she sees a direct relationship between teenage arrests in New City for violent crimes and the popularity among New City teens of especially violent television shows.

A. Design a correlational study to research this claimed relationship, being sure to address how each of the following design elements would apply to your study.

- operational definition of variables

- selection of participants

- generalizability

- two ethical considerations

B. The police chief concludes that watching violent television shows leads to teens’ committing violent crimes in New City. Do you support her conclusion? Explain your response.

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Free Response Question 2001 #1

1. Discuss the cause of anxiety from each of the following perspectives.

• Behavioral

• Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic

• Biological

• Cognitive

b. Discuss a specific treatment technique for reducing anxiety used by professionals representing each of the four perspectives.

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Free Response Question 2001 #2

2. Describe the psychological concept of expectancy or set. Discuss a specific example of how expectancy or set affects each of the following.

• Human perception

• The effects of a psychoactive drug on a human

• A student’s performance in the classroom

• Human problem solving

• Memory

free response question 2002 1
Free Response Question 2002 #1

1. The human organism displays various reactions that are characterized by opposing tendencies. Use a specific physiological or psychological mechanism to explain how both aspects of opposing processes apply to EACH of the follow.

• Appetite

• Autonomic nervous system

• Color vision

• Drug use

• Nerve firing

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Free Response Question 2002 #2

2. Five-year-old Jessie went to a fire station with her kindergarten class. When she got home, Jessie, who is in the preoperational stage of cognitive development, eagerly told the story of her adventure to her older brother. Describe how the following factors might have influenced the story she told. Be sure to define an appropriate example of EACH factor.

• Egocentrism

• Observational learning

• Overregularization or overgeneralization of language

• Reconstructive memory

• Schema

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Free Response Question 2003 #1

1. A. Statistics are often used to describe and interpret the results of intelligence testing.

• Describe three measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode).

• Describe a skewed distribution

• Relate the three measures of central tendency to a normal distribution.

• Relate the three measures of central tendency to a positively skewed distribution.

• An intelligence test for which the scores are normally distributed has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Use this information to describe how the scores are distributed.

• In two normal distributions, the means are 100 for group I and 115 for group II. Can an individual in group I have a higher score than the mean score for group II? Explain.

B. Apply knowledge of psychological research in answering the following questions about intelligence scores.

• Explain why norms for standardized intelligence tests are periodically updated.

• Describe how to determine whether an intelligence test is biased.

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Free Response Question 2003 #2

2. A. Define the following psychological concepts.

• Cognitive dissonance

• Conformity

• Incentive motivation

• Negative reinforcement

• Physiological addiction

B. Use one specific example for each of the concepts in part A to explain how the concept might relate to either the development of or the continuation of a smoking habit. It is not necessary to use the same example for each concept.

free response question 2004 1
Free Response Question 2004 #1

1. Dr. Franklin investigated the relationship between stress and physical illness. She persuaded a high school principal to require all female athletes in the school to participate in her study. She explained the purpose of her research to the athletes and asked them to use a standard form to rate the severity of their stress over the last six months. More than 250 athletes completed the form. Then Dr. Franklin analyzed the forms returned by the first 100 athletes. She requested the attendance records from the nurse’s office for each of those athletes to verify the number of days absent due to illness during the same six-month period. In the debriefing summary that Dr. Franklin sent to the 100 athletes after she completed the study, she stated that athletes who reported more stress also experienced more frequent illness. Dr. Franklin concluded that stress causes physical illness.

• Identify the research method used by Dr. Franklin.

• Describe the operational definitions of the TWO key variables that Dr. Franklin used in the study.

• Based on the information provided, describe ONE appropriate and ONE inappropriate ethical feature of the study.

• Identify ONE statistical technique that Dr. Franklin could use to represent the relationship between the variables in the study

• Describe TWO aspects of research design that weakened the validity of Dr. Franklin’s conclusion that stress causes physical illness.

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Free Response Question 2004 #2

2. Time is an important variable in many psychological concepts. Describe a specific example that clearly demonstrates an understanding of each of the following concepts and how it relates to or is affected by time. Use a different example for each concept.

• Critical period

• Fluid intelligence

• Group polarization

• James-Lange theory of emotion

• Presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in classical conditioning

• Refractory period in neural firing

• Sound localization

• Spontaneous recovery

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Free Response Question 2005 #1

1. Describe a specific example that clearly demonstrates an understanding of how each of the following concepts can lead to an inaccurate perception, cognition, or conclusion. Each example must include an explanation of the relationship between the concept and the inaccuracy.

• Afterimage effect

• Availability heuristic

• Ethnocentrism

• Groupthink

• Lack of object permanence

• Nonrandom assignment of research participants

• Optimistic explanatory style

• Proactive interference

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Free Response Question 2005 #2

2. Psychologists conduct research to investigate controversial issues. Consider the following:

• The value of diagnostic labeling

• Children’s acquisition of language

• Explanations of hypnosis

A. Describe the opposing points of view on each side of the psychological issues listed above. Your description must provide one argument on each side of the controversy.

B. For each issue, choose one point of view to support Using evidence from psychological research, justify why you think this point of view is correct.

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Free Response Question 2006 #1

1. Psychologists use a variety of research methods to study behavior. Three of the main research methods used are:

• Case study

• Correlational study, and

• Experiment.

A. Discuss one advantage of each research method listed above.

B. Discuss one disadvantage of each research method listed above.

Pretend you are a psychologist who will use each of the three research methods - case study, correlational study, and experiment - to determine the effect of taking vitamin J and improving memory.

C. For each method listed above, explain a key characteristic of the basic approach you could use to reach a scientific conclusion about the relationship between taking vitamin J and improving memory. You need not design a complete study.

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Free Response Question 2006 #2

2. Zoey wants to buy a new car but is having difficulty deciding what kind of car to buy. She is feeling anxious and wants to make a decision soon. Zoey visits several local car dealers and asks for the advice of some of her friends. Explain how each of the following could influence her decision. Be sure to discuss each concept in the context of Zoey’s decision.

• Approach-avoidance conflict

• Central route to persuasion

• Heuristics

• Individualism

• Rationalization

• Self-efficacy

• The autonomic nervous system

• The foot-in-the-door phenomenon

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Free Response Question 2007 #1

1. Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School, is determined to make friends. When she attends the first psychology club meeting she finds herself in the room with twenty strangers who seem to know each other well. She plans to attend a few more meetings before deciding whether she will join.

A. Demonstrate how each of the following could HELP play a role in Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different example for each concept. Definitions will not score.

• The mere-exposure effect

• Mnemonic device

• Schachter two-factor theory

• Locus of control

B. Demonstrate how each of the following could HINDER Ellie’s quest for friendship. You may use a different example for each concept. Definitions will not score.

• In-group bias

• Regression

• Operant conditioning

• Circadian rhythm.

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Free Response Question 2007 #2

2. Often misunderstood, schizophrenia is a psychological disorder affecting one percent of the population. In addition, to treating the disorder, psychologists work to identify its nature and origins.

• Identify two characteristics symptoms used to diagnose schizophrenia.

• Discuss a research finding that supports a genetic basis for schizophrenia.

• What is the dopamine hypothesis regarding the origins of schizophrenia?

• Describe how medications used to treat schizophrenia affect the actions of neurotransmitters at the synapses.

• Identify a risk inherent in using medications in the treatment of schizophrenia.

• People sometimes confuse schizophrenia with dissociative identify disorder (DID). Identify two key characteristics that differentiate DID from schizophrenia.

free response question 2008 11
Free Response Question 2008 #1

1 The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first baby. Both parents-to-be have had a psychology course and are looking forward to applying the principles they learned from theories and research that address child development.

A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each of the following four researchers.

• Skinner’s operant conditioning

• Bandura’s social learning theory

• Ainsworth’s attachment research

• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles

B. Provide a specific example of actions the Smith-Garcias might take to raise their child to produce positive outcomes using each of the theories below to address the corresponding psychological concept.

• Skinner’s operant conditioning: tantrum management

• Bandura’s social learning theory: sharing behavior

• Ainsworth’s attachment research: self-reliance

• Baumrind’s research on parenting styles: self-esteem

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Free Response Question 2008 #2

Abstract

2. We conducted a variation of Ash’s (1951) conformity study in which participants made judgements about the length of lines. We randomly assigned participants to one of two conditions and told them that the study involved perceptual abilities. In the first condition, participants estimated the length of lines after hearing five people pretending to be participants (confederates) give inaccurate estimates. In the second condition, participants estimated the length of lines without hearing estimates of confederates. As we expected, participants in the first condition were less accurate in their estimates in line length, demonstrating the tendency to conform to majority influence.

A. How would each element below be related to the specific content of the experiment reported in the abstract?

• Control group

• Deception

• Operational definition of the dependent variable

• Hypothesis

• Debriefing

B. How might participants’ estimates on line length in the study be related to the following?

• Cognitive dissonance

• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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Free Response Question 2009 #1

1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an example of how each of the following could affect their performance. Definitions without application do not score.

• Extrinsic motivation

• Punishment

• Proactive interference

• Endorphins

• Vestibular system

• Divergent thinking

• Introversion

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Free Response Question 2009 #2

2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to prepare students for a written test and a road test.

(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not score.

• Cognitive map

• Cerebellum

• Observational learning

• Human factors

(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the written test. Definitions without application do not score.

• Reticular formation

• Predictive validity

• Semantic memory

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