Control Flow Statements

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Control Flow Statements. Java programs accomplish their tasks by manipulating program data using operators and making decisions by testing the state of program data. When a program makes a decision, it is determining, based on the state of the program data, whether certain lines of code should be ex

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Control Flow Statements

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1. Control Flow Statements The first step The first step in learning to use a new programming language is usually to learn the foundation concepts such as variables, types, expressions, flow-of-control, etc.

2. Control Flow Statements Java programs accomplish their tasks by manipulating program data using operators and making decisions by testing the state of program data. When a program makes a decision, it is determining, based on the state of the program data, whether certain lines of code should be executed. For example, a program may examine a variable called hasChanged to determine if it should execute a block of code that saves data to disk. If hasChanged is true, the data saving code is executed. If hasChanged is false, the data saving code is not executed.

3. Control Flow Statements At a simplistic level, a program executes statements sequentially in the order in which they appear. It starts with the first line of the "main()" method and ends with the last line, always moving from top to bottom. Most useful programs are vastly more complex than a simple linear sequence. Real programs contain numerous code blocks that must be executed only if certain conditions are present. Other code blocks must be executed repeatedly until certain conditions are met. A hypothetical example: A program loops through an array of employee models and increases the value stored in the salary variable by 10% for each employee that has a hire date of one year ago. (I said it was hypothetical)

4. Control flow statements Control flow statements are the tools programmers use to make decisions about which statements to execute and to otherwise change the flow of execution in a program. The four categories of control flow statements available in Java are selection, loop, exception, and branch.

5. Control Flow Statements

6. The first step The first step in learning to use a new programming language is usually to learn the foundation concepts such as variables, types, expressions, flow-of-control, etc

7. Flow of Control What is flow of control? Java support several different kinds of statements designed to alter or control the logical flow of the program, although in some cases, the behavior of those statements differs between Java and C++. The ability to alter the logical flow of the program is often referred to as Flow of Control.

8. Statements that support flow of control Statement Type if-else selection switch-case selection for loop while loop do-while loop try-catch-finally exception handling throw exception handling break miscellaneous continue miscellaneous label: miscellaneous return miscellaneous goto reserved by Java but not supported

9. Selection and Loop Selection and loop statements require a conditional expression that evaluates to true or false. If the conditional expression is true, the accompanying block of code is executed. If the conditional expression is false, the accompanying block of code is bypassed.

10. Selection statements Selection statements will execute the code block only once. Loop statements repeatedly execute the code block, testing the conditional statement each time. Once the conditional statement evaluates to false, the loop exits and execution of the program continues to the next statement following the loop.

11. Exception Exception statements are used to gracefully handle unusual events or errors that arise while a program is running. For instance, if a program attempts to open a file but the file doesn't exist, this will cause an I/O error. Exception handling in Java is a two step process.

12. Exception First, an exceptional condition is detected during program execution by the JVM or application code. At this point a new exception object is created that describes the situation and is passed up up the call stack using the throw statement. . Each method in the call stack now has the option to handle it or let it continue to bubble up the call stack.

13. Branch Branch statements explicitly redirect the flow of program execution. The most infamous branch statement in the history of computing is goto. In Java, goto is an unimplemented keyword, so it cannot be used in Java programs. In other languages, goto is used to redirect program execution to another line of code in the program by specifying a line number or other type of label.

14. Branch In Java, break, continue, and label: fill the role of goto, but without many of goto's negatives. return is a branching statement that redirects execution out of the current method and back to the calling method. It also returns a value to the calling method. This value is either a primitive, object, or void. void is used to return execution without returning a value. Also, whatever the return value is, its type must match the return type listed in the method declaration.

15. Statements' general form statement_keyword (conditional_expression) { statements_to_execute}

16. Three parts to the general form Notice from previous slide The statement_keyword is the Java language keyword that defines what type of control is being exerted on the statements_to_execute code block. The conditional_expression defines the conditions that must be present for statements_to_execute to be executed.

17. statements' general form Notice statements_to_execute is wrapped in curly braces {} If statements_to_execute consists of a single statement only, the curly braces are optional. Most Java programmers consider it to be good coding style to always include the curly braces. Leaving out curly braces can cause subtle bugs because most Java programmers expect the curly braces out of habit.

18. Examples Here are some examples of control statements. We will cover all of these and more in the future. //Example 1 If (conditional_expression) { statements_to_execute }

19. Examples //Example 2 If (conditional_expression) { statements_to_execute } else { statements_to_execute }

20. Example Cont //Example 3 while(conditional_expression) { statements_to_execute } //Example 4 for(int i = 0; conditional_expression; i++) { statements_to_execute }

21. Operators Revisited As we saw in Java Control Flow Statements , making decisions in Java is accomplished by evaluating the state of program data using conditional operators such as ==, <, and >. if statements use the boolean value returned from these conditional expressions to determine whether the accompanying block of code should be executed. If the conditional expression returns true, the code block is executed. Otherwise, the code block is skipped.

22. The if statement if(conditional_expression) { statements_to_execute } This general form shows a simple if structure.

23. If statement Conít If the conditional_expression is true then statements_to_execute will be executed. The statements_to_execute are wrapped in curly braces {}. If statements_to_execute consists of a single statement only, the curly braces are optional. Java programmers consider it to be good coding style to always include the curly braces.

24. Lets look at some examples of if: //Example 1 if(a == b) { c++; } In example 1, the if tests the equality of a and b. If a and b are equal, c is incremented by 1. //Example 2 if((x <= y) && (y <= z)) { System.out.println("Of course:\n"); System.out.println("x is less than or equal to z");}

25. More Examples Example 2 evaluates a compound conditional expression. First it tests whether x is less than or equal to y. If this is true, then it tests if y is less than or equal to z. If that is also true, then it prints the two lines of output. //Example 3 if(true) { System.out.println("This line always executes"); } In example 3, instead of passing the if statement a conditional expression that returns a boolean value, we pass it the literal boolean value "true". The code block in this example will always be executed because true always evaluates to true.

26. Example 4 //Example 4 if(!(employee.isManager())) { System.out.println("Employee is not a manager."); } Example 4 introduces the not operator !. ! toggles a boolean value. In this example, if employee.isManager() returns true, the ! operator will toggle it to false and the if statement will not execute the code block. If employee.isManager() returns false, the ! operator will toggle it to true and the code block will execute

27. if-else What if you want to execute one block of code when an expression evaluates to true but execute a different block of code when the same expression evaluates to false? The if statement alone is not enough because it only controls a single block of code. There are two ways to accomplish this. The first way is to use two if statements with mutually exclusive conditional expressions. The second way is to use an if-else structure. else is always used in conjunction with, and following, an if statement. else is the Java keyword designed for those situations where you must run exactly one of two code blocks.

28. Lets look at some examples //Example 1 if(a == b) { c++; } If(a != b) { c--; }

29. Example Conít //Example 2 if(a == b) { c++; } else { c--; }

30. Explanations Example 1 uses two mutually exclusive if statements to simulate an if-else construct. In this example only one of the two if statements will be executed. This is less efficient that using an if-else to do the same thing. Example 2 is the if-else version of the previous example . You can see the if-else requires less code than two ifs and requires one less operation be performed. (The a != b is never explicitly tested.)

31. Lets look at some examples of if-else-if: //Example 1 if(color == BLUE)) { System.out.println("The color is blue."); } else if (color == GREEN) { System.out.println("The color is green."); }

32. if-else-if //Example 2 if(employee.isManager()) { System.out.println("Is a Manager"); } else if (employee.isVicePresident()) { System.out.println("Is a Vice-President"); } else { System.out.println("Is a Worker"); }

33. Explanations Example 1 shows a simple if-else-if. In this case if the color equals BLUE or GREEN, the respective code block is executed. If color equals any other value none of the code blocks will be executed. Example 2 uses the if-else-if structure with an ending else. In this example two different conditional expressions are tested and if neither is true, then the else statement's code block is executed

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