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纳米科学与技术 Nanoscale Science & Technology 李桂村 材料科学与工程学院 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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纳米科学与技术 Nanoscale Science & Technology 李桂村 材料科学与工程学院. 李桂村 Tel: 13730918070 E-mail: [email protected] 参考书: 1 、纳米技术与纳米材料,张志焜、崔作林著,国防工业出版社, 2000 2 、纳米材料与纳米结构,张立德等著,科学出版社, 2001 3 、纳米材料和器件,朱静等著,清华大学出版社, 2003

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纳米科学与技术 Nanoscale Science & Technology 李桂村 材料科学与工程学院

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Nanoscale Science & Technology


  • Tel: 13730918070

  • E-mail: [email protected]


12000

22001

32003

4Nanoscale Science and Technology, Robert W. KelsallJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2005

5Science, Nature, Nat. Mater., Nat. Nanotech., Angew. Chim. Int. Ed., J. Am. Chem. Soc., Adv. Mater., Nano Letters



  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


  • :

  • :

  • Mesostructure, Macrostructure, Nanostructure, Nanotechnology; nanomaterial, Nanostructure, NanodeviceTop-down, Bottom-up.


  • (Introduction)

  • 2005:

  • 2004104

  • 19975200335

  • ( 2005-01-27)


  • 2006926


  • 1100


  • 2040


  • 4000


  • 2007218

  • 100,


1.1 Nanoscale science & technology


  • 1959

  • ()



  • (nanometer)nm1 nm=10(-9) m=10

  • 50-100 m, 1 nm1/50000

  • 1110

  • Nanotechnology is the term used to cover the design, construction and utilization of functional structures with at least one characteristic dimension measured in nanometers.


How small is 1 nanometer?

Human Hair


Pt/TiO2


Understanding Size

  • How big (small) are we talking about?

  • 10 centimeters


Understanding Size

  • 1 centimeter


Understanding Size

100 micrometers


Understanding Size

10 micrometers


Understanding Size

1 micrometer


Understanding Size

100 nanometers


Understanding Size

10 nanometers


Understanding Size

  • 1 nanometer


  • 1. (Nano-ST):

  • 2080(107)(109)

  • 2. :


  • 19936

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 6


  • 3.(nanomaterials):

  • 100100 nm

  • The objects may display physical attributes substantially different from those displayed by either atoms or bulk materials.


  • 100 nm

  • 3 nm900300


  • 4.(Classification of nanostructures)

  • amorphous, singlecrystalline or polycrystalline

  • (the number of dimensions5

  • (1) 0quasi-zero dimensional(100 nm)

  • Systems confined in three dimensions

  • Fullerenes Colloidal particles

  • Semiconductor quantum dots

  • HRTEM image

  • of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle


  • (2) 11100 nm()

  • Systems confined in two dimensions

  • Include nanowires, nanorods, nanofilaments and nanotubes.

  • (3) 21 100 nm

  • Systems confined in one dimension.

  • include discs or platelets, ultrathin films on a surface and multilayered materials.


  • (4)Interfacial properties

  • a nanocrystalline solid consisting of nanometre-sized crystalline grains each in a specific crystallographic orientation.


  • (5)

  • MCM-41; SAB-16;

  • Nanoporous silicon;

  • Activated carbons

MCM-41


SAB-16

6, 9, 20, 26 nm


  • component

  • ()


  • 5.

  • 1~100 nm (10-9~10-7 m), , , ,

  • 6.

  • ?


  • 7.


  • A

  • -

  • B

  • AFMSTMXRDSEMTEM


  • C

  • D

  • ,

  • E

  • Nano-TiO2V2O5



  • 1

  • ,


  • , , ,

  • ,


  • 2

  • ,

  • , --

  • MooreIntel18150 nm45 nm32 nm


  • 2010

  • 100100

  • , (1000) (1/1000) 530



  • (top down),

  • (bottom up), , ,


  • The use of bottom-up and top-down techniques in manufacturing


  • 3


  • 1981IBMG. BinningH. RohrerScanning Tunneling Microscope, STM1986

  • Z0.01 nm


(STM)


  • A 1990IBMD.M.EiglerSTM4KNi35IBM

  • 5nmXe1nmXe XeXeNiXe


  • Xe(CO)STM5nm CO0.5nm, ""


  • 48


48Fe


  • B 1991STMPeace 911.5


  • C 1994STM2 nm10 nm

  • 1988412

  • STM



1.2

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3


  • 4

  • 5

  • 6

  • 1012200


  • 7

  • 4001000


  • 1

  • 1000


  • 2

  • 195912Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom

  • 1861(Colloid Chemistry)1~100 nm


  • The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom.

  • Put the atoms down where the chemist says, and so you make the substance.

  • - Richard Feynman (1959)

  • Physics Nobel Laureate


  • 1932Ruska1986

  • 19981.3


  • 3

  • 60

  • 1962(Kubo)----

  • (10 nm)


  • 1963Uyeda


  • 1970Self-assembly


  • 4

  • 7080


  • 1974,Taniguchi(nanotechnology) ,

  • 1977, ---, 70


  • MNTgrey goo


  • STM

  • 1981G. BinningH. RohrerIBM

  • 0.01nm,


  • 1984GleiterPd, Fe, CuTiO2Nanostructured materials


  • C60Fullerence

  • 1985Smalley2005.10Kroto(Rice)60C60.


Fullerenes 1985 (1996)

Robert F. Curl Jr. Richard E. Smalley

Sir Harold W. Kroto


  • 1987ArgonSiegelTiO2

  • 1988Giant Magneto-ResistiveGMR

  • 3//


  • 2007

  • Read Head

  • 50

  • 1994IBM1719953Gb4B600B


  • 1990


  • 1991NECS. Iijima Y. Ando


  • 3

  • (1990)

  • ()

  • (1994)

  • (0-0)

  • (0-3)

  • (0-2)

  • (1994)


  • :



  • patterning materials on the nanometer scale

  • Nature


  • 19907

  • Nanostructured Materials, Nanobiology, Nanotechnology

  • 19929CauCan

  • 80


  • 1999 , 21 10 11

  • 20004.95

  • : 21(leading to the next industrial revolution)(top priority)


  • 80.

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • ----


  • 1995

  • 1997

  • 2000,


  • 2002-2006

  • ()

  • 2000

  • 20031121


  • 4

  • 2002200713


  • ()

  • 20011020022003320105

  • 1999


  • ()

  • 20017

  • 2005


  • ()

  • 2000~2002310 00030% (12.76%)(11.28%)(10.64%)(7.89%)3000

  • 51000


  • ()

  • 200020022236(1454)(368)(118)60%16.46%5.28%1%

  • 20


  • ()


  • 200420155~10


  • 5



  • 1/10



  • 80%


1.3

  • 1959

  • 1965


  • 1991IBMArmstrong2070

  • .

  • 21

  • H. Rohrer, 1993


  • 1993STMNobel(Heinrich Rohrer)150150


  • [1]

  • 1991IBM0.3 cm

  • 4 nm


  • STMSTM10 nm

  • NEC400


  • [2]


  • Gleiter100%TiO2180


  • 50 nm

  • CahnNature


  • /----



  • [3]



  • NEC1001/65


  • 90


  • 200821

  • David K. Ferry



  • (giant magnetoresistance)(tunneling magnetoresistance)30

  • 199740Co400Gbin-2


  • [4]

  • 100


  • 10


19992000



  • 5

  • GHZ


  • [5]


  • Fe2O3TiO2ZnO

  • TiO20.5~1%


  • 0.1~0.5%



  • 1992Kresge

  • 5~10nm


  • 100 nm

  • ---


  • SiO2N2Si3N44~40nm

  • GaN

  • 1998


  • [6]

  • DNA----

  • DNA


  • AdelmanDNA


  • Birge


  • [7]

  • RNA15~20nm

  • 10nm

  • cancer


  • SiO2


Molecular-scale machines could one day have medical applications such as removing cancerous cells.

Nature451, 770-771 (14 February 2008) |


  • [8]

  • A

  • B

  • C


  • 1996IBMC60

  • 10


  • 1999Science


  • TRoss Kelly784


Nanotube Nanotweezers

Charles M. Lieber

  • 1999PhilipKimCharlesLieber500100


  • ()8.5.504


  • [9]

  • A

  • B (


  • C

  • D

  • E


H2


Storage of hydrogen in single-walled carbon nanotubes

a carbon nanotube

b activated carbon

c carbon nanotube calcined at 900 oC

H2C


  • 1.4

  • 6500


  • Peidong Yang


  • Hierarchically Ordered Oxides


880-905oC ZnO

  • Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers


  • Zhong Lin (ZL) Wang

  • Younan Xia


Nanobelts of Semiconducting oxides

  • Our synthesis is based on thermal evaporation of oxide powders under controlled conditions without the presence of catalyst. The desired oxide powders were placed at the center of an alumina tube that was inserted in a horizontal tube furnace, where the temperature, pressure, and evaporation time were controlled. Thermal evaporation of ZnO powders (purity: 99.99%; melting point: 1975C) at 1400C for 2 hours resulted in white woollike products that formed in high yield on the surface of the alumina plate.


  • Single-crystal nanorings of ZnO were grown by a solid-vapor process. The raw material was a mixture of ZnO (melting point 1975C), indium oxide, and lithium carbonate powders at a weight ratio of 20:1:1, and it was placed at the highest temperature zone of a horizontal tube furnace. Before heating to a desired temperature of 1400C, the tube furnace was evacuated to 10-3 torr to remove the residual oxygen. The source materials were then heated to 1400C at a heating rate of 20C/min. ZnO decomposes into Zn2+ and O2 at high temperature (1400C) and low pressure (10-3 torr), and this decomposition process is the key step for controlling the anisotropic growth of the nanobelts. After a few minutes of evaporation and decomposition, the Ar carrier gas was introduced at a flux of 50 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The synthesis process was conducted at 1400C for 30 min. The condensation products were deposited onto a silicon substrate placed in a temperature zone of 200 to 400C under Ar pressure of 500 torr.


  • The ZnO nanohelices were grown with high reproducibility by a vapor-solid process and by using temperature to control growth kinetics. The experimental setup consists of a horizontal high-temperature tube furnace, an alumina tube, a rotary pump system, and a gas-controlling system. First, 2 g of commercial ZnO powder were compacted, loaded into an alumina boat, and positioned at the center of the alumina tube as the source material. The systemwas prepumped to 2*10-2 mbar, and the ramp rate was controlled at 20oC/min to 25-C/min when the temperature was raised from room temperature to 800oC. The furnace was then held at 800oC for 20 min, and the temperature was ramped at 20oC/min from 800- to 1400-C. When the temperature reached 1000-C, argon was introduced as a carrier gas to raise the pressure from 2*10-2 mbar to the desired synthesis pressure of 200 to 250 mbar within ~2.5 min. The solid-vapor deposition was carried out at 1400-C for 2 hours under a pressure of 200 to 250 mbar. The argon carrier gas was kept at a flow rate of 50 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute). The as-grown nanohelices of ZnO were deposited onto a polycrystalline Al2O3 substrate at a local temperature of 700- to 800oC and characterized by a variety of microscopes.


  • ,1730


  • Charles Lieber


Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Basedon Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays

  • Zhong Lin Wang


  • Younan Xia

  • PVP

shaped controlled synthesis of gold and siliver nanoparticles


  • In a typical synthesis of silver nanocubes, 5 ml of anhydrous ethylene glycol was heated at 160C for 1 hour. 3 ml of ethylene glycol solution of AgNO3 and 3 ml of ethylene glycol solution of PVP were simultaneously added to the ethylene glycol. The reaction mixture was then continued with heating at 160C for another 45 min. The product was dominated by cubic nanoparticles, with a small amount (5%) of silver nanowires. These nanowires could easily be separated from nanocubes through filtration because of their large difference in dimension.

  • In this case, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (25 times by volume) and .ltered through Nucleopore membranes (Whatman, Clifton, NJ) that contained pores 1 m in diameter.


  • A. Paul Alivisatos

  • Charles M. Lieber


Air-Stable All-Inorganic Nanocrystal Solar Cells Processed from Solution Alivisatos

3%


Controlled growth and electrical properties of heterojunctions of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires

  • Charles M. Lieber

  • Fe/Au

  • CVD


Si

C

extrusion

Si


  • Charles M. Lieber

Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers

  • green

  • blue


  • 20100

  • 33100


  • Mesoporous silica containing iron nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel process from tetraethoxysilane hydrolysisin iron nitrate aqueous solution.

  • After gelation of the mixture, the gel was dried for 1week at60C to remove the excess water and other solvents. The gel wasthen calcined 10hours at 450C at 10 2 torr. A silica network with relatively uniform pores was obtainedwith iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in the pores. The ironoxide nanoparticleswere then reduced at 550C in 180torr offlowing 9% H2/N2 (110cm3/min) for 5hours to obtain iron nanoparticles.

  • Subsequently, a mixture of 9% acetylene innitrogen was introduced into the chamber, and carbon nanotubes were formed on the substrate by depositionof carbon atoms obtained from decomposition of acetylene at 700C.


  • (A) Low-magnification SEM image of a film composed of aligned carbon nanotubes. This film with a thickness of 50 m was obtained by growing for 2 hours. (B) Tip structure of the aligned tubes.


  • A) High-magnification SEM image of carbon nanotubes growing out from the mesoporous iron/silica substrate and forming an array. These carbon nanotubes have diameters of 30 nm. Spacings between tubes are 100 nm. Most of the carbon nanotubes are approximately perpendicular to the surface of the silica. (B) SEM image of the mesoporous iron/silica substrate before carbon deposition.


  • High-resolution TEM image of a carbon nanotube.


2 mm

Very long carbon nanotubes xie


0.5 nm carbon nanotube


  • 3~401997 Science


  • (A) TEM image of the carbon nanotubes used as starting material. (B) TEM image of the GaN nanorods that were produced


  • Schematic process flow for the synthesis of regular arrays of oriented nanotubes on porous silicon by catalyst patterning and CVD


  • Electron micrographs of self-oriented nanotubes synthesized on n1-type porous silicon substrates. (A) SEM image of nanotube blocks synthesized on 250 mm by 250 mm catalyst patterns. The nanotubes are 80 mm long and oriented perpendicular to the substrate [see (F)]. (B) SEM imageof nanotube towers synthesized on 38 mm by 38 mm catalyst patterns. The nanotubes are 130 mmlong. (C) Side view of the nanotube towers in (B). The nanotubes self-assemble such that the edgesof the towers are perfectly perpendicular to the substrate. (D) Nanotube twin towers, a zoom-inview of Fig. 2C. (E) SEM image showing sharp edges and corners at the top of a nanotube tower.(F) SEM image showing that nanotubes in a block are well aligned to the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface. (G) TEM image of pure multiwalled nanotubes in several nanotube blocksgrown on a n1-type porous silicon substrate.


  • A Benzene-Thermal Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline GaN

  • Yi Xie, Yitai Qian, Wenzhong Wang, Shuyuan Zhang, Yuheng Zhang

  • A thermal reaction of Li3N and GaCl3 in which benzene was used as the solvent under pressure has been carried out for the preparation of 30-nanometer particles of gallium nitride (GaN) at 280C. This temperature is much lower than that of traditional methods, and the yield of GaN reached 80%.



  • Transmission electron microscopy image of sample (scale bar, 1 mm), (B) electron diffraction pattern, and (C) SEM image (scale bar, 60 mm).


  • Dangerous Mixture

  • A method for the synthesis of diamond by reaction of sodium with carbon tetrachloride was described by Y. Li. Readers of this report should be aware that mixtures of sodium and carbon tetrachloride are exceedingly dangerous. After standing for a short period of time, the reaction products are shock-sensitive and highly explosive.

  • John C. Angus

  • Chemical Engineering Department,Case Western Reserve University,Cleveland, OH 44106-7217, USA


  • 200050002006Science.

  • Superplastic Extensibility of Nanocrystalline Copper at Room Temperature




Ultrahigh Strength and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper


  • 2004Nature

    Water-repellent legs of water striders



  • The particles are too small for direct measurements, too large to be described by current rigorous first principle theoretical and computational methods, exhibit too many fluctuations to be treated monolithically in time and space, and are too few to be described by a statistical ensemble. Fundamental understanding and highly accurate predictive methods are critical to successful manufacturing of nanostructured materials, devices, and systems. STM



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