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MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL. The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology. One hundred fourteenth. 2 nd grade Park Eun Sil. MPL I June 19 Saturday , 2004 I no. 114 I 1-.

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MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL

The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology

One hundred fourteenth

2nd grade

Park Eun Sil

MPL I June 19 Saturday, 2004 I no. 114 I 1-


MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL

HERV-W env & syncytin

  • HERV elements were found to

  • - multiple sclerosis (Perron et al., 1997)

  • - schizophrenia (Karlsson et al., 2001)

  • - testis (Mi et al., 2000)

  • - placenta (Blond et al., 1999)

  • Intact HERV-W on chromosome 7q21,

  • 7q22 have 100% identity to SYNCYTIN gene

  • ERVWE1 was shown to be the unique

  • copy of the whole family having retained

  • a complete env ORF

One hundred fourteenth

MPL I June 19 Saturday, 2004 I no. 114 I 2

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Analysis of PCR from human-rodent monochromosomal cell lines

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10kb

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Global sequencing strategy of the ERVWE1 locus

Few polymorphic

4 Full-length provirus : ~0.05%

48 partial sequence : from 0.005% to 0.2% for

the 5 LTRs and the 3 LTRs, respectively,

0.04% for the env ORF

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Analysis of the ERVWE1 LTRs in the human population(1)

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MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL

Analysis of the ERVWE1 LTRs in the human population(2)

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Env Polymorphic Variants Are Functionally Preserved

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5 mutation - 1 synonymous (VRSS)

4 nonsynonymous

(VRnS, VqnS, aRSS, VqSf)

MPL I June 19 Saturday, 2004 I no. 114 I 8

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Formation of syncytia by ERVWE1 envelopes

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Comparison of the main features of the human ERVWE1 locus

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Analysis of the ERVWE1 LTRs in hominoids

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Ks/Ks = 0.8

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Alignments of the

env translated region

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Receptor-mediated fusion analysis

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Discussion

Age –1. Retrotransposed at 15~20myr

2. fixed in the hominoid, degenerated in the OWM

ERVWE1 locus has tissue specificity

5 HERVWE1 LTR was the most active promoter in BeWo cells.

This recently acquired gene has become a bona fide gene.

Because the majority of the Eutherians do not contain the young ERVWE1 locus, it will be challenging to ascertain whether this retroviral acquisition represents an additional

adaptive or substitutive mechanism for placental morphogenesis

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Evidence of selection on the domesticated ervwe1 env retroviral element involved in plascentation

MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL

Evidence of selection on the domesticated ERVWE1 env retroviral element involved in plascentation

Research Article

Bertrand Bonnaud*, Olivier Bouton*, Guy Oriol*, Valerie Cheynet*, Laurent Duret+ and Francois Mallet*

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Alignment of orthologous and paralogous env sequences

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Alignment of orthologous and paralogous env sequences

LQMV

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Formation of syncytia by ervwe1 envelopes

MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL MPL

Formation of syncytia by ERVWE1 envelopes

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The sum of kimura distances

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The sum of kimura distances

0.079

0.089

0.050

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Local comparison of indel rate

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Local comparison of indelrate

None of these indels occurred within the env ORF

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Phylogenetic analysis of the ka ks ratio

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Phylogenetic analysis of the Ka/Ks ratio

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Analysis of the ka ks ratio along the env gene

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Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratio along the env gene

1.2 = positive selection

0.56 = purifying selection

ERVWE1 env has been subject to the action of natural selection

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0.8 = neutral evolution

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