Territorial expansion and sectional crisis
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Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis. AP Review: 1840’s through the 1870’s. Manifest Destiny. What is “manifest destiny”? Texas Annexation California and the Oregon Territory President Polk and the War with Mexico Slavery and the Wilmot Proviso Expansion continues.

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Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis

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Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis

AP Review: 1840’s through the 1870’s

Manifest Destiny

  • What is “manifest destiny”?

  • Texas Annexation

  • California and the Oregon Territory

  • President Polk and the War with Mexico

  • Slavery and the Wilmot Proviso

  • Expansion continues . . .

American Culture in the mid-1800’s

  • National literature, art and architecture

  • Utopian experiments

  • Reform movements

    • Roles of women

    • Abolitionism

    • Temperance

    • Mental health

    • Education

The ‘50s: A Decade of Crisis

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act and the realignment of parties

    • Demise of the Whigs

    • Emergence of Republican Party

  • Dred Scott

The ‘50s: A Decade of Crisis

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858

  • John Brown and his raid

  • Election of 1860

  • The secession crisis

Causes of the Civil War

  • Continuing Sectional Struggles

  • Henry Clay’s great compromises

    • 1820 and 1850

  • The “Peculiar Institution”

    • Growing voice of the abolitionists

    • The Dred Scott decision

War Strategies and Assessments

  • United States (Union) Military Goals

    • Blockade southern ports

    • Control of Mississippi River down to New Orleans

    • Take Richmond - Confederate capital

War Strategies and Assessments

  • Union Strengths and Advantages

    • Population

    • Industrial Capacity

    • Wealth

    • Superior Transportation

    • Military Forces

War Strategies and Assessments

  • Confederate States Military Goals

    • Defend new nation

    • Enlist European Assistance

War Strategies and Assessments

  • Confederate Advantages

    • Emotional edge - fighting for a cause and defense of their homes

    • Defending is easier than invading

    • Better officers and soldiers

Significant Successes - East

  • Bull Run, July 1861 (Manassas) - Union defeated by “Stonewall” Jackson

    • McClellan appointed commander of Army of the Potomac

  • McClellan attacks Richmond, March and April 1862 - fails

  • Second Battle of Bull Run, August 1862 - Union supplies destroyed

  • Battle of Antietam, September 1862 - Bloodiest day of the Civil War

Significant Battles - East

  • Merrimack (Confederate) and the Monitor (Union)

    • March 1862


Significant Battles - East

  • Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863 - Confederates hoped for a victory on Northern soil, but due to supplies and casualties retreat

  • Sherman’s March to the Sea, 1864 - 1865 - ends in marching to Columbia and burns it to the ground

Significant Battles - West

  • Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, February 1862 - Union gunboats defeat Confederates

  • Battle of Shiloh, TN, April 1862 - Union defeat after 2 day battle

  • Battle of Vicksburg, MS, July 1863 - Grant lays seige to Vicksburg in a surround and starve strategy successfully

    • a turning point in the war as the Union re-took the Mississippi

The Gettysburg Address

  • November 1863

  • Ceremony to honor fallen Union soldiers

  • Edward Everett gives a 2 hour speech

  • President invited to give brief remarks - 2 minutes

  • Milestone in expanding liberty to all

Slavery comes to an end

  • Lincoln’s campaign concerns - hesitation

  • Confiscation Acts (1861 and 1862): gave the Union the power to confiscate enemy “property” and freed those slaves

  • Emancipation Proclamation (1862): by executive order freed all slaves in the states at war with the Union

  • Thirteenth Amendment (1865): amending the Constitution was necessary to negate phrases that legitimized slavery and to abolish slavery in all the states

Lee Surrenders at Appomatox

  • April 1865

  • Defeated Confederate troops surrounded by the Union at Appomatox Court House Lee and Grant meet to discuss terms

  • South takes horses and mules home, would not be punished as traitors if they agreed to follow the laws

  • North agreed to feed the remaining Confederate troops

Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War

  • Morrill Tariff Act, 1861- increased import fees

  • National Banking Act, 1863 - standardized currency backed by government bonds

    • investors also obliged to buy a percentage of bonds

Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War

  • Draft Law

    • 1863

    • allowed for substitutes

    • $300 exemption

    • New York riot in July protesting the new law

  • Suspension of Civil Liberties

    • Suspension of writ of habeas corpus

Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War

  • Greenback Policy

    • printing money to finance war

    • Income tax levied in 1861

  • Homestead Act

    • 1862

    • free land in west

Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War

  • Women in the War

    • Clara Barton - nursing, founded Red Cross

    • Dorothea Dix - Superintendent of Nurses,

    • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell - medical school graduate, U.S. Sanitary Comission

Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War

  • African Americans in the War

    • 180,000 served in the Union Army

    • 54th Massachusetts Regiment - Battle of Fort Wagner, Charleston

Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War

  • Election of 1864

  • Lincoln v. McClellan

    • Union Party - Republicans and War Democrats

    • Peace Democrats and Copperheads


  • A redefinition of social, economic and political relationships between the North and the South

  • An effort to repair the damage to the South and to restore the Southern states to the Union

2/3 southern shipping

9000 miles of railroads

1/3 of all livestock

100s of miles of roads

Value of southern property declined by 70%

buildings, factories, bridges, etc. destroyed.

The War Destroyed . . .

The Human Toll

  • North

    • 364,000 (38,000 African Americans

  • South

    • 260,000

    • 1/5 adult white men; 1 of 3 southern men were killed or wounded

Southern Hardships

  • Black Southerners

    • 4 million freed slaves, homeless, jobless and hungry

  • Plantation Owners

    • loss of $3mil. worth of slave labor

    • worthless Confederate currency

    • $100 mil. Worth of southern plantations and cotton seized through the Captured and Abandoned Property Act

  • Poor White Settlers

    • could not find work due to new competition

    • began migrating to the western frontiers


  • Lincoln’s Death

    • April 14, 1865


10% Plan - quick reunion

Radical Republicans demanded more strict measures in the Wade-Davis Bill

Lincoln and Congress blocked each other’s plans until Lincoln’s death


small farmer’s advocate with a hatred for plantation owners

restrictive policy excluding rich southerners from political participation

undermined his own policy by liberally pardoning southerners, even Confederate politicians

Lincoln v. Johnson

Congressional Reconstruction

  • While one of the goals of the war was to free slaves, once southern states met the Reconstruction plan requirements, they reverted back to their old ways

    • Black Codes - limited freedmen’s rights

      • curfews, vagrancy laws, labor contracts, land restrictions

Congressional Reconstruction

  • 14th Amendment 1866

    • first cornerstone of Congressional Reconstruction

    • gave citizenship and due process of law to all persons born in the U.S.

    • 3/5 clause abolished. States may exclude blacks from voting, but their representation may be decreased if they do so

    • Confederate officeholders barred from political office

14th Amendment

  • Reactions

    • President Johnson and the Democrats denounced the amendment and lobbied against

    • Republicans realized that their leadership could achieve meaningful change

    • Some northerners supported harsh sanctions against the former Confederacy

Reconstruction Act, 1867

  • High point of Congressional Reconstruction

  • dissolved Southern state governments and placed them under military rule

  • Enfranchised the freedmen and required new state constitutions drafted by elections by both blacks and whites

  • Required state legislatures to ratify the 14th Amendment to fully re-enter the Union

15th Amendment

  • Last major piece of the Congressional Reconstruction

  • Prohibited the exclusion of male adults from voting based on race or having been slaves

  • passed by Congress in 1869 and ratification became a precondition for reentering the Union

Impeaching Andrew Johnson

  • Reconstruction Act brought increased tension between Congress and the President

  • Congress passed several laws to bring the President under control

  • 1867 Tenure of Office Act to keep Johnson from firing Sec. Of War Edwin Stanton

  • Johnson fired Stanton anyway

  • Republican leaders started impeachment proceedings against Johnson

  • Johnson’s conviction narrowly defeated

The Freedmen

  • Finding family became the first priority of many

  • black churches, institutions established and flourished

  • Freedman’s Bureau

    • first federally financed social service program

    • set up over 4000 elementary schools

    • provided assistance to more than just African-Americans

Political Involvement

  • Participated in Reconstruction legislatures as Republicans

  • Some black members of Congress elected and sent to Washington

  • often pursued reconciliation policies with white Southerners to no avail

  • also tried to achieve key black demands, such as land reform and social equality

“Carpetbaggers” and “Scalawags”

  • Most white southerners blamed Republicans and their alleged corruption

  • white Northerners who immigrated South were called “carpetbaggers”

  • white Southern Republicans were called “scalawags”

  • Although mostly ungrounded, these charges and stereotypes proved extremely persistent

Violent Resistance

  • Many white southerners resisted with violence

  • vigilante groups intimidated, attacked and killed freedmen and destroyed their institutions

  • Ku Klux Klan - outlawed, but little else done to protect their victims


  • New labor system emerged in cotton economy

  • sharecroppers rented land and paid the owner with a share of the crop - 50%

  • both blacks and whites participated

  • system led many sharecroppers into perpetual debt

Supreme Court Barriers

  • US v. Reese, 1876 - allowed the disenfranchisement of blacks, such as making up voting requirements that freedmen could not achieve

  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 - allowed for segregation in almost all aspects of society

  • The decisions allowed Southerners to construct a “Jim Crow” system of de facto laws

Waning Republican Support

  • 1870s - Radical Republicans lost influence and lost interest

  • Liberal Republicans broke away to protest the scandals of the Grant administration

  • 1873 economic depression refocused Northern goals

Compromise of 1877

  • 1876 Election showed a narrow victory for the Democratic candidate, Tilden

  • Republicans contested in three states

  • Compromise reached whereas the Democrats would accept Hayes as the president if the Republicans ceased resistance to home rule in the South

  • Reconstruction ends

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