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Social Development. Nature and Nurture Where does the division begin? Attachment Theory Cupboard Theory (Freud) The need for comfort (Bowlby & Harlow) The Strange Situation and beyond (Ainsworth & Main). Social Development. Nature-Nurture

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Social development
Social Development

  • Nature and Nurture

    • Where does the division begin?

  • Attachment Theory

    • Cupboard Theory (Freud)

    • The need for comfort (Bowlby & Harlow)

    • The Strange Situation and beyond (Ainsworth & Main)


Social development1
Social Development

  • Nature-Nurture

    • We are a complex and unique combination of our genes and environment

    • Reaction range

      • Limits of the genotype

      • Environment determines where in the range the gene is expressed


Social development2
Social Development

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

    • Cupboard Theory

      • Children innately attracted to their mother for food

      • Attachment purely for physical needs


Attachment theory

John Bowlby(1907-1990)

Internal Working Model

Innate fear of the unfamiliar

Built-in approach and sign behaviours

Attachment Theory


Attachment theory1

John Bowlby (1907-1990)

Innate fear of the unfamiliar

Built-in approach and sign behaviours

Internal Working Model

Harry Harlow (1905-1981)

Comfort vs. Nurture

Terry-Cloth vs. Wire-Milk Mother

Attachment Theory


Attachment theory2
Attachment Theory

  • Harry Harlow(1905-1981)

    • Comfort vs. Nurture

    • Terry-Cloth vs. Wire-Milk Mother

    • Isolated monkeys spent more time with cloth (comfort) mother than wire (nurture) mother


Time Spent on Mothers

10

9

8

7

Cloth Mother

6

Mean time in Hours

5

4

3

2

Wire Mother

1

250-259 260-269 270-279 280-289 290-299

Days of Age


Attachment theory3

Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999)

Child’s attachment with Mother

The Strange Situation (Gleitman,510-512)

Children should use mother as secure base for exploration

Children should exhibit separation anxiety

Children should be less comfortable with a stranger than their mother

Attachment Theory


The strange situation
The Strange Situation

  • Parent and Infant enter experimental room

  • Parent and infant are alone. Infant explores.

  • Stranger enters, talks to mother and then approaches infant.

  • First Separation: Mother leaves room

  • First Reunion: Mother returns and stranger leaves

  • Second Separation: Mother leaves room again and stranger returns

  • Second Reunion: Mother returns, picks up infant; stranger leaves.



Attachment and adulthood
Attachment and Adulthood

  • Mary Main

    • Collected four generations of data examining the long-term effects of attachment style

    • The internal working model of relationships



Attachment and adulthood2
Attachment and Adulthood

  • Resilience and Nature-Nurture revisited

    • Patterns can change; they are not set in stone

    • Our environment is constantly changing influence on the way we define ourselves, others and social relationships

    • Crisis and change


Attachment and adulthood3
Attachment and Adulthood

  • How to create a secure attachment

    • Be emotionally available and responsive to the other’s needs in a predictable manner

    • Intimacy, passion and support

    • Conflict resolution strategies, self-disclosure and trust


Social development3
Social Development

  • Nature and Nurture

    • Where does the division begin?

  • Attachment Theory

    • Cupboard Theory (Freud)

    • The need for comfort (Bowlby & Harlow)

    • The Strange Situation and beyond (Ainsworth & Main)


Happy valentine s day have a great reading week

Happy Valentine’s Day&Have a great “READING” Week


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