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Review of Related Literature. Different decision-making: Budget decisions of managers Irrationality of continuing the risk of losing a prospect Decision-making in changes in environment Tax evasion decisions Bankruptcy decisions Purchasing quantity decisions Sunk costs Gambling.

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Review of related literature
Review of Related Literature

  • Different decision-making:

    • Budget decisions of managers

    • Irrationality of continuing the risk of losing a prospect

    • Decision-making in changes in environment

    • Tax evasion decisions

    • Bankruptcy decisions

    • Purchasing quantity decisions

    • Sunk costs

    • Gambling


Review of related literature1
Review of Related Literature

  • Shape of the utility function

  • Inter-temporal choices

  • Varying levels of probability and consequences

  • Group decision-making

  • Does not consider the effects of different types of people


Theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework

  • Prospect Theory

    • Participants were asked to "imagine that the U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume the exact scientific estimate of the consequences of the programs are as follows."


  • The first group of participants were presented with a choice between programs: In a group of 600 people,

    • Program A: "200 people will be saved"

    • Program B: "there is a one-third probability that 600 people will be saved, and a two-thirds probability that no people will be saved"

  • 72 percent of participants preferred program A (the remainder, 28 percent, opting for program B).

  • The second group of participants were presented with the choice between: In a group of 600 people,

    • Program C: "400 people will die"

    • Program D: "there is a one-third probability that nobody will die, and a two-third probability that 600 people will die"

  • 78 percent preferred program D, with the remaining 22 percent opting for program C.


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