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Infrastructure. A Short Survey. How much is all the transportation infrastructure in Seattle worth? How do you rate Washington’s road conditions? (poor, mediocre, good, excellent) Is the Alaskan Way viaduct bored tunnel project necessary ? Is it too expensive?

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A short survey
A Short Survey

  • How much is all the transportation infrastructure in Seattle worth?

  • How do you rate Washington’s road conditions? (poor, mediocre, good, excellent)

  • Is the Alaskan Way viaduct bored tunnel project necessary? Is it too expensive?

  • Is the SR 520 Bridge project necessary? Is it too expensive?


Infrastructure1
Infrastructure

The basic physical systems of a community's population, including roads, utilities, water, sewage, etc. These systems are considered essential for enabling productivity in the economy.



U s gross domestic product
U.S. Gross Domestic Product

a Includes all consumer and government purchases of goods (e.g., vehicles and fuel) and services (e.g., auto insurance) and exports related to transportation. b Includes all other categories (e.g., entertainment, personal care products and services, and payments to pension plans).

2008 data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics


Federal funding for transportation
Federal Funding for Transportation

  • 2010 Federal Transportation Bill (THUD)

    • HR3288 (Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010)

    • Reauthorizes federal highway, public transportation, highway safety, and motor carrier safety programs for six years

    • $447 billion over 6 years

    • FY2010: $117.1 billion

    • 56% increase over SAFETEA LU

  • SAFETEA LU (old version)

    • Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy For Users

    • $286.4 billion in funding

    • 42% increase over last bill (TEA-21)

    • December 2010: extended through March 4th, 2011


Public expenditures on construction of highways and streets
Public Expenditures on Construction of Highways and Streets

  • Notes:

    • Annual spending (Nov 2010 seasonally adjusted): $86.9 billion total

      • Almost all public spending

    • Highways and streets = largest component of public transportation spending

  • Pavement is by far the largest part of that spending (about 70%)

Data from BTS: FIGURE 1-3-19State and Local Expenditures on Highways and Streets Construction: January 1998–June 2009


Public expenditures on non roadway transportation construction
Public Expenditures on Non-Roadway Transportation Construction

  • Notes:

    • Only state and local numbers reported

    • March 2010 seasonally adjusted annual spending: $32.2 billion total (about 37% of roads)

      • $15.8 billion on air transportation

      • $14.5 billion on land transportation (e.g., rail, bus, etc.)

      • $2.0 billion on water transportation

Data from BTS: FIGURE 1-3-11 Public Expenditures on Nonroadway Transportation Construction: 1998-2009


Private expenditures on transportation infrastructure construction
Private Expenditures on Transportation Infrastructure Construction

  • Notes:

    • March 2010 seasonally adjusted annual rate: $8.26 billion total

      • $0.35 billion on air transportation

      • $7.77 billion on land transportation

      • $0.14 billion on water transportation

Data from BTS: FIGURE 1-3-12A Private Expenditures on Transportation-Related Construction: January 1998–March 2010


American recovery and reinvestment act arra
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)

  • $787 billion economic stimulus bill

    • $30 billion for transportation

  • Washington Funding

    • $535 million for WA highway projects

    • $179 million in transit system capital projects



Seattle transportation infrastructure inventory not all are shown here but the total is right
Seattle Transportation Infrastructure Inventory(not all are shown here but the total is right)

2008 data from http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/transportation/inventory.htm


General condition old and age poor from the asce report card for america s infrastructure
General Condition (old) and Age (poor)From the ASCE Report Card for America’s Infrastructure

  • Total estimated 5-yr funding need: $930 billion

  • Total estimated 5-year spending: $381 billion

  • Projected 5-year shortfall: $549 billion

Rockefeller Road Bridge in Cleveland, OH from ASCE website

from ASCE website

Information from: ASCE Report card for Roads (http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/fact-sheet/roads)



Alaskan Way Viaduct

(current)

Eroded viaduct deck

All photos from WSDOT website

www.wsdot.wa.gov

Damaged beam after 2001 Nisqually earthquake



Alaskan Way Viaduct

(current)

Installing column supportsafter the Nisqually earthquake

All photos from WSDOT website

www.wsdot.wa.gov

Column support


SR 520 Bridge

All photos from WSDOT website

www.wsdot.wa.gov

Cracks on the inside of floating pontoons

Simulated Failure by Windstormhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qchD9ltCPG8

Damage to hollow column in 1999 due to barge collision


Rural road conditions
Rural Road Conditions

RuralRoadsin Poor or Mediocre Condition by Functional Class: 1995–2006

Graph from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Statistics Annual Report September 2008


Urban road conditions
Urban Road Conditions

Urban Roads in Poor or Mediocre Condition by Functional Class: 1995–2006

Graph from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Statistics Annual Report September 2008


Bridge conditions
Bridge Conditions

Structurally Deficient and Functionally Obsolete BridgesAll Roadways,1990–2007

Graph from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Statistics Annual Report September 2008


6:05 p.m. 1 August 2007

July 1967 – Minneapolis Tribune


Building transportation infrastructure
Building Transportation Infrastructure

Mega-Project

Projects with an estimated total cost greater than $1.0 billion, or projects approaching $1.0 billion with a high level of interest by the public.


Periods of mega projects in the u s
Periods of Mega-Projects in the U.S.

  • Pre-1950s era

    • Minimal higher-level aid

    • Very little disruption of existing areas

  • Great mega-project era (1950 – late 1960s)

    • Large amounts of federal aid

    • Retrofit cities for new preferences

  • Transition era (mid 1960s – early 1970s)

    • Community & environment become important

    • Citizen protests

  • Do no harm era (mid 1970s – present)

    • Investment is substantial at all levels

    • Must avoid or mitigate any significant disruption


Panama canal
Panama Canal

From pancanal.com (official site)

Information from www.pancanal.com


Golden gate bridge
Golden Gate Bridge

From Metropolitan Transportation Commission

Information from the Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco


Lake washington ship canal
Lake Washington Ship Canal

Under construction (1916)





First concession to citizens
First Concession to Citizens

San Francisco, 1959City officials veto most further planned expressway construction in the city

Picture from Halttheramp.com



Mitigation begins
Mitigation Begins

From AARoads.com

Philadelphia, 1965State alters Delaware Expressway design along the waterfront from elevated to depressed and covered.


Environmentalism
Environmentalism

  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (1970)

    • Environment to be considered for all major federally aided projects

    • Public hearings

    • Authorizes citizen suits to ensure all issues are addressed fully and candidly

    • Agency still free to decide after EIS

  • Clean Water Act amendments (1972)

    • Difficult to fill wetlands (Section 404)

    • Runoff cannot pollute water resources (Section 402)

  • Clean Air Act amendments (1990)


Westway manhattan island
Westway (Manhattan Island)

  • 1974 plan

  • $1.2 billion

  • Covered structure

  • On fill in the Hudson River

  • General political support


Westway manhattan island1
Westway (Manhattan Island)

  • Relatively Minor Issue Sinks Project

  • Do young stripped bass winter under rotting, unused piers that are scheduled to be removed by the project?

  • EIS: Few fish live under piers

  • NY and federal studies: Fish live under piers

  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers needs further study

  • Failed to prove “no significant impact”

  • Clean Water Act says no fill permit can be issued

  • 1985 U.S. House vote to ban further federal funding

  • (NJ backs ban because Westway would move the bass over to the NJ side and potentially block NJ development)


Mitigation costs
Mitigation Costs

  • Century Freeway (I-105) – Los Angeles

    • 1977 cost estimate: $500 million

    • 1979 cost estimate: $1.6 billion

      • 4,200 units of affordable housing

      • Job training program

      • Minority contracting


Consensus mitigation costs
Consensus/Mitigation Costs

Boston Central Artery/Tunnel Project (“Big Dig”)


Consensus mitigation costs1
Consensus/Mitigation Costs

  • Boston Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T)


Public financing
Public Financing

  • Local sources

    • Private investment (not likely)

    • Excise taxes (hotel rooms, restaurants, rental cars, taxis)

    • Sales tax

    • Airport passenger facility charges (PFC)

    • Airport landing fees

    • Sales/lease of land at below-market prices

    • Loans, access to credit at below-market rates

  • State sources

    • Non-tax revenue: lotteries, tolls

    • Regional sales tax

    • Gas tax

  • Federal sources


Private financing
Private Financing

  • Cintra, a subsidiary of the Spanish conglomerate, Ferrovial, develops and operates transportation infrastructure (http://www.cintra.es):

  • Chicago Skyway: 7.8 miles of toll road in Chicago, part of I-90

  • Texas SH 130 Segments 5 & 6:Toll road

  • Indiana Toll Road: 157-miles long, leased for 75 years for $3.8 billion

MQAMacquarie Atlas Roads

  • Macquarie Infrastructure Group, part of Macquarie Bank (an Australian bank), develops and operates transportation infrastructure http://www.macquarie.com/mgl/com/mqa):

  • Chicago Skyway: 7.8 miles of toll road in Chicago, part of I-90

  • Indiana Toll Road: 157-miles long, leased for 75 years for $3.8 billion

  • Dulles Greenway: 13.7 miles, Dulles to Leesburg, VA, $533 million

  • South Bay Expressway: 9.3 miles of toll road in SD, built for $635 million

  • Sea-to-Sky: 62 miles, Vancouver to Whistler, $600 million


Chicago skyway
Chicago Skyway

  • $1.83 billion for 99 year lease by Skyway Concession Company

  • Toll revenues = $38-45 million annually


Chicago skyway1
Chicago Skyway

Tolls

Map from Skyway Concession Company


South bay expressway
South Bay Expressway

Pictures from SBX (www.southbayexpressway.com)


South bay expressway1
South Bay Expressway

Opened November 2007

Picture from SBX

(www.southbayexpressway.com)

Picture from Macquarie


Trends in mega projects
Trends in Mega-Projects

  • Not routine after 1970

  • Support coalitions

    • Usually led by business enterprise

  • Project ideas

    • Usually originate in the public sector

  • Only successful if they “do no harm”

  • Mitigation is essential

  • Support and purpose is local

  • Avoid increases in broad-based local taxes

  • Costs rose dramatically from 1970 – 2000

  • Private investment (2004 – present)

From Altshuler and Luberoff (2003) Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment


Cost Effective?

The Stack (LA): I-105 (E-W), I-405 (N-S)


Rising costs
Rising Costs

Cost per Centerline Mile



Central Texas Turnpike System

$3.8 billion

3 new highways around Austin area

New/upgraded highway interchanges

http://www.texastollways.com/tta

Big Dig (Boston)

$14.6 billion

Underground existing viaducts

2 underwater tunnel routes

New/upgraded highway interchanges

http://www.masspike.com/bigdig


Tampa Bay Interstate System

$1.5 billion

Freeway improvements

http://www.tbinterstates.com

Miami Intermodal Center

$1.7 billion

Multimodal transportation facility

http://www.micdot.com


New Mississippi River Bridge (St. Louis)

$640 million

New bridge from St. Louis to Illinois

New/upgraded highway interchanges

http://www.newriverbridge.org

Ohio River Bridges (KY, OH)

$4.1 billion

2 new bridges across Ohio RIver

New/upgraded highway interchanges

http://www.kyinbridges.com


Katy Freeway (Houston)

$2.7 billion

Reconstruct 23 miles of I-10

2 upgraded interchanges

27 upgraded crossings

http://www.katyfreeway.org

I-4 (Orlando)

$1.7 billion

Reconstruct 18 miles of I-4

http://www.trans4mation.org


Birmingham, AL Northern Beltline

$3.32 billion

52-mile freeway to bypass Birmingham

Completion: 2025

Detroit River International Crossing

$1.8 billion

New border crossing, bridge, plaza

www.partnershipborderstudy.com


Twin Span Bridge, Lake Pontchartrain, LA

$800 million

Replace bridge damaged by Katrina

http://www.twinspanbridge.com

BART Seismic Retrofit (San Francisco)

$1.3 billion

Retrofit BART

http://www.bart.gov/about/projects/eqs/index.aspx


I-15 Managed Lanes (San Diego)

$1.2 billion

20 miles of HOT-type lanes

New/upgraded highway interchanges

http://www.sandag.org/index.asp?projectid=34&fuseaction=projects.detail

I-215 San Bernardino Corridor Imp.

$0.8 billion

12 new lane-miles

http://www.sanbag.ca.gov/projects/mi_fwy_215-sb.html


I-69 (Michigan to Texas)

$10 billion?

17 miles of highway improvement

Freeway corridor from MI to TX

May happen

New Haven Harbor Crossing (I-95)

$2 billion (doubled since 2002)

7.2 miles of roadway improvements

Transit improvements

http://www.i95newhaven.com


Woodrow Wilson Bridge (Potomac)

$2.5 billion

New bridge across Potomac

New/upgraded highway interchanges

http://www.wilsonbridge.com


Benicia-Martinez Bridge

$1 billion

New bridge in Vallejo area

http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/tollbridge/Ben-Mar/Ben-Mar.html


San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge

$6.3 billion

New bridge from Oakland to Y.B. Island

http://www.newbaybridge.org


Boulder City/Hoover Dam Bypass

$0.9 billion

10 miles of 4-lane freeway

http://www.bouldercitybypass.com


Photos from Professor Dave Timm, Auburn University

Not just the U.S.

Large project in China


Picture from B. Kattanppuram Blog

Great Belt (Storebǽlt - Denmark)

$3.5 billion (1988 value)

28 Euros ($34) each way for cars

132 Euros ($159) each way for lorries

  • Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (Pearl Bridge)

    • $3.6 billion

    • 10 years to construct

    • ¥ 2,600 ($22) each way for cars

    • 25,000 vehicles/day

Picture from Mount Holyoke College


Picture from arzan blog

  • Millau Viaduct

    • $523 million to construct

    • 39 month construction

    • Tolls

    • $6.50 toll one way in winter

    • $8.62 toll one way in summer


Channel Tunnel

$21 billion

Completed 1994

Picture from Balfour Beatty Rail

Photo from Biz/ed

Chek Lap Kok Airport (Hong Kong)

$20 billion

Completed 1998


Strait of Messina (Italy mainland to Sicily)

Projected $5 billion (60% by Italian government, 40% by private investors)

Will be longest single span bridge in the world when (if) completed

http://www.strettodimessina.it


Photo from ETH Life International

Photo from Google Earth

Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland to Italy)

$6 billion

20 year construction (2017 completion)

35.4 mile tunnel under Swiss Alps

Drilling completed October 2010

Thai Canal (Thailand)

$20 billion projected

May or may not happen


Next on the list
Next on the List

  • SR 167, Tacoma, WA

  • SR 520 Bridge, Seattle, WA

  • I-405 Corridor, Bellevue, WA

  • SR 509, Seattle WA

  • Alaskan Way Tunnel, Seattle WA


SR 520 Bridge Replacement

$4 to 5 billion

Replace SR 520 bridge

Improve SR 520 corridor

SR 167 Extension (Tacoma)

Tacoma to Edgewood

$2.3 billion

Extend SR 167 to I-5 and SR 509

Pictures from WSDOT website


I-405 Corridor Improvements

$3.2 billion

New lanes

Reconfigured interchanges

Bus direct access

Pictures from WSDOT website

SR 509 Freight/Congestion Relief

$1 billion

Extend SR 509 to I-5 south of Seatac

6 miles of new I-5 lanes


Alaskan Way Viaduct & Seawall

$2.4 billion in funding available now

Replace viaduct with bored tunnel

Reinforce/replace seawall


I-5 - Pavement Reconstruction and Bottleneck Improvement Projects

Undetermined Cost

Repair/replace I-5 pavement from Tukwila to Northgate (14 miles)

Anticipated construction: 2017+

Must coordinate with:

  • Alaskan Way viaduct replacement project

  • SR 520 bridge replacement project

  • Link Light Rail

  • I-405 corridor improvements

  • SR 509 extension


Primary references
Primary References Projects

  • Altshuler, A. and Luberoff, D. (2003). Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. Brookings Institute Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). (2008). Mega Projects web page. Maintained by the Office of Program Administration. www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/mega.


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