Leprosy hansen s disease
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Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease). Amanda Lee BIOL 402. Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Scollard, DM et al. 2006. “The continuing challenges of leprosy.” Clinical microbiology reviews 19, no. 2: 338-81. Discovered by Gerhard Armauer Hansen in 1873.

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Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease)

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Leprosy hansen s disease

Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease)

Amanda Lee

BIOL 402


Leprosy is caused by mycobacterium leprae

Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae

Scollard, DM et al. 2006. “The continuing challenges of leprosy.”

Clinical microbiology reviews 19, no. 2: 338-81.


Discovered by gerhard armauer hansen in 1873

Discovered by Gerhard Armauer Hansen in 1873

Global Project on the History of Leprosy

http://www.leprosyhistory.org/graphics/gallery/hansen.jpg


Bacteria resides in cooler parts of the body

Bacteria Resides in Cooler Parts of the Body

Peripheral Nerves

Skin

http://www.nlm.nih.gov


Symptoms diagnosis 1 skin lesions

Symptoms & Diagnosis: (1) Skin Lesions

Worobec, Sophie M. 2009. “Treatment of leprosy/Hansen's disease in the early 21st century.” Dermatologic therapy 22, no. 6: 518-37.


Symptoms diagnosis 2 skin smear tests

Symptoms & Diagnosis: (2) Skin Smear Tests

Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin Stain (ZNCF)

Global Project on the History of Leprosy

http://www.leprosyhistory.org/graphics/gallery/mleprae.jpg


Transmission

Transmission

  • Nasal/oral Droplets

  • Dermal Inoculations


Immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible to disease

Immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible to disease


Mechanism of nerve damage

Mechanism of Nerve Damage

  • Entry Through Blood Vessels

2. Inflammatory Response

3. Demyelination

Scollard, DM et al. 2006. “The continuing challenges of leprosy.”

Clinical microbiology reviews 19, no. 2: 338-81.


Leprosy hansen s disease

Outcomes of Nerve Damage

  • Sensory Loss

  • Paralysis

  • Deformities

Leprosy: eMedicine Infectious Diseases

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220455-overview


Sensory loss can lead to secondary infections and severe deformities

Sensory Loss Can Lead to Secondary Infections and Severe Deformities

International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations (ILEP)

http://www.ilep.org.uk/en/


1941 discovery of dapsone

1941: Discovery of Dapsone

  • Targets dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS)

  • Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis


1964 dapsone resistance from missense mutations in dhps

1964: Dapsone Resistance from Missense Mutations in DHPS

Matsuoka, Masanori M. 2010. “Drug Resistance in Leprosy.” Japanese journal of infectious diseases 63, no. 1: 1-7.


1960 s rifampicin and clofazimine discovered

1960’s: Rifampicin and Clofazimine Discovered

  • Rifampicin (Rifampin): Inhibit RNA synthesis

  • Clofazimine:

    Anti-inflammatory


1981 who proposes multi drug therapy mdt

1981: WHO Proposes Multi-Drug Therapy (MDT)

  • Combination of DAPSONE, RIFAMPICIN, and CLOFAZIMINE

+

+


Leprosy hansen s disease

The Nippon Foundation

http://www.nippon-foundation.or.jp/eng/


1995 who distributes mdt drugs for free to worldwide patients

1995: WHO Distributes MDT Drugs for Free to Worldwide Patients


1999 global alliance to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem

1999: Global Alliance to Eliminate Leprosy As a Public Health Problem


Obstacles to eliminating leprosy in endemic countries

Obstacles to Eliminating Leprosy in Endemic Countries

STIGMA

World Health Organization. 2001. “Leprosy: Learning from Success.”

WHO Publications on Leprosy.


Overcoming stigma

Overcoming Stigma

  • Mass Media

  • Integrated Primary Health Services

  • Education & Training


Leprosy hansen s disease

Worobec, Sophie M. 2009. “Treatment of leprosy/Hansen's disease in the early 21st century.”

Dermatologic therapy 22, no. 6: 518-37.


References

References

  • Leprosy Today. “Leprosy: The Disease.” World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/lep/leprosy/en/index.html (accessed February 25 2010).

  • Matsuoka, Masanori M. 2010. “Drug Resistance in Leprosy.” Japanese journal of infectious diseases 63, no. 1: 1-7. http://www.nih.go.jp.libproxy.lib.unc.edu (accessed February 25, 2010).

  • National Hansen’s Disease (Leprosy) Program. “Hansen’s Disease (Leprosy) Facts.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.hrsa.gov/hansens/ Accessed February 25 2010.

  • Scollard, DM, LB Adams, TP Gillis, JL Krahenbuhl , RW Truman, and DL Williams. 2006. “The continuing challenges of leprosy.” Clinical microbiology reviews 19, no. 2: 338-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.libproxy.lib.unc.edu (accessed February 25, 2010).

  • Worobec, Sophie M. 2009. “Treatment of leprosy/Hansen's disease in the early 21st century.” Dermatologic therapy 22, no. 6: 518-37.http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu(accessed February 25, 2010.


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