Unit 3 english language 1
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Unit 3 English Language 1. Descriptive Texts & Parts of Speech . Adjectives. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying or quantifying it. An adjective usually comes before the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.

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Unit 3 English Language 1

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Unit 3 english language 1

Unit 3English Language 1

Descriptive Texts&

Parts of Speech


Adjectives

Adjectives

  • An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying or quantifying it.

  • An adjective usually comes before the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.

  • The room was filed with large, yellow rain boots

  • XGurmit says that this was a luxuriously item to buy.


Adverbs

Adverbs

  • An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

  • My grandmother knits intricately patterned mittens.

  • An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how" "when" "where" "how much".


Adverbs1

Adverbs

  • Some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix,.

  • The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.

  • The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.

  • The boldly-spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.

  • Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.

  • My grandmother knits intricately patterned mittens.

  • XThat is an enormous big car.


Activity 1

Activity 1

Identify and discuss the faulty omission of –ly:

  • No matter how convincing a leader preaches about the progress, we can be more convinced by his deeds.

  • how convincingly

  • The poor educated and the uneducated can never compete equally in this society.

  • poorly educated

  • Surprisingly, there was a tremendous good reception for our nobly beaten opponents

  • tremendously good

  • The boys must be running wild through the streets and shouting loudly.

  • running wildly


Rule based spelling

Rule Based Spelling

  • Rule 1

  • all, fill, full, skill, well, will.

  • When these single-syllable words combine they drop an l.

  • Example:

  • all + most [almost ]

  • skill + full [skilful]

  • Rule 2

  • Normally a short vowel takes a double consonant and a long vowel takes a single consonant after it if a further syllable follows

  • Example:

  • short vowel in 'tap' [tapping]

  • long vowel in ‘tape’ [taping]


Rule based spelling1

Rule Based Spelling

  • Rule 3

  • Unstressed syllables do not take double consonants to follow the vowel

  • Example:

  • limited (unstressed ) [limited]

  • permitted (stressed) [permitted]

  • Rule 4

  • When adding to a word that ends in e, keep the e if you add a consonant next, drop the e if you add a vowel next.

  • Example:

  • grace [graceful]

  • hope [hopeful]

  • fame [famous]

  • But there are exceptions to this rule.


Rule based spelling2

Rule Based Spelling

  • Rule 5

  • Remember i before e except after c, if the sound is 'ee'

  • Example:

  • field

  • siege

  • relieve

  • deceive

  • conceit

  • perceive

  • Rule 6

  • Root words ending in y change the y to ie if the y follows a consonant but keep the y if it follows a vowel.

  • Example:

  • city [cities]

  • try [tried]

  • key [keys]


Rule based spelling3

Rule Based Spelling

  • Rule 7

  • Get to know prefixes like dis- and un- and notice that a double consonant only appears where the root word has the same consonant as that of the prefix

  • Example:

  • appear [dis + appear = disappear]

  • satisfied [dis + satisfied = dissatisfied]

  • opened [un + opened = unopened]

  • notice [un + noticed = unnoticed]

  • Rule 8

  • With suc, exc, and proc, double e should follow

  • Example:

  • succeed

  • exceed

  • proceed


Rule based spelling4

Rule Based Spelling

  • Rule 9

  • Most words ending in 'o' make a plural by adding 's', but it is worth learning the little group that takes a plural in 'es':

  • Example:

  • negroes would be heroes if they played banjoes with tomatoes or potatoes.

  • Do notice there is no e in the singular potato, tomato.

  • Rule 10

  • If a word ends in 's', 'ss', 'sh’, “ch', 'x' or 'zz' it makes its plural by adding 'es'.

  • Examples:

  • bus [buses]

  • church [churches]

  • mass [masses}

  • box [boxes]

  • buzz [buzzes]

  • bush [bushes]


Rule based spelling5

Rule Based Spelling

  • Rule 11

  • When a word ends in 'f’ the plural is 'ves'.

  • Example:

  • shelf [shelves]

  • wolf [wolves]

  • With some exceptions: roofs, chiefs.


Activity 2

Activity 2

  • Spelling! 10 words.

  • 1. supersede

  • 2. receive

  • 3. cemetery

  • 4. occasion

  • 5. repetition

  • 6. privilege

  • 7. mischievous

  • 8.rhythm

  • 9.occurred

  • 10.collectible


Commonly misspelled words

Commonly misspelled words.

  • Accept, Except

  • accept = verb meaning to receive or to agree.

  • except = preposition meaning all but, other than.

  • Advise, Advice

  • advise = verb that means to recommend, suggest, or counsel.

  • advice = noun that means an opinion or recommendation about what could or should be done.


Task 1

Task 1

  • In groups of 5, differentiate the meanings of the following homophones:

  • Brows, Browse

  • Brows = the eyebrows

  • Browse = look through something

  • Complement, Compliment

  • Complement = something that completes or a counterpart

  • Compliment = expression of respect

  • Dual, Duel

  • Dual = two

  • Duel = a fight between two persons


Task 11

Task 1

  • Elicit , Illicit

  • Elicit = to bring out

  • Illicit = unlawful

  • Ion, Iron

  • Ion = an atom with a free electron

  • Iron = a metal

  • Medal, Meddle

  • Medal = a prize

  • Meddle = interfere

  • Net, Nett

  • Net = as used in fishing

  • Nett = as used in computation


Task 12

Task 1

  • Queue, Cue

  • Queue = as in lining up

  • Cue = a prompt given

  • Soared, Sword

  • Soared = as in flight

  • Sword = a weapon

  • Waive, Wave

  • Waive = to refrain from pressing or enforcing

  • Wave = a hand gesture

  • Yoke, Yolk

  • Yoke = a wooden bar or frame by which two draft animals (for example, oxen) are joined at the heads or necks for working together

  • Yolk = as in an egg yolk


A table of some commonly misspelled words among tertiary students

A Table of some commonly misspelled words among tertiary students


Tips for overcoming spelling errors

Tips for overcoming spelling errors:

1. Make a list of your most common spelling mistakes  

  • 2. Make a separate list of the current spellings of these words.

  • 3. Commit this list to memory by looking at it for five minutes, turning it over and writing out the words.

  • 4. Write out each word 5 times and see how many words you can remember.


Task 2

Task 2

Spell some words based on the rules you have learned.

  • preferred, preference

  • potato, potatoes

  • succeed, precede

  • appear, disappear

  • satisfied, dissatisfied

  • notice, unnoticed

  • relieve, receive

  • limited, permitted

  • win, winning

  • skill, skilful


Task 3

Task 3

  • Circle the correctly spelled word in the following sentences:

  • 1. The $5m reward is a great insentive /incentive to work hard to capture the criminal.

  • 2. It is extreemly / extremely doubtful that computers will replace all human beings by 2013.

  • 3. Many companies/ companys are using e-Marketing to do business.

  • 4. This country now possesses/ posseses rich resources to become the world’s largest exporter of Copper and Iron-Sulphate.


Task 31

Task 3

  • 5. Religion and literature have become similar in the past / passed few years.

  • 6. This nuclear accident ocured / occurred in the 1950s when scientists were not fully aware of the danger of nuclear wastes.

  • 7. She was so shocked by the news that she threw the telephone reciever / receiveronto the floor.

  • 8. Email is still the prefered / preferredmode of communication in the office.

  • 9. On many occassions / occasions, we found him drunk while at work.

  • 10. Most of my teammates/ teamates are willing to put in more time to complete the project. 


Descriptive texts

DESCRIPTIVE TEXTS

  • A descriptive text is a text that wants you to picture what they are describing.A novel might want you to imagine the characters and see them in your mind.

  • A travel book will want you to see the country it is describing.


What are the features of descriptive texts

What are the features of descriptive texts?

  • make use of adjectives and adverbs

  • use comparisons to help picture it - something is like something

  • employ your five senses - how it feels, smells, looks, sounds and tastes

    The morning air was crisp and sharp as Sean walked merrily down the road.The pavement was slippery and cold beneath his feet like a slimy wet fish.


Sample passage

Sample Passage

  • We visited a big temple. It was magnificent(adj)! We went in and were greeted by many life-like (adj) statues which were however covered by much dust. At the prayer (adj) hall, the incense rapidly (adv) stung my eyes and made it hard (adj) for me to breathe. As we jostled among the sweat-drenched (adj) devotees, I painstakingly (adv) avoided being burnt by the bundles of incense they carried. It was only in the inner (adj) hall that I found respite. The sonorous (adj) chanting of the monks had a wonderfully (adv)calming (adj) effect on me….

  • Discussion question

  • How does the passage engage your 5 senses?


Web activity time

Web-activity time

Now that you know what a descriptive text is, have some fun at this web-site. You will have to identify a descriptive text from among other text types:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/reading/typesoftext/game.shtml


Put it into practice

Put it into practice

  • A) Write it!

  • Write a descriptive piece of about 100 words. Some topics for your consideration:

  • First day at NYP

  • My first date/my dream date

  • My best holiday

  • Driving my dream car down/along ____________

  • B) Edit it!

  • Exchange work with a friend to do peer-editing, focussing on improving the use of adjectives.


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