Knowledge management
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Knowledge Management:. Leveraging NGO Resources. Albert Simard Presented to Workshop on Diplomacy and Negotiation Washington DC September 18, 2-13. Knowledge Structures. Social Structure. Fluid, unstructured. (People). Knowledge Outputs. Organized, semi-structured. Business Structure.

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Knowledge management

Knowledge Management:

Leveraging NGO Resources

Albert Simard

Presented to

Workshop on Diplomacy and Negotiation

Washington DC September 18, 2-13


Knowledge structures

Knowledge Structures

Social Structure

Fluid, unstructured

(People)

Knowledge Outputs

Organized, semi-structured

Business Structure

(Processes)

Rigid, structured

Technology Structure

(Technology)


Outline

Outline

  • Knowledge Management

  • Social Interaction

  • Knowledge Work


Some definitions

Some Definitions

  • Knowledge: Understanding cause-and-effect relationships that help to explain and predict physical, biological, or social phenomena.

  • Knowledge Management:Develop and implement a knowledge infrastructure to support creating, managing, and using knowledge.

  • Knowledge Work:People creating, managing, or using knowledge to produce products or deliver services that achieve organizational goals.


Knowledge infrastructure

People

learning, motivation, incentives, performance, staffing, skills

Tools

systems to capture, store, share, and process content

Knowledge Infrastructure

data, records, analysis, reports, intelligence, policies

Content,

Services

Processes

work routines,

operations, best practices

roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources

Governance


Knowledge management1

Transfer

Assistance

Application

Work

Creation

Collaboration

NGO

Flow

Sharing

Stock

Donors

Assets

Resources

Infrastructure

Knowledge Management

Stakeholders


Understanding content

Understanding Content

  • Contentis a pattern, message, or signal embedded within data, information, or knowledge.

  • Dataare recorded, ordered symbols or signals that may carry information and patterns.

  • Informationis meaning in context, arising from processing, interpreting, or translating data to extract an underlying message or pattern.

  • Knowledgeis understandingof cause-and-effect relationships that help to explain and predict physical, biological, or social phenomena.


Managing content

Managing Content

  • Capture:Represent data, information, or knowledge on reproducible media.

  • Inventory:Find, list, describe, and organize content; map to business needs, value and prioritize.

  • Preserve:store; provide access, search & retrieval capacity; maintain, and migrate throughout life-cycle.


Storing content

Storing Content

  • Information technology

  • Network infrastructure

  • Database, data management

  • Information library, information management

  • Knowledge repository, knowledge management

  • Interfaces for entry, retrieval, & administration


Retrieving content

Retrieving Content

  • Access to content

  • Browser interface

  • Search engine

  • Extraction tools

  • Manipulation tools

  • Assembly tools

  • Retrieval system


Outline1

Outline

  • Knowledge Management

  • Social Interaction

  • Knowledge Work


Social interaction framework

Social Interaction Framework

Purchasing Contracts Merger

Work Group Community Network

Collaboration

Negotiation

peer production partnership approach high trust diverse, synergistic

mutual agreement adversarial approach nominal trust structured, formal

Mutual

Interests

Sharing

Competition

leverage knowledge passive approach moderate trust benign, supportive

defence or victory aggressive approach no trust secretive, hostile

Autonomous

Conversation Posting Publication

Sports Business Military

Compatible

Conflicting

Goals


Sharing attributes

Sharing Attributes

(Autonomous interests, compatible goals)

  • Exchange content

  • Incentives / motivation

  • Trust and safety

  • Organizational culture

  • Content security

  • Individual privacy

  • Different expertise

  • Control and hoarding

  • Large distances

Sense, categorize, respond


Sharing overview

Sharing Overview

Share

Explicit

tacit

Provide Incentives

Content

Time & Place

Access

Technology

Interact

Shared Content


Sharing explicit content

Sharing Explicit Content

Existing Content

Work

Service

engagement

motivation

compliance reciprocity

Provide Incentives

e-mail

publishing

distribution

content repository metadata template

Provide Content

network permission

interoperability awareness

Enable Access

web browser

web portal

content repository

search engine

help desk

Retrieve Content

telephone

meeting

collaboration e-mail

Interact

Social Business

Technology

Knowledge

Shared Content


Collaboration attributes

Collaboration Attributes

(Mutual interests, compatible goals)

  • Synergy and joint production

  • Dialogue, conversations in groups

  • Sharing, exchanges among peers

  • Candor, freedom of expression

  • Trust, safety, honesty, openness

  • Agreed rules of conduct

  • Diversity, flexibility, outliers

  • Equality, meritocracy of ideas

  • Collective, not individual benefit

Sense, analyze, respond


Collaboration overview

Collaborate

Collaboration Overview

Shared Knowledge

Social Context

Knowledge Transformation

Technology Support

Organizational Work

Decision


Collaboration social context

Influence Attitudes

Affect Behavior

Foster Relationships

Evolve Culture

Group Knowledge

Collaboration - Social Context

Individual Knowledge

Work

Service

enjoyment candor openness ethics

altruism

engagement counseling feedback

human resources

compliance

motivation

engagement

human resources

participation commitment involvement creativity

trust & safety equality meritocracy synergy

rules & norms guidance

facilitation

support

diversity flexibility freedom learning transparency

formation

org. learning

change

Social Business

Technology Knowledge


Negotiation attributes

Negotiation Attributes

(Mutual interests, conflicting goals)

  • Reaching an agreement

  • Debate and discussion

  • Positions and interests

  • Bargaining and compromise

  • Proposal and response

  • Attempt to establish trust

  • Win/win vs. win/loose

Probe, sense, respond


Negotiation overview

Negotiate

Negotiation Overview

Preparation

Bargaining

Organization

Agreement

Collaborate


Negotiation bargaining

Negotiation - Bargaining

Position

Work

Service

questions assumptions unknowns uncertainty

multiple issues expansion total benefits contingency

Identify

Benefits

losses & gains momentum justification references concessions

negotiation service

content mgt.

Influence

coalition leverage attack threats

Power

deception ethics

emotions distrust embarrassment

Counter

important

new information?

routine

Revise position

no

negotiation service

office app.

agreement template

Social Business

Technology Knowledge

Conclude

Draft Agreement


Competition attributes

Competition Attributes

(Autonomous Interests, conflicting goals)

  • Victory, gain, or defence

  • Speed of analysis and action are critical

  • No trust, secretive, misleading actions

  • Rules: dominant, important, minimal

  • Ongoing process, requires recurring analysis

Act, sense, respond


Competition overview

Competition Overview

Compete

Decision

Intelligence

Negotiate

Action

Monitor Outcomes

Adapt

End


Competition action adaptation

Competition – Action / Adaptation

Intelligence

office apps

competition template

Document

Store

intelligence repository

Recommend

analysis apps. synthesis apps.

Adapt

decision

Authorize

resources

Act

content acquisition knowledge mobilization

Learn

org. learning

Evaluate

after-action review

no

Win / Loose

Monitor

Social Business

Technology Knowledge

yes

Outcome


Outline2

Outline

  • Knowledge Management

  • Social Interaction

  • Knowledge Work


Ngo knowledge work pre activity

NGO Knowledge Work (pre-activity)


1 understand the context

1. Understand the Context

Institutions, Laws, Economy, Customs

  • Awareness (Internet, web browser, search engine)

    • Physical Space: libraries, journals, reports, media (dated, source, reliability, objectivity, purpose, time consuming)

    • Cyberspace: search engine, reference sites, government sites (source, current, superficial, bias, efficient)

  • Country Report(office applications)

    • Corroborate with country or subject-matter experts

    • Integrate content from multiple sources

    • Validate in context of NGOs operations and processes

    • Report: prepare, store in database, submit


2 know the situation

2. Know the Situation

  • Event: domain, resources, infrastructure, environment

    • Monitor(existingsystems)

    • Search(Internet, Web browser, searchengine, filter)

    • Contact experts (directory of expertise)

    • Uncertainty(scenarios, sense, act, respond)

  • Conference: participants, positions, laws, agreements, voting(country database, votingdatabase)

  • Report: integrate, interpret, synthesize, report, recommend(office applications)


3 manage funding

3. Manage Funding

  • Donors: known sources, search, compatibility

    • (donor database, search engine, funding market)

  • Proposals: rules, constraints, procedures, evaluation

    • (office applications, proposal template)

  • Partners/Competitors: joint submissions, proposal strategy

  • Storing:donor information, attachments, project links

    • (funding database, project database)

  • Administration: invoices, accounting, accountability

    • (accounting/financial application, project database)

  • Reporting:as required, properly formatted

    • (office applications, financial reporting application)


4 manage contacts

4. Manage Contacts

  • Experts: subject, country, law…

    • Internal (expertise, employee database, contact info)

    • External(expertise, employer, name, contact info)

  • Representatives: international, other NGOs, governments

    • (organization, position, role, name, contact info, links)

  • Suppliers: food, medicine, supplies, transport, technology

    • (goods & services, company, catalogues, name, links)

  • Contact Directory: data entry, searching, management

    • Add, change, delete, approve content


Knowledge management

Mobilizing Emergency Content

  • Interoperability: jurisdictions, organizations, disciplines

  • Integration: process, function, role, scale

  • Systems: monitoring, decision support, integration


Ngo knowledge work post activity

NGO Knowledge Work (post-activity)


5 after action review

5. After-Action Review

  • Capture: journal, automated input, template, multi-media

    • (notebooks, tape recorder, video, event information system)

  • Administration: process, HR practices, compliance, values

  • Efficiency: costs, staff, technology, time, effort

  • Effectiveness: milestones & deliverables, outputs, objectives

  • Outcomes: successful negotiation, influence stakeholders, reduced risk, mitigate impacts, increase well-being

  • Lessons learned: what was planned, what happened, what went well, what can be improved, how to improve

  • After-Action Database: (office applications, interface)


6 report activities

6. Report Activities

Projects, Events, Response, Accomplishments

  • Compile content(information systems, databases)

  • Draft report(office applications, templates)

  • Review (e-mail, collaboration site, office applications)

  • Revise(office applications, version control)

  • Approve(submission & decision process)

  • Produce(document production application)

  • Store(report database, metadata)

  • Distribute(Web site, e-mail, mail)


7 learn and adapt

7. Learn and Adapt

  • Individual: awareness, assimilate, memorize, comprehend, apply, analyse, synthesize, evaluate

  • Community: voluntarism, sharing, dialogue, harvesting

  • Organization: identify, consensus, integrate, plan, document, recommend, approve

  • Change: sense of urgency, establish coalition, develop strategy, engage people, empower action, early success, maintain momentum, institutionalize


8 categorize positions

8. Categorize Positions

Delegates, Organizations, Countries

  • Compile from multiple sources (external voting data)

  • Analyze statistical trends and patterns (statistical apps.)

  • Interpret underlying context and particular situations

  • Dialogue with individuals (trust, role, security)

  • NGO Voting Database (office applications, interface)


Main messages

Main Messages

  • Managing knowledge assets leverages an NGOs capacity to do knowledge work.

  • Social interaction includes sharing, collaboration, negotiation, and competition.

  • Knowledge work involves both technical support and social interaction.


Knowledge management

E-Mail: [email protected]

Presentations: http://www.slideshare.net/albertsimard/slideshows

http://www.slideshare.net/Al.Simard/slideshows

Knowledge Services: A Synthesis of Best Practices

http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc121/p536618_A1b.pdf


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