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Chapter 6 - Learning.

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slide2

Our next chapter is on learning...As high school seniors, if you could write to your past self as a freshman entering high school, what advice would you give yourself? Consider your experiences thus far, the lessons you have learned, and the situations you wish you had handled better or would have preferred not to have experienced at all. This entry MUST be at least ONE full page.

think about it
Think about it...
  • How did you learn...to learn?
  • What study skill strategies work for you?
pq4r method
PQ4R Method
  • Preview
  • Question
  • Read
  • Reflect
  • Recite
  • Review
preview
Preview
  • Get a general picture of what is covered before you begin reading a chapter
  • Look at chapter objectives, list of key terms, major and minor section heads in each chapter, section review questions, etc.
question
Question
  • Learning is easier when we have goals in mind ...
  • Write down the headings, phrase questions as you proceed
slide7
Read
  • Read the chapter with the purpose of answering your questions
  • Jot down key words that will remind you of the answers later on
reflect
Reflect
  • Relate new information to old information
  • Relate new information to events in your personal life
recite
Recite
  • Once you have read a section and answered the questions, recite the answers
  • Recite aloud or repeat words silently to yourself
  • Quiz a friend
review
Review
  • "distributed" learning is more effective than "mastered" learning
  • Review on a regular schedule
now let s practice
Now let\'s practice...
  • Open your text books to page 128
put it into action
Put it into action...
  • Use the PQ4R Method to outline sections 1-3
true or false
True or False
  • Becoming sick from eating a certain food can be a genuine learning experience.
  • If you are afraid of snakes, it may help to surround yourself with them.
  • Negative reinforcement is the same thing as punishment.
  • People who watch a lot of violence on television are more likely to be violent themselves than people who watch less violence on television.
  • http://www.learner.org/series/discoveringpsychology/08/e08expand.html
  • http://watchdocumentary.com/watch/discovering-psychology-episode-08-learning-video_1f745f1c9.html
why are a s better than b s
Why are A\'s better than B\'s?
  • Why do certain old songs evoke a rush of sensations that you used to feel back when the song was popular?
classical conditioning
Classical conditioning
  • Conditioning --> learning
  • Stimulus --> something that produces a response
  • Response --> a reaction
  • Learning that takes place when an originally neutral stimulus comes to produce a conditioned response because of its association with an unconditioned stimulus
  • Wait, what????
ivan pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
  • Pavlov and the salivating dogs...
  • Can dogs "learn" to salivate to ANY stimulus that signaled meat or food?
important concepts
Important concepts
  • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - a stimulus that causes a response that is automatic
  • Unconditioned response (UCR) - the automatic response
  • Conditioned response (CR) - a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS) - a stimulus that has come to elicit a CR because it has been associated with the UCS
adapting to the environment
Adapting to the environment
  • Taste aversions - a learned avoidance of a particular food
  • Extinction - when a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus, it will eventually lose its ability to evoke the CR
  • Spontaneous recovery - occurs when a previously extinguished CR suddenly reappears after a period of time
continued
Continued...
  • Generalization - the act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar
  • Discrimination - the act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
classical conditioning and fears habits
Classical conditioning and fears/habits
  • Flooding
  • Systematic desensitization
  • Counterconditioning
  • Bell-and-pad method for bed-wetting
section 1 review answer in your notebooks
Section 1 ReviewAnswer in your notebooks…
  • Describe Pavlov\'s experiment with dogs using the following terms: UCS, UCR, CS, and CR.
  • Explain what is meant by extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination in classical conditioning.
  • Define flooding, systematic desensitization, counterconditioning, & the bell-and-pad method in your notebooks!
slide26

 “Quiz”  1. In Your own words, define UCS, UCR, CS, CR.2. Develop a fear of teddy bears by using the principles of classical conditioning.Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR3. What could be done to extinguish this fear?

identify the ucs ucr cs cr
Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR
  • 1. Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes.
  • 2. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it.
  • 3. An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate.
  • 4. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat.
cc review hand back papers on desk answer questions in notebooks
CC ReviewHAND BACK PAPERS ON DESK…ANSWER QUESTIONS IN NOTEBOOKS
  • 1. Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with the salivating dogs yielded information about …
  • 2. What’s spontaneous recovery again???
  • 3. In Ivan Pavlov’s experiment, what was the conditioned stimulus?
  • 4. A person’s mouth watering at the thought of a meal is a(n) …
  • 5. In Watson’s experiment with “Little Albert,” Albert was conditioned to fear not only white rats, but anything white and furry. What is this an example of?
answer in your notebooks
Answer in your notebooks...
  • How can we influence people\'s behaviors?
  • How do we increase/decrease the occurrence of various behaviors?
  • Provide 2 examples
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • Actions have consequences that can either increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur.
reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • The process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
  • Primary reinforcers - food, water
  • Secondary reinforcers - grades, money, attention, social approval
  • B.F. Skinner
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qy_mIEnnlF4
slide33
+ vs. -
  • Positive reinforcement - increases the frequency of the behavior (most effective for elementary-age children) 
  • Negative reinforcement - increases the frequency of the behavior by taking away something bad
punishment
Punishment
  • Unwanted events that decrease the frequency of a behavior
  • - does not teach alternate acceptable behavior
  • - tends to only work when guaranteed
  • - may try to leave situation than change behavior
  • - can create anger and hostility
  • - may be imitated as a way of solving problems
  • - sometimes accompanied by unseen benefits that make the behavior more likely to be repeated
debate
DEBATE!!!

Is punishment an effective method of discipline to modify behavior???

DEBATE will be on MONDAY!!!

Remember: If you are on the PRO or CON side…be ready to present your side with supporting evidence

Jury Members – 2 sources must be summarized relating to either side of the debate. Include source.

schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Continuous reinforcement - reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs
  • Partial reinforcement – behavior that is not reinforced every time; behaviors tend to last longer if no longer reinforced
schedules
Schedules...
  • Fixed interval - the first target response after a fixed amount of timehas passed is rewarded
  • Variable interval - varying amounts of timego by between reinforcements (pop quizzes)
  • Fixed ratio - a fixed number of target responsesmust be made before a reward is given
  • Variable ratio - the number of target responses required for a reward changes (lottery tickets)
  • * extinction also occurs in operant conditioning
answer on a separate sheet of paper
Answer on a separate sheet of paper...
  • 1. Explain the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
  • 2. Name four types of reinforcers.
  • 3. How are fixed schedules of reinforcement different from variable schedules?
  • 4. How do parents and teachers use rewards and punishments to influence behavior? Give an example of each.
applications of operant conditioning
Applications of Operant Conditioning
  • Shaping - a technique in which successive approximations of a behavior are reinforced

They see me rollin’…

latent learning
Latent Learning
  • Learning that is hidden until it is needed
  • Cognitive maps
  • Learning may not be evident until reinforcement is given (Tolman’s rats)
observational learning
Observational Learning
  • "Do what I say not what I do?"
  • Albert Bandura
dependent on
Dependent On…
  • Attention
  • Retention
  • Ability to reproduce
  • Motivation
by the time you graduate you have spent more time watching tv than sitting in school

By the time you graduate…you have spent more time watching TV than sitting in school.

The average US student has witnessed about 8000 murders and well over 100,000 violent acts by the end of elementary school.

slide46

Aggression can be learned through observation. There is a correlation... It is NOT a cause- effect relationship.

section 3 review
Section 3 Review
  • How might studying a cookbook for fun be a form of latent learning?
  • Provide an example of observational learning that takes place in school.
  • Has observation of violence through the media affected YOUR behavior?
pq4r method1

PQ4R Method

Based on ACTIVE LEARNING!

(handout!)

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