Chapter 11 fundamentals of passives discrete integrated and embedded
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Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded. Presented by Paul Kasemir and Eric Wilson. Chapter Objectives. Define passives and their fundamental parameters Describe the role of passives in electronic products Introduce the different forms

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Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded

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Chapter 11 fundamentals of passives discrete integrated and embedded

Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded

Presented by

Paul Kasemir and Eric Wilson


Chapter objectives

Chapter Objectives

  • Define passives and their fundamental parameters

  • Describe the role of passives in electronic products

  • Introduce the different forms

  • Describe the different materials and processes used for passives


11 1 what are passives

11.1 What are Passives?

  • Can sense, monitor, transfer, attenuate, and control voltages

  • Cannot differentiate between positive and negative polarity

  • Cannot apply gain or amplification

  • Passives absorb and dissipate electrical energy

  • Ex. Resistor, inductor, capacitor, transformer, filter, switch, relay


11 2 role of passives in electronic products

11.2 Role of Passives in Electronic Products

  • High frequency applications take smaller values (pF and nH)

  • Impedance matching to coax (50 ohm)

  • Power supplies require large capacitance

  • Digital circuitry requires decoupling capacitors for current surges

  • Resistors used for termination, filtering, timing and pull up/down


Rf passives

RF Passives

  • Filters, couplers, RF crossings, impedance matching, and antennas.

  • Signal inductors (1-20nH) and capacitors (1-20pF)

  • Choke Inductors (20-100nH)

  • Higher frequency requires smaller footprints, or even embedded passives

  • Mixed-Signal packages used in cell phones and GPS in MCM


11 3 fundamentals of passives

11.3 Fundamentals of Passives

  • Resistor

    • Resist current flow

    • Dissipate a power as heat

    • V = IR

    • Current Density, resistivity, conductivity, and sheet resistance


Fundamentals of capacitor

Fundamentals of Capacitor

  • Stores electrical charge Q

  • Dielectric between 2 metal plates

  • Capacitance C = QV = εA/d

  • I = C(dV/dt) DC open

  • Series and parallel capacitors

  • Reactance, impedance, ESR, leakage current


Fundamentals of inductor

Fundamentals of Inductor

  • Stores energy in magnetic field

  • Wire coil with or without core

  • Inductance L = μn2Al

  • V = L(dI/dt)DC short

  • Magnetic cores increase B field, and thus inductance


Filters

Filters

  • Low-pass

  • High-pass

  • Bandpass

  • Bandstop

  • Series-parallel combination of R, L, and C


11 4 physical representation

11.4 Physical Representation


Physical representation

Physical Representation

  • Discrete – single passive

  • Integrated – multiple passives

    • Array

      • SIP and DIP resistor packages

    • Network

      • Filter circuits with only inputs and outputs as package terminals

  • Embedded

    • Created as part of the substrate


Passive comparisons

Passive Comparisons

  • In a typical circuit, 80% of components are passives

  • 50% of the PCB is taken by passives

  • 25% of solder connections go to passives

  • ~900 billion discrete units per year


11 5 discrete passives

11.5 Discrete Passives

  • Resistors

    • Wire-wound

      • Nichrome wire

    • Film resistors

      • Carbon or metal film deposited on substrate

    • Carbon-composite

      • Graphite powder, silica and a binder


Resistor applications

Resistor applications

  • Bias

  • Divider

  • Feedback

  • Termination

  • Pull up/down

  • Sense

  • Delay

  • Timing


Polar capacitors

Polar Capacitors

  • Aluminum electrolyte

    • Uneven surface gives efficiency

  • Tantalum

    • Pellet with lots of surface area

    • Cathode material limits conductivity


Nonpolar capacitors

Nonpolar Capacitors

  • Film

    • Rolled

    • Stacked

  • Ceramic

    • Most dominant

    • Like stacked film

    • Used to need precious metals

    • Now Ni and Cu can be used

  • High Capacitance

    • 1-47 F


Capacitor performance i

Capacitor Performance I

  • Remember capacitors have AC effects

  • Temperature coefficient

    • Typically less than 10%

    • Some can be on order of ppm/°C

    • Larger capacitance = worse coefficient


Capacitor performance ii

Capacitor Performance II

  • Voltage coefficient

  • Aging

    • Logarithmic

    • X7R 1% per decade hour (good)

    • Reversible


Capacitors becoming inductors

Capacitors Becoming Inductors

  • Caps have associated inductance

  • Self resonant frequency

  • ESL dependent on physical structure


Capacitor applications i

Capacitor Applications I

  • Coupling

  • Timing and wave shaping

    • Changing RC time constant

    • Windshields


Capacitor applications ii

Capacitor Applications II

  • Filtering

    • Low pass filters

  • Decoupling

    • Mostly for digital signals


Inductors

Inductors

  • SMT inductors looking like SMT caps

  • Core type

  • Value in henries, but should also have series resistance

  • “Choke” role

  • Timing circuits using Ls are gone


11 6 integrated passives

11.6 Integrated Passives

  • Increased quantity decreases price

    • But maybe not as much as you would think

  • Smaller components = higher mounting costs

    • But maybe a lot more than you would think


Arrays and networks

Arrays and Networks

  • Arrays

    • Many of the same type in a single package

    • Good for R

    • Not as much for C

  • Networks

    • Different types in one package

    • Good for RC or RLC functions


11 7 embedded integral passives

11.7 Embedded (Integral) Passives

  • Benefits

    • Smaller

    • Cheaper (???)

    • More reliable

  • Costs

    • New designs

    • New manufacturing processes


Integration options

Integration Options

  • Ceramic

  • Thin film on Si

  • IC Integration

    • Horrible


Barriers to embedded passives

Barriers to Embedded Passives

  • Risk

  • No reworkability

  • Cost

    • But wait until 2004!


Embedded passives technology

Embedded Passives Technology

  • R

    • Thick film ~100-1M Ω/square

    • Thin film ~25-100 Ω/square

  • C

    • Typical inorganic is 50 nF/cm2

    • GE has gotten ~200 nF/cm2 with inorganics

    • Polymer-ceramic components can get 4-25 nF/cm2

  • L

    • Okay in embedded if <100 nH

    • Discrete recommended for >100 nH


The end

The End


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