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? December ?, 2013 . Turn in 7.5 reading/writing Answer the following in your notes: 7.5 Constitutional Disputes & Crisis Explain the “nullification crisis” and what triggered it Which “section” tended to favor tariffs? Describe Henry Clay’s opinion of nullification

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December 2013
? December ?, 2013

  • Turn in 7.5 reading/writing

  • Answer the following in your notes:

    7.5 Constitutional Disputes & Crisis

    • Explain the “nullification crisis” and what triggered it

    • Which “section” tended to favor tariffs?

    • Describe Henry Clay’s opinion of nullification

    • Which group thought the Second BUS favored the rich?

    • Why was the Whig party formed?

What major political issues emerged during the 1830s?

7.5 Objectives

  • Evaluate the significance of the debate over tariffs and the idea of nullification.

  • Summarize the key events of the conflict over the second Bank of the United States in the 1830s.

  • Analyze the political environment in the United States after Andrew Jackson.

What major political issues emerged during the 1830s?

Conflicts and crises during Jackson’s presidency led to formation of a rival political party called the Whigs.

In spite of this, Jackson’s handpicked successor Martin Van Buren won in 1836 but lost to the Whigs in 1840.

Tariffs were a continuing source of dispute between the industrial North (favored) and agricultural South (opposed).

  • In 1828, Congress passed a high protective tariff.

  • The goal was to promote industry, but the tariff raised the prices farmers had to pay for goods.

  • Southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations.

In 1832, South Carolina voted to industrial North (favored) and agricultural South (opposed). nullify the tariff. It threatened to secede from the Union if force was used to collect the import tax.

  • Vice President John C. Calhoun expected Jackson to reject the tariff. Instead, Jackson only modified it slightly.

  • Calhoun resigned as Vice President in protest to lead the nullification battle in the Senate.

Resolution of the Nullification Crisis of 1833 industrial North (favored) and agricultural South (opposed).

Economic nationalists like Daniel Websterrejected the concept of nullification.

Jackson, a Democrat, normally supported southern states, but he strongly rejected this challenge to his authority and to the Union.

In a compromise, Congress lowered the tariff. The issues of nullification and secession were left unresolved.

Congress passed a Force Bill authorizing troops to enforce collection.

Despite his opposition to nullification, Jackson generally supported the agricultural South.

  • His ideal was an agrarian republic where all white men owned farms and enjoyed rough equality.

  • Industrialization and the growing class of wage earning factory workers made his ideal unrealistic.

  • The expanding gap between rich factory owners and poor workers became troubling to many Americans.

The supported the agricultural South.Second National Bank divided Americans.

Jacksonian Democrats

  • felt the National Bank symbolized “money power.”

  • believed the new business economy encouraged corruption.

  • opposed policies they felt enriched business at the expense of farmers and workers.

Business Leaders

  • believed the National Bank was necessary to maintain a stable supply of currency.

In 1832, Congress voted to renew the Bank’s charter.

Jackson vetoed the charter renewal.

Presidential vetoes were rare. Bank supporters denounced Jackson as a power-hungry tyrant and formed a new political party, theWhigs.

The Whigs were led by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Henry Clay of Kentucky.

Whigs favored a strong federal government, broad interpretation of the Constitution, protective tariffs, internal improvements, and moral reform.

Andrew Jackson, while stressing democracy for the common man, was seen as a tyrantby those who crossed him.

They referred to him mockingly as “King Andrew.”

  • Martin Van Buren man, of New York, Jackson’s hand-picked successor, won the election of 1836.

  • With no federal banks, state banks flooded the market with currency, causing extreme inflation.

  • The government stopped accepting paper money for land purchases, leading to a sudden drop in land values.

Jackson’s economic policies led to disaster for the next president.

The resulting man, Panic of 1837 became the worst depression the nation had yet experienced.

  • Inflation caused by the state banks hurt common people.

  • The drop in land values led to bankruptcies. Many planters and farmers lost their land.

  • A third of urban workers lost their jobsand wages dropped by 30%.

The Panic hurt Van Buren and the Democratic Party.

In 1840, the Whigs nominated man, William Henry Harrison and John Tyler.

  • Harrison was portrayed as a simple farmer, born in a log cabin, while Van Buren was painted as an ineffective, corrupt aristocrat.

  • The slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too”reminded voters of Harrison’s military record.

Harrison’s victorious 1840 campaign focused on symbols like his log cabin background, seen in this flag.

One month after his inauguration, man, President Harrison died of pneumonia.

  • Vice President John Tyler assumed the Presidency and, to the dismay of the Whigs, rejected their policies.

  • Tyler vetoed legislation to restore the National Bank and to enact Clay’s American System.

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