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Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and EmbeddedPowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded

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### Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Passives: Discrete, Integrated, and Embedded

### The End and Embedded

Presented by

Paul Kasemir and Eric Wilson

Chapter Objectives and Embedded

- Define passives and their fundamental parameters
- Describe the role of passives in electronic products
- Introduce the different forms
- Describe the different materials and processes used for passives

11.1 What are Passives? and Embedded

- Can sense, monitor, transfer, attenuate, and control voltages
- Cannot differentiate between positive and negative polarity
- Cannot apply gain or amplification
- Passives absorb and dissipate electrical energy
- Ex. Resistor, inductor, capacitor, transformer, filter, switch, relay

11.2 Role of Passives in Electronic Products and Embedded

- High frequency applications take smaller values (pF and nH)
- Impedance matching to coax (50 ohm)
- Power supplies require large capacitance
- Digital circuitry requires decoupling capacitors for current surges
- Resistors used for termination, filtering, timing and pull up/down

RF Passives and Embedded

- Filters, couplers, RF crossings, impedance matching, and antennas.
- Signal inductors (1-20nH) and capacitors (1-20pF)
- Choke Inductors (20-100nH)
- Higher frequency requires smaller footprints, or even embedded passives
- Mixed-Signal packages used in cell phones and GPS in MCM

11.3 Fundamentals of Passives and Embedded

- Resistor
- Resist current flow
- Dissipate a power as heat
- V = IR
- Current Density, resistivity, conductivity, and sheet resistance

Fundamentals of Capacitor and Embedded

- Stores electrical charge Q
- Dielectric between 2 metal plates
- Capacitance C = QV = εA/d
- I = C(dV/dt) DC open
- Series and parallel capacitors
- Reactance, impedance, ESR, leakage current

Fundamentals of Inductor and Embedded

- Stores energy in magnetic field
- Wire coil with or without core
- Inductance L = μn2Al
- V = L(dI/dt) DC short
- Magnetic cores increase B field, and thus inductance

Filters and Embedded

- Low-pass
- High-pass
- Bandpass
- Bandstop
- Series-parallel combination of R, L, and C

11.4 Physical Representation and Embedded

Physical Representation and Embedded

- Discrete – single passive
- Integrated – multiple passives
- Array
- SIP and DIP resistor packages

- Network
- Filter circuits with only inputs and outputs as package terminals

- Array
- Embedded
- Created as part of the substrate

Passive Comparisons and Embedded

- In a typical circuit, 80% of components are passives
- 50% of the PCB is taken by passives
- 25% of solder connections go to passives
- ~900 billion discrete units per year

11.5 Discrete Passives and Embedded

- Resistors
- Wire-wound
- Nichrome wire

- Film resistors
- Carbon or metal film deposited on substrate

- Carbon-composite
- Graphite powder, silica and a binder

- Wire-wound

Resistor applications and Embedded

- Bias
- Divider
- Feedback
- Termination
- Pull up/down
- Sense
- Delay
- Timing

Polar Capacitors and Embedded

- Aluminum electrolyte
- Uneven surface gives efficiency

- Tantalum
- Pellet with lots of surface area
- Cathode material limits conductivity

Nonpolar Capacitors and Embedded

- Film
- Rolled
- Stacked

- Ceramic
- Most dominant
- Like stacked film
- Used to need precious metals
- Now Ni and Cu can be used

- High Capacitance
- 1-47 F

Capacitor Performance I and Embedded

- Remember capacitors have AC effects
- Temperature coefficient
- Typically less than 10%
- Some can be on order of ppm/°C
- Larger capacitance = worse coefficient

Capacitor Performance II and Embedded

- Voltage coefficient
- Aging
- Logarithmic
- X7R 1% per decade hour (good)
- Reversible

Capacitors Becoming Inductors and Embedded

- Caps have associated inductance
- Self resonant frequency
- ESL dependent on physical structure

Capacitor Applications I and Embedded

- Coupling
- Timing and wave shaping
- Changing RC time constant
- Windshields

Capacitor Applications II and Embedded

- Filtering
- Low pass filters

- Decoupling
- Mostly for digital signals

Inductors and Embedded

- SMT inductors looking like SMT caps
- Core type
- Value in henries, but should also have series resistance
- “Choke” role
- Timing circuits using Ls are gone

11.6 Integrated Passives and Embedded

- Increased quantity decreases price
- But maybe not as much as you would think

- Smaller components = higher mounting costs
- But maybe a lot more than you would think

Arrays and Networks and Embedded

- Arrays
- Many of the same type in a single package
- Good for R
- Not as much for C

- Networks
- Different types in one package
- Good for RC or RLC functions

11.7 Embedded (Integral) Passives and Embedded

- Benefits
- Smaller
- Cheaper (???)
- More reliable

- Costs
- New designs
- New manufacturing processes

Integration Options and Embedded

- Ceramic
- Thin film on Si
- IC Integration
- Horrible

Barriers to Embedded Passives and Embedded

- Risk
- No reworkability
- Cost
- But wait until 2004!

Embedded Passives Technology and Embedded

- R
- Thick film ~100-1M Ω/square
- Thin film ~25-100 Ω/square

- C
- Typical inorganic is 50 nF/cm2
- GE has gotten ~200 nF/cm2 with inorganics
- Polymer-ceramic components can get 4-25 nF/cm2

- L
- Okay in embedded if <100 nH
- Discrete recommended for >100 nH

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