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Psychological disorders. Bielsa, A. What should we consider abnormal?. Deviation from the average. What should we consider abnormal?. Deviation from ideal or cultural standard. What should we consider abnormal?. Abnormality as subjective discomfort Nose picking

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Psychological disorders l.jpg

Psychological disorders

  • Bielsa, A.


What should we consider abnormal l.jpg

What should we consider abnormal?

  • Deviation from the average


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What should we consider abnormal?

  • Deviation from ideal or cultural standard


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What should we consider abnormal?

  • Abnormality as subjective discomfort

    • Nose picking

      • 8.7% claim that they have never picked their nose. (liars)

      • 91% stated they did it. Only 49.2% of the respondents actually thought that nose-picking was common in adults.


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What should we consider abnormal?

  • Abnormality as an inability to function effectively


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What should we consider abnormal?

  • Legal definitions- can’t understand the difference between right and wrong


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History of Psychopathology

  • Philippe Pinel

    • 1793, first to propose humane treatment for insane

  • Louis Pastore

    • 1880, studied relation between syphilis and general paresis (deterioration of the brain).


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    Classification of Mental Health Aids

    • psychiatrist - physician with post graduate training in mental health

    • psychoanalyst – either a physician or psychologist with special training in psychoanalysis

    • clinical psychologist – PhD or PsyD who assesses and treats psychological problems


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    Classification of Mental Health Aids

    • psychological social worker – Masters degree in treating people in home or community settings

    • counseling psychologist – treats day to day problems


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    Models of Abnormality

    • Medical model

      • suggests that physiological causes are at the root of abnormal behavior

    • Psychoanalytic model

      • abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts


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    Models of Abnormality

    • Behavioral model

      • abnormal behavior is a learned response

    • Cognitive model

      • assumes cognitions (people’s thoughts and beliefs) are central to abnormal behavior


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    Models of Abnormality

    • Humanistic model

      • emphasizes people’s control and responsibility for their own behavior

    • Sociocultural model

      • assumes behavior is shaped by family, society, and culture


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    Classifying Psychological Disorders

    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM IV

      • Assumes the medical model


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    Classifying Abnormal Behavior

    • Five axes of the DSM-IV

    • DSM is designed to be primarily descriptive and devoid of suggestions as to the underlying causes of an individual’s behavior and problems


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    DSM IV: Contains five major axes

    • First three axes focus on:

      • Personality problems

      • Developmental problems

      • Physical disorders


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    DSM IV: Five major axes

    • Last two axes examine:

      • Examine current stressors

      • Examine current level of functioning


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    Criticisms of DSM IV

    • Chinese Menu Approach

      • Rosenhan experiment

        • pretended to hear voices


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    Anxiety Disorders

    • Anxiety Disorder

      • the occurrence of anxiety without obvious external cause, intruding on daily functioning


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    Anxiety Disorders

    • Phobic Disorder

      • intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations

    • Panic Disorder

      • anxiety that manifests itself in the form of panic attacks that last from a few seconds to as long as several hours


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    Anxiety Disorders

    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    • Obsession

      • a thought or idea that keeps recurring in one’s mind

    • Compulsion

      • an urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable, even if the sufferer realizes it is unreasonable


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    Anxiety Disorders

    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder

      • symptoms

  • http://mentalhelp.net/disorders/sx24.htm

    • link page

  • http://www.shakey.net/gad.html


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    Anxiety Disorders

    • Phobias

      • Agoraphobia (fear of the market place).

        • Panic Attacks

        • Depersonalization feeling your not really there

        • Derealization world isn't real

        • Hyperventilate


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    Etiology of Agoraphobia

    • Premorbid personality

    • Stress


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    Treatment of Agoraphobia

    • Cognitive/behavioral

      • Externalization

      • Progressive muscle relaxation

      • Relaxation and imagery


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    Anxiety Disorders

    • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

      • General information

  • http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-an05.html

    • links page

  • http://mental-health-matters.com/ocd.html


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    Somatoform Disorders

    • Takes form in a physical manner

      • No apparent physical symptom

        • General information and treatments

    • http://www.psyweb.com/Mdisord/somatd.html


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    Somatoform Disorders

    • Hypochondriasis

      • constant fear of illness, and physical sensations are misinterpreted as signs of disease

    • Conversion disorder

      • involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg


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    Somatoform Disorders

    • Conversion Disorders

      • Can’t speak/move limbs


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    Dissociative Disorders

    • Dissociative disorder

      • psychological dysfunctions characterized by the splitting apart of critical personality facets that are normally integrated, allowing stress avoidance by escape


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    Dissociative Disorders

    • Person separates from own life

    • Suddenly experience a sudden loss of memory or change of personality


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    Dissociative Disorders

    • Amnesia

    • Fugue


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    Dissociative Disorders

    • Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)

      • a disorder in which a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities


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    Dissociative Identity Disorder(DID)

    • Two or more coherent and well-developed personalities in the same person

      • each personality is able to lead a relatively stable life and to take full control of the person’s behavior

      • Characteristics

        • Very different personalities

        • Amnesia


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    Dissociative Identity Disorder(DID)

    • Causes:

    • Bliss’s Hypothesis:

      Person between 4 & 6 experiences severe trauma

      Person is highly susceptible to self-hypnosis

      Discovers that creating another personality relieves emotional burden


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    Mood Disorders

    • Mood disorder

      • affective disturbances severe enough to interfere with normal living

    • Major depression

      • a severe form of depression that interferes with concentration, decision making, and sociability


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    Mood Disorders

    • Depression loss of appetite, no sex drive

      • Beck's Depression Inventory a good test to evaluate depression


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    Mood Disorders

    • Major Depressive Disorder

    • Bipolar Disorder

      • Norepinephrine too much become manic

      • Serotonin too little get depressed


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    Mood Disorders

    • Etiology

      • Biological varying levels of amines in the brain

      • Cognitive theory we get depressed because we don't think right.

      • Psychoanalytic approach depressed because we have repressed anger


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    Mood Disorders

    • Schizophrenia-split from reality

      • Disturbed perceptions

    • Some evidence of biological contributions

      • Dopamine hypothesis-caused by overactive dopamine cite in brain

      • Drugs that block the re-uptake of dopamine decrease symptoms


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    Schizophrenia

    • Most generally, schizophrenia is a disorder of thinking and troubled mood.

    • Myths:

    • Schizophrenics…

      • Are lunatics or madmen

      • Have split personalities

      • Will never recover


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    Schizophrenia

    • Schizophrenia

      • a class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs

        • decline from a previous level of functioning

        • disturbances of thought and language

        • delusions

        • perceptual disorders

        • emotional disturbances

        • withdrawal


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    Schizophrenia

    • Positive symptoms- addition of behaviors

    • Negative symptoms- absence of some behaviors

    • Process Schizophrenia- lifelong

    • Reactive Schizophrenia- occurs in reaction to event


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    Schizophrenia

    • Delusions-strongly held beliefs that can't be true

      • Delusions of grandeur

      • Delusions of reference


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    Disordered Thought PROCESSES

    • Clang Associations-associate items in sentences based on sound, not meaning

    • Neologisms- create new words

    • Attentional Deficits- Cognitive Distractibility

    • Over-inclusiveness-Example:

      I wish you then a happy, joyful, healthy, blessed, and fruitful year, and many good wine-years to come, as well as a healthy and good apple-year, and sauerkraut and cabbage and squash and seed year.


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    Schizophrenia

    • Thought disturbances

      • Thought broadcasting

      • Thought insertions

      • Thought withdrawal


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    Schizophrenia

    • Thought disturbances

      • Loss of association- ideas shift from topic to topic with no correlation or sense

        • Perceptual hallucination

        • Inappropriate affect


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    Schizophrenia

    • Psychomotor behavior- highly energetic, bouncing off the walls

    • Catatonic stupor


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    Causes of Schizophrenia

    • Neurochemisty: The Dopamine Hypothesis

      Evidence:

      similarity between symptoms of amphetamine psychosis and acute paranoid schizophrenia

      AP results from an overproduction of dopamine

      Phenothiazines relieve symptoms of schizophrenia

      increased number of dopamine receptor sites in schizophrenics

      But...


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    Causes of Schizophrenia

    • Brain Structure/ Frontal Lobes:

      • Chronic schizophrenics may have smaller frontal lobes

      • PET scans show reduced frontal lobe function and decreased metabolism in schizophrenics

      • Brain Ventricles:

    • seem to be larger in schizophrenics than in other people

    • ventricles on left side tend to be larger than those on the right

    • large brain ventricles suggest deterioration or atrophy of brain tissue


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    Personality Disorders

    • Personality disorder

      • a mental disorder characterized by a set of inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that keep a person from functioning properly in society


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    Personality Disorders

    • Antisocial or sociopathic personality disorder

      • a disorder in which individuals tend to display no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others

  • Borderline personality disorder

    • a disorder in which individuals have difficulty in developing a secure sense of who they are


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    Personality Disorders

    • Antisocial/Sociopathic Personality Disorder

      • Lack remorse, morals

        • Highly intelligent


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    Personality Disorders

    • Antisocial or sociopathic personality disorder

      • no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others

  • Borderline personality disorder

    • difficulty in developing a secure sense of who they are

  • Narcissistic personality disorder

    • exaggerated sense of self-importance

    • Lack empathy


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    Personality Disorders

    • Narcissistic Personality Disorder

      • Inflated sense of self

        • Lack empathy


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    Sexual Dysfunctions

    • Masters and Johnson

    • Sexual response cycle 3 stages

      • Desire- sex drive

      • Arousal- blood flow to the genitals, marked by

        • Myotonia- muscle tension

      • Orgasm rhythmic contractions


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    Sexual Dysfunctions

    • Problem can arise in any or all phases

      • Inhibited sexual desire

      • Arousal- erectile dysfunction

      • Can't control orgasm

        • Premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation

        • Primary orgasmic dysfunction


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    Myths of Sexuality and Problems

    • Sex should be natural and spontaneous

      • (this notion inhibits talk about sexual performance)

  • Men should be the experts about sex

    • (communication is essential for good sex)

  • Sex equals intercourse


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    Treatments for sexual inadequacies

    • Types of therapy

      • Abstinence paradox- problem

        • Sensate Focus Exercise

        • Drugs


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    Other Issues Relating to Sex

    • Homosexuality

      • Intragender empathy

  • http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/orient.html


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    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Disorder marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity


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