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Today in Bio.…. Mon Week #6 Q.3 (2/10). Homework : Test Wed/Thurs. Bio. Learning Goal : I understand the scientific principles and processes involved in biological evolution. Activities/Assignments : Finish General notes – Evolution Handouts : Comparing limb structure and function

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Mon Week #6 Q.3 (2/10)

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Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Today in Bio.…

Mon Week #6 Q.3 (2/10)

Homework: Test Wed/Thurs

Bio. Learning Goal: I understand the scientific principles and processes involved in biological evolution.

  • Activities/Assignments:

  • Finish General notes – Evolution

  • Handouts :

    • Comparing limb structure and function

    • Evolution part #1

    • Graphing practice

    • Vocabulary Review

Fact:Music was sent down a telephone line for the first time in 1876, the year the phone was invented

See: Science fast facts

Warm Up: Name 2 of 3 factors that support evolution.


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Fossil Records

  • Fossils are the preserved remains, tracks, or traces of once-living organisms

  • They form when organisms become buried in sediment and calcium in hard surfaces mineralizes

  • Arranging fossils according to age often provides evidence of successive evolutionary change

  • Robert Hooke in 1668- 1st to propose that fossils are the remains of plants & animals.

  • Provides the most direct evidence for macroevolution


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Anatomical Record

Relict

developmental forms

Page 13

  • Similar structural forms can be seen in various living organisms

  • Ex:Homologous structures, Analogous structures and Vestigial structures

  • All vertebrates share a basic set of developmental instructions


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

The same basic bones are present in each forelimb

Fig. 13.8 Homology among vertebrate limbs

  • Homologous structures: Have different structure and function but are all derived from the same part of a common ancestor.

  • As vertebrates have evolved, the same bones are sometimes put to different uses, yet they can still be seen, their presence betraying their evolutionary past.


Types of adaptations

TYPES OF ADAPTATIONS

  • Structural

  • Behavioral

  • Physiological

    Let’s look at each type as we consider 2 species: the tundra & icecap-dwelling arctic fox & the desert dwelling fennec fox.


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Other Structural Adaptations:

Duck---webbed feet

Fish---gills

Giraffe---long neck

Beaver---large, pointed teeth

Whale---blubber

Cactus---shallow roots

Snake---flexible jaw

arctic fox (Alopexlagopus) fennec fox (Vulpeszerda)

Structural Adaptation: The form that the organism takes.

EX: Big ears and small ears of foxes.

Heat escapes easily from the blood that passes through the vessels in the fennec fox’s ears. Cool blood from the ears then circulates through the body & keeps the fennec fox from overheating.


Behavioral adaptation these are innate inherited actions that individuals of the species perform

Behavioral Adaptation: These are innate (inherited) actions that individuals of the species perform.

  • Arctic fox:

    • Can be active any time of the day; ready to find food whenever available.

  • Fennec fox:

    • Is nocturnal; sleeps during the day & hunts at night

Other Behavioral Adaptations:

Birds---migrate/fly south in the winter

Bears---hibernate in the winter

Possums---play "dead" to avoid predators

Desert animals---(1) nocturnal/inactive during the daytime and (2) below-ground dwellings to avoid harsh rays


Physiological adaptation related to the biochemical processes at work within an organism s body

Physiological Adaptation: Related to the biochemical processes at work within an organism’s body.

Compare the processing of food & water:

  • Arctic fox: food is scarce in winter; effective at storing food energy as fat.

  • Fennec fox: little free water available; adapted to get all moisture it needs from fruit, roots, & leaves.

Other examples of physiological adaptation are tanning of skin when exposed to sun over long periods, the formation of callouses on hands in response to repeated contact or pressure

Plants in hot dry climates have grey or light colored foliage reflects light, reducing heat and thus water loss from transpiration, needles or small leaves, silver hairs coating leaves reflect light and help to lower temperatures


Adaptations work together

Adaptations Work Together

  • Adaptations work together to produce a species fit for surviving in a specific environment.

  • The big ears(structural) cools fox & gives acute hearing which helps when fox hunts & night (behavioral) & the fox has special retina; tapetum (physiological) that gives the fox night vision.


Some examples of adaptations

structural

structural

physiological

behavioral

behavioral

physiological

Some Examples of Adaptations

  • Kangaroo’s tail…..

  • Kangaroo’s ability to jump

  • When temp. are hot a kangaroo will go under a tree and dig down for cooler ground…

  • Camels travel in herds…

  • Camels have humps on their backs…

  • The color of the peacock’s feathers…


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION

Coevolution: Change of two or more species in close association with each other.

EXAMPLE: Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival.


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Convergent Evolution:organisms that are very similar but are not closely related. This happens because of a change within the environment.

Analogous structures are the result of convergent evolution.


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

  • DIVERGENT EVOLUTION:Two or more related species that become more dissimilar due to different environments.

  • This usually produces another species

EXAMPLE: GALAPAGOS FINCHES


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Today in Bio.…

Tue Week #6 Q.3 (2/11)

Homework: Study-Test Wed/Thurs

Bio. Learning Goal: I understand the scientific principles and processes involved in biological evolution.

  • Activities/Assignments:

  • Handouts :

    • Comparing limb structure and function

    • Evolution part #1

    • Graphing practice

    • Vocabulary Review

    • Practice Test - book

Fact: Snakes are true carnivorous because they eat nothing but other animals. They do not eat any type of plant material.

Warm Up: What is the difference between divergent and convergent evolution?


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Convergent Evolution

Divergent Evolution


Mon week 6 q 3 2 10

Today in Bio.…

Wed/Thurs Week #6 Q.3 (2/12-13)

Homework:

none

Bio. Learning Goal: I understand the scientific principles and processes involved in biological evolution.

  • Activities/Assignments:

  • Handouts :

    • Vocabulary Review

    • Practice Test – book

  • Evolution Unit Test

Fact:If you could throw a snowball fast enough, it would totally vaporize when it hit a brick wall

.

Warm Up: What is a vestigial organ?


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