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Social Development. Nature and Nurture Where does the division begin? Attachment Theory Cupboard Theory (Freud) The need for comfort (Bowlby & Harlow) The Strange Situation and beyond (Ainsworth & Main). Social Development. Nature-Nurture

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Presentation Transcript
social development
Social Development
  • Nature and Nurture
    • Where does the division begin?
  • Attachment Theory
    • Cupboard Theory (Freud)
    • The need for comfort (Bowlby & Harlow)
    • The Strange Situation and beyond (Ainsworth & Main)
social development1
Social Development
  • Nature-Nurture
    • We are a complex and unique combination of our genes and environment
    • Reaction range
      • Limits of the genotype
      • Environment determines where in the range the gene is expressed
social development2
Social Development
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    • Cupboard Theory
      • Children innately attracted to their mother for food
      • Attachment purely for physical needs
attachment theory
John Bowlby(1907-1990)

Internal Working Model

Innate fear of the unfamiliar

Built-in approach and sign behaviours

Attachment Theory
attachment theory1
John Bowlby (1907-1990)

Innate fear of the unfamiliar

Built-in approach and sign behaviours

Internal Working Model

Harry Harlow (1905-1981)

Comfort vs. Nurture

Terry-Cloth vs. Wire-Milk Mother

Attachment Theory
attachment theory2
Attachment Theory
  • Harry Harlow(1905-1981)
    • Comfort vs. Nurture
    • Terry-Cloth vs. Wire-Milk Mother
    • Isolated monkeys spent more time with cloth (comfort) mother than wire (nurture) mother
slide9

Time Spent on Mothers

10

9

8

7

Cloth Mother

6

Mean time in Hours

5

4

3

2

Wire Mother

1

250-259 260-269 270-279 280-289 290-299

Days of Age

attachment theory3
Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999)

Child’s attachment with Mother

The Strange Situation (Gleitman,510-512)

Children should use mother as secure base for exploration

Children should exhibit separation anxiety

Children should be less comfortable with a stranger than their mother

Attachment Theory
the strange situation
The Strange Situation
  • Parent and Infant enter experimental room
  • Parent and infant are alone. Infant explores.
  • Stranger enters, talks to mother and then approaches infant.
  • First Separation: Mother leaves room
  • First Reunion: Mother returns and stranger leaves
  • Second Separation: Mother leaves room again and stranger returns
  • Second Reunion: Mother returns, picks up infant; stranger leaves.
attachment and adulthood
Attachment and Adulthood
  • Mary Main
    • Collected four generations of data examining the long-term effects of attachment style
    • The internal working model of relationships
attachment and adulthood2
Attachment and Adulthood
  • Resilience and Nature-Nurture revisited
    • Patterns can change; they are not set in stone
    • Our environment is constantly changing influence on the way we define ourselves, others and social relationships
    • Crisis and change
attachment and adulthood3
Attachment and Adulthood
  • How to create a secure attachment
    • Be emotionally available and responsive to the other’s needs in a predictable manner
    • Intimacy, passion and support
    • Conflict resolution strategies, self-disclosure and trust
social development3
Social Development
  • Nature and Nurture
    • Where does the division begin?
  • Attachment Theory
    • Cupboard Theory (Freud)
    • The need for comfort (Bowlby & Harlow)
    • The Strange Situation and beyond (Ainsworth & Main)
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