Chapter 6 learning
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 48

Chapter 6 - Learning PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 104 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 6 - Learning.

Download Presentation

Chapter 6 - Learning

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 6 learning

Chapter 6 - Learning


Chapter 6 learning

Our next chapter is on learning...As high school seniors, if you could write to your past self as a freshman entering high school, what advice would you give yourself? Consider your experiences thus far, the lessons you have learned, and the situations you wish you had handled better or would have preferred not to have experienced at all. This entry MUST be at least ONE full page.


Think about it

Think about it...

  • How did you learn...to learn?

  • What study skill strategies work for you?


Pq4r method

PQ4R Method

  • Preview

  • Question

  • Read

  • Reflect

  • Recite

  • Review


Preview

Preview

  • Get a general picture of what is covered before you begin reading a chapter

  • Look at chapter objectives, list of key terms, major and minor section heads in each chapter, section review questions, etc.


Question

Question

  • Learning is easier when we have goals in mind ...

  • Write down the headings, phrase questions as you proceed


Chapter 6 learning

Read

  • Read the chapter with the purpose of answering your questions

  • Jot down key words that will remind you of the answers later on


Reflect

Reflect

  • Relate new information to old information

  • Relate new information to events in your personal life


Recite

Recite

  • Once you have read a section and answered the questions, recite the answers

  • Recite aloud or repeat words silently to yourself

  • Quiz a friend


Review

Review

  • "distributed" learning is more effective than "mastered" learning

  • Review on a regular schedule


Now let s practice

Now let's practice...

  • Open your text books to page 128


Put it into action

Put it into action...

  • Use the PQ4R Method to outline sections 1-3


True or false

True or False

  • Becoming sick from eating a certain food can be a genuine learning experience.

  • If you are afraid of snakes, it may help to surround yourself with them.

  • Negative reinforcement is the same thing as punishment.

  • People who watch a lot of violence on television are more likely to be violent themselves than people who watch less violence on television.

  • http://www.learner.org/series/discoveringpsychology/08/e08expand.html

  • http://watchdocumentary.com/watch/discovering-psychology-episode-08-learning-video_1f745f1c9.html


Why are a s better than b s

Why are A's better than B's?

  • Why do certain old songs evoke a rush of sensations that you used to feel back when the song was popular?


Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning

  • Conditioning --> learning

  • Stimulus --> something that produces a response

  • Response --> a reaction

  • Learning that takes place when an originally neutral stimulus comes to produce a conditioned response because of its association with an unconditioned stimulus

  • Wait, what????


Ivan pavlov

Ivan Pavlov

  • Pavlov and the salivating dogs...

  • Can dogs "learn" to salivate to ANY stimulus that signaled meat or food?


Important concepts

Important concepts

  • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - a stimulus that causes a response that is automatic

  • Unconditioned response (UCR) - the automatic response

  • Conditioned response (CR) - a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless

  • Conditioned stimulus (CS) - a stimulus that has come to elicit a CR because it has been associated with the UCS


Everyday applications of classical conditions

Everyday applications of Classical Conditions

  • Can openers

  • Car alarms

  • Scents


Adapting to the environment

Adapting to the environment

  • Taste aversions - a learned avoidance of a particular food

  • Extinction - when a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus, it will eventually lose its ability to evoke the CR

  • Spontaneous recovery - occurs when a previously extinguished CR suddenly reappears after a period of time


Continued

Continued...

  • Generalization - the act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar

  • Discrimination - the act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other


Classical conditioning and fears habits

Classical conditioning and fears/habits

  • Flooding

  • Systematic desensitization

  • Counterconditioning

  • Bell-and-pad method for bed-wetting


Little albert

Little Albert!!!


Section 1 review answer in your notebooks

Section 1 ReviewAnswer in your notebooks…

  • Describe Pavlov's experiment with dogs using the following terms: UCS, UCR, CS, and CR.

  • Explain what is meant by extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination in classical conditioning.

  • Define flooding, systematic desensitization, counterconditioning, & the bell-and-pad method in your notebooks!


Chapter 6 learning

 “Quiz”  1. In Your own words, define UCS, UCR, CS, CR.2. Develop a fear of teddy bears by using the principles of classical conditioning.Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR3. What could be done to extinguish this fear?


Identify the ucs ucr cs cr

Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR

  • 1. Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes.

  • 2. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it.

  • 3. An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate.

  • 4. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat.


Cc review hand back papers on desk answer questions in notebooks

CC ReviewHAND BACK PAPERS ON DESK…ANSWER QUESTIONS IN NOTEBOOKS

  • 1. Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with the salivating dogs yielded information about …

  • 2. What’s spontaneous recovery again???

  • 3. In Ivan Pavlov’s experiment, what was the conditioned stimulus?

  • 4. A person’s mouth watering at the thought of a meal is a(n) …

  • 5. In Watson’s experiment with “Little Albert,” Albert was conditioned to fear not only white rats, but anything white and furry. What is this an example of?


Answer in your notebooks

Answer in your notebooks...

  • How can we influence people's behaviors?

  • How do we increase/decrease the occurrence of various behaviors?

  • Provide 2 examples


Operant conditioning

Operant Conditioning

  • Actions have consequences that can either increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur.


Reinforcement

Reinforcement

  • The process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again

  • Primary reinforcers - food, water

  • Secondary reinforcers - grades, money, attention, social approval

  • B.F. Skinner

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qy_mIEnnlF4


Is negative reinforcement and punishment the same thing

Is negative reinforcement and punishment the same thing???


Chapter 6 learning

+ vs. -

  • Positive reinforcement - increases the frequency of the behavior (most effective for elementary-age children) 

  • Negative reinforcement - increases the frequency of the behavior by taking away something bad


Punishment

Punishment

  • Unwanted events that decrease the frequency of a behavior

  • - does not teach alternate acceptable behavior

  • - tends to only work when guaranteed

  • - may try to leave situation than change behavior

  • - can create anger and hostility

  • - may be imitated as a way of solving problems

  • - sometimes accompanied by unseen benefits that make the behavior more likely to be repeated


Debate

DEBATE!!!

Is punishment an effective method of discipline to modify behavior???

DEBATE will be on MONDAY!!!

Remember: If you are on the PRO or CON side…be ready to present your side with supporting evidence

Jury Members – 2 sources must be summarized relating to either side of the debate. Include source.


Schedules of reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement

  • Continuous reinforcement - reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs

  • Partial reinforcement – behavior that is not reinforced every time; behaviors tend to last longer if no longer reinforced


Schedules

Schedules...

  • Fixed interval - the first target response after a fixed amount of timehas passed is rewarded

  • Variable interval - varying amounts of timego by between reinforcements (pop quizzes)

  • Fixed ratio - a fixed number of target responsesmust be made before a reward is given

  • Variable ratio - the number of target responses required for a reward changes (lottery tickets)

  • * extinction also occurs in operant conditioning


Answer on a separate sheet of paper

Answer on a separate sheet of paper...

  • 1. Explain the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

  • 2. Name four types of reinforcers.

  • 3. How are fixed schedules of reinforcement different from variable schedules?

  • 4. How do parents and teachers use rewards and punishments to influence behavior? Give an example of each.


Applications of operant conditioning

Applications of Operant Conditioning

  • Shaping - a technique in which successive approximations of a behavior are reinforced

They see me rollin’…


Latent learning

Latent Learning

  • Learning that is hidden until it is needed

  • Cognitive maps

  • Learning may not be evident until reinforcement is given (Tolman’s rats)


Observational learning

Observational Learning

  • "Do what I say not what I do?"

  • Albert Bandura


Dependent on

Dependent On…

  • Attention

  • Retention

  • Ability to reproduce

  • Motivation


Who are your role models

Who are your role models???


By the time you graduate you have spent more time watching tv than sitting in school

By the time you graduate…you have spent more time watching TV than sitting in school.

The average US student has witnessed about 8000 murders and well over 100,000 violent acts by the end of elementary school.


Chapter 6 learning

Aggression can be learned through observation. There is a correlation... It is NOT a cause- effect relationship.


Section 3 review

Section 3 Review

  • How might studying a cookbook for fun be a form of latent learning?

  • Provide an example of observational learning that takes place in school.

  • Has observation of violence through the media affected YOUR behavior?


Pq4r method1

PQ4R Method

Based on ACTIVE LEARNING!

(handout!)


  • Login