Chapter 30 disorders of hepatobiliary and exocrine pancreas function
Download
1 / 48

Chapter 30 Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 161 Views
  • Uploaded on

Essentials of Pathophysiology. Chapter 30 Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function. The liver does not play a role in glucose homeostasis. Jaundice results from an abnormally high accumulation of bile in the blood.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 30 Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function' - anne-lott


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 30 disorders of hepatobiliary and exocrine pancreas function

Essentials of Pathophysiology

Chapter 30Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function


Pre lecture quiz true false

  • The liver does not play a role in glucose homeostasis.

  • Jaundice results from an abnormally high accumulation of bile in the blood.

  • Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, is of bacterial origin.

  • Cholelithiasis, or gallstones, is caused by precipitation of substances contained in bile, mainly cholesterol and bilirubin.

  • Chronic pancreatitis is a severe, life-threatening disorder associated with the escape of activated pancreatic enzymes into the pancreas and surrounding tissues.

Pre lecture quiz true/false

F

F

F

T

F


Pre lecture quiz

  • The __________ cells are capable of removing and phagocytizing old and defective blood cells, bacteria, and other foreign material from the portal blood as it flows through the sinusoid.

  • One of the metabolic functions of the liver is the conversion of ammonia, which is produced by deamination of amino acids, into __________. 

  • Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom in persons with cholestasis, probably related to increased bile __________ in the blood.

  • Hepatitis __________ is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer in the world.

  • __________ represents the end stage of chronic liver disease in which much of the functional liver tissue has been replaced by fibrous tissue.

Pre lecture quiz

  • C

  • Cirrhosis

  • Kupffer

  • salts

  • urea




Liver structure

Blood from hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery mix in sinusoids

The sinusoids empty into central veins, which send the blood to the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava

Liver Structure


Liver structure cont

Hepatic cells lie along the sinusoids and pick up chemicals from the blood

They modify the blood’s composition

Liver Structure(cont.)


Liver structur e cont

At the back end of each hepatic cell, bile is released into a canaliculus

The bile is carried to the bile duct and then to the gallbladder

Liver Structur e(cont.)


Liver structure cont1

Many sinusoids come together to empty into one vein a

The section of the liver emptying into one vein is a lobule

Liver Structure (cont.)


Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false. a

The gallbladder stores bile that has been produced by the liver.

Question


Answer

True a

Rationale:The liver makes bile and secretes it into the small intestine via the common bile duct. Excess bile is stored in the gallbladder, where it also enters the small intestine through the common bile duct when it is needed.

Answer


Metabolic functions of the liver

  • Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism a

    • Sugars  stored as glycogen, converted to glucose, used to make fats

    • Proteins  synthesized from amino acids; ammonia made into urea

    • Fats  oxidized for energy, synthesized, packaged into lipoproteins

Metabolic Functions of the Liver


Metabolic functions of the liver cont

Metabolic Functions of the Liver (cont.)


Question1

Which of the following substances a does bile make more susceptible to digestive enzymes?

  • Carbohydrate

  • Protein

  • Fat

  • All of the above

Question


Answer1

  • Fat a

    Rationale:Bile (produced in the liver) emulsifies fat molecules so that they are easier to digest. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances, in this case bile and fat.

Answer


Scenario

Mr. M had a donut for breakfast. a

Question:

  • Explain how the sugar in the donut left his small intestine and ended up as fat in his carotid artery, giving the:

    • Anatomical structures

    • Chemical processes

    • Hormones that controlled them

Scenario


Scenario1

Ms. B was prescribed an oral medication for her skin problem. She took it twice a day.

  • The day after she started the medication, Ms. B drank wine with a friend right after taking the prescribed dosage

    Question:

  • Ms. B got terribly ill. Why? She said, “I drink that kind of wine all the time.”

Scenario


Liver failure

  • Hematologic problem. She took it twice a day.disorders as the liver fails the spleen takes over some of the function of the liver

    • Anemia- due to splenomegaly

    • Thrombocytopenia- due to splenomegaly

    • coagulation defects-

    • leukopenia due to splenomegaly

    • As your spleen grows larger, it begins to filter normal red blood cells as well as abnormal ones, reducing the number of healthy cells in your bloodstream. It also traps too many platelets. Eventually, excess blood cells and platelets can clog your spleen, interfering with its normal functioning.

Liver Failure


Liver failure1

  • Endocrine disorders problem. She took it twice a day.

    • Fluid retention, hypokalemia, Lack of metabolism of aldosterone, too much remains in the system

    • disordered sexual functions

    • Which hormones would cause these endocrine disorders? Failure of Cholesterol/Steroid formation

Liver Failure


Liver failure cont

  • Skin disorders problem. She took it twice a day.

    • Jaundice, red palms, spider nevi

  • Hepatorenal syndrome-

    • Deteriorating liver function is believed to cause changes in the circulation altering blood flow in the kidneys. The renal failure of HRS is a consequence of these changes in blood flow

    • Azotemia, increased plasma creatinine, oliguria- decreased production of urine

  • Hepatic encephalopathy- caused by accumulation in the bloodstream of toxic substances that are normally removed by the liver

    • Asterixis, confusion, coma, convulsions

    • Asterixis : An uncontrollable flapping of the hands that becomes noticeable when patients stretch out their arms, palms out, as if stopping traffic.

Liver Failure (cont.)


Jaundice in a person with hepatitis a
Jaundice in a Person with Hepatitis A problem. She took it twice a day.


Question2

What causes jaundice? problem. She took it twice a day.

  • Increased bilirubin levels

  • Anemia

  • Thrombocytopenia

  • Leukopenia

Question


Answer2

  • Increased problem. She took it twice a day.bilirubin levels

    Rationale:Erythrocytes are normally broken down in the spleen at the end of their life span. The end product of RBC metabolism is bilirubin. Bilirubin is sent to the liver to be metabolized; if the liver is not functioning properly, the bilirubin accumulates and causes jaundice (an abnormal yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes).

Answer


Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis problem. She took it twice a day.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Hepatitis B–associated delta virus (HDV)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV)

Hepatitis


Discussion

Which hepatitis viruses are most likely to be the problem problem. She took it twice a day.in:

  • An asymptomatic drug abuser?

  • A nursing student who has spent the last two months volunteering in an orphanage in Mali?

  • An infant whose mother has hepatitis?

Discussion

C

E

B


Chronic viral hepatitis

Caused by HBV, HCV, and HDV problem. She took it twice a day.

Principal worldwide cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer

Chief reason for liver transplantation in adults

Chronic Viral Hepatitis


Alcoholic liver disease

  • Fatty liver ( problem. She took it twice a day.steatosis)

    • Liver cells contain fat deposits; liver is enlarged

  • Alcoholic hepatitis

    • Liver inflammation and liver cell failure

  • Cirrhosis

    • Scar tissue partially blocks sinusoids and bile canaliculi

Alcoholic Liver Disease


Alcoholic liver
Alcoholic Liver problem. She took it twice a day.


Alcoholic liver1
Alcoholic Liver problem. She took it twice a day.


Liver cancer
Liver Cancer problem. She took it twice a day.


Question3

Which of the following is the least virulent strain of hepatitis?

  • HAV

  • HBV

  • HCV

  • HDV

Question


Answer3

  • HAV hepatitis?

    Rationale:HBV, HCV, and HDV are all virulent strains that may lead to chronic viral hepatitis. HAV is most commonly transmitted by the fecal-oral route (e.g., contaminated food or poor hygiene) and does not typically have a chronic stage (it does not cause permanent liver damage).

Answer


Veins draining into the hepatic portal system

Portal hypertension causes pressure in these veins to increase

Varicosities and shunts develop

Organs engorge with blood

Veins Draining into the Hepatic Portal System




Effects of portal hypertension
Effects of Portal Hypertension increase

Hemorrhoids

Ascites &

Caput medusae


Cholestasis and intrahepatic biliary disorders

  • Bile flow in the liver slows down increase

  • Bile accumulates and forms plugs in the ducts

    • Ducts rupture and damage liver cells

      • Alkaline phosphatase released into blood

  • Liver is unable to continue processing bilirubin

    • Increased bile acids in blood and skin

      • Pruritus (itching)

Cholestasis and IntrahepaticBiliary Disorders


The fate of bilirubin

Hemoglobin from old red blood cells becomes increasebilirubin

The liver converts bilirubin into bile

Why would a man with liver failure develop jaundice?

The Fate of Bilirubin

unconjugated

bilirubin in

blood

liver links it

bilirubinemia

to

gluconuride

jaundice

conjugated

bilirubin

bile


Biliary tract
Biliary increase Tract

Gallbladder

Hepatic duct

Cystic duct

Common bile duct

Ampulla of Vater

Sphincter of Oddi

Pancreatic duct


Disorders of the gallbladder

  • Cholelithiasis increase (gallstones)

    • Cholesterol, calcium salts, or mixed

  • Acute and chronic cholecystitis

    • Inflammation caused by irritation due to concentrated bile

  • Choledocholithiasis

    • Stones in the common bile duct

  • Cholangitis

    • Inflammation of the common bile duct

Disorders of the Gallbladder


Bile in the intestines

  • Emulsifies fats so they can be digested increase

  • Passes on to the large intestine

    • Bacteria convert it to urobilinogen

      • Some is lost in feces

      • Most is reabsorbed into the blood

        • Returned to the liver to be reused

        • Filtered out by the kidneys  urine

Bile in the Intestines


The pancreas
The Pancreas increase

Pancreas

Exocrine

Endocrine

pancreas

pancreas

releases digestive

releases hormones

juices through a

into the blood

duct

to the

duodenum


Exocrine pancreas

  • Acini increase produce:

    • Inactive digestive enzymes

    • Trypsininactivator

    • Bicarbonate (antacid)

  • These are sent to the duodenum when it releases secretin and cholecystokinin

  • In the duodenum, the digestive enzymes are activated

Exocrine Pancreas


Question4

Tell whether the following statement is true or false. increase

The exocrine pancreas produces insulin.

Question


Answer4

False increase

Rationale:Beta cells of the endocrine pancreas produce insulin; the exocrine pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine through the common bile duct.

Answer


Biliary reflux
Biliary increase Reflux

5. Bile in pancreas disrupts tissues; digestive enzymes activated

1. Gallbladder contracts

2. Bile is sent down common bile duct

3. Blockage forms in ampulla of Vater: bile cannot enter duodenum

4. Bile goes up pancreatic duct


Autodigestion of the pancreas

  • Activated enzymes begin to digest the pancreas cells increase

    • Severe pain results

    • Inflammation produces large volumes of serous exudate hypovolemia

  • Enzymes (amylase, lipase) appear in the blood

  • Areas of dead cells undergo fat necrosis

    • Calcium from the blood deposits in them

      • Hypocalcemia

Autodigestion of the Pancreas


Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

  • Have signs and symptoms similar to acute pancreatitis increase

  • Often have:

    • Digestive problems because of inability to deliver enzymes to the duodenum

    • Glucose control problems because of damage to islets of Langerhans

    • Signs of biliary obstruction because of underlying bile tract disorders or duct compression by tumors

Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer


ad