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Chapter 1: The Science of Biology. Key Concept: What is the goal of science?. 1-1: What Is Science?. 1-1. The goal of science is to: investigate and understand the natural world. explain events in the natural world. use those explanations to make useful predictions. 1-1.

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chapter 1 the science of biology

Chapter 1: The Science of Biology

Key Concept:

What is the goal of science?

slide3

The goal of science is to:

    • investigate and understand the natural world.
    • explain events in the natural world.
    • use those explanations to make useful predictions.

1-1

slide4

Thinking Like a Scientist

      • Scientific thinking begins with observation.
      • Observation is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.

1-1

scientists follow logical steps to 1 generate new ideas 2 answer questions and 3 draw conclusions
Scientists follow logical steps to: (1) generate new ideas, (2) answer questions, and (3) draw conclusions.

These steps are called the Scientific Method.

1-2

scientific method steps
Scientific Method steps:
  • 1. Observe, ask questions.
  • 2. Formulate a hypothesis.
  • 3. Design a controlled experiment.
  • 4. Making careful observations.
  • 5. Analyzing and drawing conclusions.

1-2

hypothesis

Curiosity

HYPOTHESIS

A possible explanation for an event or set of observations.

- It is a prediction about the outcome of an experiment.

1-2

slide10

A hypothesis may be ruled out or confirmed.

  • A hypothesis must be proposed in a way that can be tested.
  • Hypotheses are tested by performing controlled experiments or by gathering new data.

1-2

examples of hypotheses
Examples of hypotheses:
  • Seeds need light to grow.
  • Hyenas are closely related to dogs.

(hyenas are more closely related to cats)

hypotheses are often stated in if then statements
Hypotheses are often stated in “if - then” statements.
  • If lettuce seeds need red light to grow, then they will grow better when exposed to light.
  • Ifhyenas are related to dogs, then genetic testing should show this.

1-2

the scientific method uses a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis
The scientific method uses a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis.
  • Two identical experiments:
  • Variables: factors which change or potentially affect things.
  • Control setup where no change made.

1-2

experiment
EXPERIMENT

Hypothesis must be clearly stated at beginning of experiment.

2-1

experiment1
EXPERIMENT

And, the experiment must be repeatable.

2-1

when doing experiment it is very important to distinguish between observations and conclusions
When doing experiment, it is very important to distinguish between observations and conclusions!

Consider observations thoughtfully before drawing conclusions.

(Boiling water may not be 100 degrees C!)

1-2

slide20

Drawing a Conclusion

    • Scientists use the data from an experiment to evaluate a hypothesis and draw a valid conclusion.
    • Redi’s results supported the hypothesis that maggots were produced by flies, not spontaneous generation.
the results of an experiment may or may not support the hypothesis
The results of an experiment may, or may not support the hypothesis.

If not, hypothesis can be changed.

1-2

examples of variables
Examples of variables:
  • Temperature
  • Length of time
  • Amount of sugar

Most scientific experiments are designed to consider only 1 variable.

slide24

Other variables must be controlled. The control variable stays the same, while the experimental variable changes.

2-1

variables
Variables:
  • Amount of sugar
  • Presence of salt
  • Oven temperature
  • Baking time
what can be controlled
What can be controlled:
  • Amount of water
  • Amount of yeast
  • Oven temperature
  • Baking time

2-1

slide28

With sugar

No sugar

(1 variable only!)

Another

example

a hypothesis that is supported by many experiments done over a period of time is called a theory

A hypothesis that is supported by many experiments done over a period of time is called a Theory.

Theories are not facts, but probable explanations.

2-1

examples of theories
Examples of theories
  • Theory of evolution
  • The cell theory
  • The germ theory

Theories are changeable and expandable, and most importantly, theories are FALSIFIABLE.

2-1

slide31

Observation

Curiosity

Experiment

Hypothesis

Experiment

Experiment

Theory

Experiment

(If all exp’ts support hypothesis)

2-1

slide32
1–2
  • In an experiment, the variable that is deliberately changed is called the
    • control.
    • manipulated variable.
    • responding variable.
    • constant control
slide33
1–2
  • The mistaken belief that living organisms can arise from nonliving matter is called
    • biogenesis.
    • Pasteur\'s theory.
    • spontaneous generation.
    • Spallanzani’s hypothesis.
slide34
1–2
  • Which of the following was the manipulated variable in Redi’s experiment?
    • the kind of meat used
    • the temperature the jars were kept at
    • the gauze covering on some jars
    • the kind of fly that visited the jars
slide35
1–2
  • A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a
    • hypothesis.
    • variable.
    • control.
    • theory.
slide36
1–2
  • A scientific explanation does not become a theory until
    • a majority of scientists agree with it.
    • it has been supported by evidence from numerous investigations and observations.
    • it is first proposed as an explanation.
    • it is published in a textbook.
scientific law
Scientific Law
  • A theory attempts to explain everything about something, including its cause.
  • A scientific law describes something that is always true. It does not explain why, only that it does.

2-1

examples of scientific laws
Examples of Scientific Laws:
  • Law of gravity: any 2 objects attract each other. (doesn’t say anything about why)
  • In biology, Law of Dominance: a dominant trait will show itself when a dominant and recessive trait are mixed.

2-1

let s experiment
Let’s experiment!

Pill bug, sow bug, roly polies

Phylum Crustacea – related to crabs, shrimp

Want to observe behavior and see what environment they prefer.

Hypothesis: If pill bugs prefer moist environments, then they will move to the side of a choice chamber which has more moisture.

slide40

Wink Dinkersen Per. 3

  • Title: Investigation of Roly Poly Behavior
  • Hypothesis: If roly polies prefer moist environments, they will move toward the wet side of a choice chamber.
  • Objective: To investigate . . .
  • Materials:
  • 2 petri dishes
  • 2 pieces filter paper
  • Clear tape
  • 10 roly polies
  • Stopwatch
  • Data table
  • Anything else
  • Procedure:
  • Make a choice chamber with 2 petri dishes
  • Line dishes with filter paper
  • Add 20 drops of water to one side
  • Count out 10 roly polies
  • Place 5 in each side of the choice chamber
  • Data table:
  • Graph on separate pg.
  • Conclusion:
possible variables
Possible variables:

(Pick one)

  • Moisture (dry vs. moist)
  • Light (light vs. dark)
  • Temperature
  • Color
  • Other?
develop a hypothesis
Develop a hypothesis:
  • If pill bugs prefer ______________ then they will move to the ______________ side of the choice chamber.
design an experiment
Design an experiment:
  • State the objective of your experiment.

Objective: to determine ______________.

design an experiment1
Design an experiment:
  • List all the materials you will use.
    • Choice chamber
    • 10 roly polies
    • Paper towel
    • Timer
    • Data sheet
    • Whatever you need for your variable
design an experiment2
Design an experiment:
  • Outline your procedure in detail.
  • Make a data sheet
  • Assign roles (timer, recorder, etc.)
  • Do your experiment!
write your procedure in detail
Write your procedure in detail:

1. Gather choice chamber (CC) and other materials to run expt.

2. cut out paper disk to fit in each side of CC.

3. Count out 10 roly polies.

4. Place 5 roly polies in each side of CC.

5. . . .

measurements
Measurements:
  • Count how many bugs in each side every 30 seconds for 10 minutes.

No bugs will be harmed in this expt!

on paper each person in lab group
On paper (each person in lab group):
  • Name, date, title of experiment
  • Hypothesis
  • Objective
  • List of materials
  • Outline of procedure
  • Data table
  • Area for graph of data
  • Conclusion
slide49

Name: Per. 3

  • Title: Investigation of Roly Poly Behavior
  • Hypothesis: If roly polies prefer moist environments, they will move toward the wet side of a choice chamber.
  • Objective: To investigate . . .
  • Materials:
  • Choice chamber
  • 10 roly polies
  • Stopwatch
  • Data table
  • Anything else you think you’ll need
  • Procedure:
  • Make a choice chamber with 2 petri dishes
  • Line dishes with filter paper
  • Add 20 drops of water to one side
  • Count out 10 roly polies
  • Place 5 in each side of the choice chamber
  • Data table:
  • Graph on separate pg.
  • Conclusion:
conclusion

Conclusion

Data from this lab showed that roly polies preferred the ____________ environment over the ___________ environment. I accept/reject my hypothesis that __________________________.

teacher notes
Teacher notes
  • Limit trt #s to 5 or so. Tell alpha groups to agree on 1 trt so they can work together as group.
scientific measurement
Scientific Measurement

SI Units (memorize these)

Basic unit of length = meter (m)

Basic unit of mass = gram (g)

Basic unit of volume = liter (L)

Unit of time = second (s)

Unit of temperature =

Celsius degree (C) or Kelvin (K)

other scientific prefixes roots
Other scientific prefixes, roots:
  • Anti-: against, harmful to
  • Bio-: life
  • Electro-: having to do with electricity, charge
  • Exo-: outside, exterior
  • Endo-: inside, interior
  • Hydro-: having to do with water
  • Hyper-: over or excess
  • Hypo-: under or deficiency
  • Mono-: single, one
  • Hemi-: half
  • Chrom-: having to do with the nucleus of a cell
  • Arterio-: having to do with arteries
let s measure
Let’s measure!
  • Working in lab groups (1 paper per group) measure the following:
  • The height, in meters (m) and centimeters (cm) of the tallest person in your group.
  • The widest point of a desk in cm.
  • The volume (milliliters) of a vial.
  • The mass (grams) of a pencil.
  • The number of heartbeats of a boy and girl in 60 seconds.
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