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Process. Expository Writing Week 2. Process Writing. Very popular type of writing today Self help articles How to articles “ Gifting on a Budget ” “ Teaching Gratitude, Bringing Happiness to Children ” “ Seven Tips to Avoiding a Lifetime of Debt ”

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Expository Writing

Week 2

Process writing

Process Writing

  • Very popular type of writing today

    • Self help articles

    • How to articles

      • “Gifting on a Budget”

      • “Teaching Gratitude, Bringing Happiness to Children”

      • “Seven Tips to Avoiding a Lifetime of Debt”

      • “How to Lead When You’re Not the Boss”

  • Two types: directional and informational

    • Directional: how to do or make something

    • Informational: understanding how or why a process works

Organizing the process essay p 239

Organizing the Process Essay (p. 239)

  • Introduction

    • Thesis statement or objective you want to accomplish

    • Background information; list of materials

  • Body

    • Develop thesis or unfold the directions

    • Sequence details in logical order

    • Use description, narration, definition, illustration to simply complex principles or directions

    • Utilize clear transitions

  • Conclusion

    • Comment on the significance of the completed process or explain other important uses

    • Don’t abruptly stop after the last step

    • Don’ end with a dry rewording of your thesis

Tips for writing a process essay p 240

Tips for Writing a Process Essay (p. 240)

  • Present your objective or purpose in a thesis statement.

    • “The purpose of embalming is to make the corpse presentable for viewing in a suitably costly container. . .”

  • Consider your audience.

  • Explain each step clearly in sufficient detail and in a logical order

  • Maintain a consistent tense and point of view throughout the essay.

Nonviolent resistance by martin luther king jr

Nonviolent Resistanceby Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • Objective: describe and interpret processes oppressed people follow as they confront their situation

  • Informational: show why two methods do not work and why nonviolent resistance does

  • Thesis: “Oppressed people deal with their oppression in three characteristic ways.”

  • Conclusion: “The way of nonviolence means a willingness to suffer and sacrifice. . . . But if physical death is the price that a man must pay to free his children and his white brethren from a permanent death of the spirit, then nothing could be more redemptive.”



Thesis: Oppressed people deal with their oppression in three characteristic ways.

I. Acquiescence

  • Reason for acquiescence

  • Objection to acquiescence

    II. Violence

  • Objection to violence

  • Results of violence



III. Nonviolent resistance

  • Blend of previous two methods

  • Morality of nonviolent resistance

  • Process of nonviolent resistance

    • Mass, militant, nonviolent

    • Avoids chaos and relieves fear

  • Lasting effects of nonviolent resistance

    IV. Conclusion

Use of transitions

Use of transitions

  • “One way . . .” (¶ 1)

    • “But . . .” (¶ 3)

    • “So . . .” (¶ 3)

  • “A second way . . .” (¶ 4)

  • “A third way . . .” (¶ 7)

    • “In the end . . .” (¶ 10)

    • “When, however, . . .” (¶ 12)

    • “Then . . .” (¶ 12)



  • Brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object

  • It seeks, by tapping the knowledge and memory of the reader, to secure an emotional effect from the associations already existing in the reader’s mind

  • It depends on a body of knowledge shared by writer and reader.

Examples of allusion

Examples of Allusion

  • ¶ 1 – Moses leading the Israelites from Egypt

  • ¶ 1 – Hamlet’s “to be or not to be speech”

  • ¶ 3 – Cain and Abel - “brother’s keeper”

  • ¶5 – Peter cutting off the Roman soldier’s ear in Garden of Gethsemane

Robert hayden

Robert Hayden

  • Born to a struggling couple (Ruth and AsaSheffey)

  • Taken in by a foster family, Sue Ellen Westerfield and William Hayden

  • Grew up in a Detroit ghetto nicknamed "Paradise Valley"

  • Traumatic childhood - witnessing fights and suffering beatings

    • 'chronic angers'

  • Debilitating bouts of depression - "my dark nights of the soul"

  • Nearsighted and slight of stature, often ostracized by peers

  • Those winter sundays

    “Those Winter Sundays”

    Sundays too my father got up early

    and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,

    then with cracked hands that ached

    from labor in the weekday weather made

    banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him.

    I'd wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking,

    When the rooms were warm, he'd call,

    and slowly I would rise and dress,

    fearing the chronic angers of that house,

    Speaking indifferently to him,

    who had driven out the cold

    and polished my good shoes as well.

    What did I know, what did I know

    of love's austere and lonely offices?



    Choose an institutional process you know well—perhaps one you learned as part of a summer job: how hamburgers are made, how people are admitted to hospitals, how lawyers operate behind the scenes, how political campaigns are run, how a play is produced. If possible, choose a process that looks different to insiders than to the general public. See if you can write an exposé of sorts—a process paper that reveals the real, true story (for better or worse).

    Think of a process you know better than most people in your class—like canning strawberries, using a spreadsheet, taking inventory, resolving conflicts, or kayaking through whitewater. Or think of a zany process—like how to become famous by being really incompetent (ala Paris Hilton), how to travel around the world without paying for it, how to get someone else to wash your car. Make a list of steps, and then describe each step. To make an essay of a process paper, you have to interpret the process—make it interesting to people who have no intention of doing it themselves.


    1. Choose a process that you understand better than most of your readers.

    2. If the process occurs in a set sequence of steps (e.g., baking a cake, changing a tire), create an outline by naming the steps and arranging them in the right sequence.

    3. If the process is one that does not necessarily occur in a set sequence of steps (e.g., winning at chess, succeeding in college), create an outline by naming the necessary activities and arranging them in a sequence that will best maintain the interest of your readers.

    4. If your purpose is just to explain the process, expand each step into a sentence, a paragraph, or a few paragraphs—depending on how complex the step is. Be sure to define any terms that may not be clear to your readers.

    5. If your purpose is to interpret the process, describe each step in a way that makes your readers feel, understand, or believe what you want them to feel, understand, or believe about it.

    6. After you've selected and arranged your details, add an introduction and an ending.

    A process for writing a documented paper

    A Process for Writing a Documented Paper

    • Prewriting—Brainstorm a list of possible subtopics on your topic. (example cluster)

    • Create a tentative outline/basic plan.

    • Read various articles about your topic with the basic plan in mind.

    • Take notes on articles as you read. Be sure to write these notes in your own words and to indicate the source of the information.

    A process for writing a documented paper1

    A Process for Writing a Documented Paper

    • Revise outline if needed.

    • Arrange notes according to outline.

    • Draft paragraphs, citing information as needed.

    • Draft a introduction and conclusion.

    • Format according to APA guidelines (headings, references, internal citations, etc.)

    • Draft an abstract for the paper.

    • Proofread, revise, edit. Repeat as necessary.


    Personal Satisfaction

    Achieve goals

    More Opportunities

    Love of learning

    Benefits of College

    Job market






    Job security

    Higher paying jobs

    Meet new people


    Lack of eye contact

    Need for routine







    Delayed speech

    Limited food

    Increase in diagnoses






    Behavior therapy






    Date of publication

    Title of article


    Author of


    WebMD. (2010, April 12). “Asperger’s syndrome.“ Retrieved from





    Most prominent is inappropriate social behavior; lack of empathy; dislike changes in routine; cannot detect small differences in people’s tone of voice, facial expressions; avoid eye contact; one-sided conversations

    p. 1



    • Thesis: While much controversy exists over the exact causes and definitions of Asperger’s Syndrome (a form of autism), suggested treatments for the disorder include dietary changes, medication, and behavioral therapy.

    • Causes

    • Controversy

    • Treatments

      • Diet

      • Medication

      • Behavior therapy

    Using outline for headings

    Using outline for Headings

    • Asperger’s Syndrome 3

    • Asperger’s Syndrome

    • Most people are familiar with autism from personal experiences or from portrayals of people with autism in movies, such as Rain Man. A spectrum disorder, the term autism encompasses many disorders, including Asperger’s Syndrome. A relatively new disorder, Aspergers (often known as high-functioning autism) has only been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) since 1994 (Hamilton, 2010). While much controversy exists over the exact causes and definitions of Asperger’s Syndrome (a form of autism), suggested treatments for the disorder include dietary changes, medication, and behavioral therapy.

    • Causes of Asperger’s Syndrome

    • The exact cause of Asperger’s Syndrome remains unknown; however, most common causes suggested are hereditary and neurological (WebMD, 2010). Frequently, Asperger’s has been observed to run in families; therefore, scientist have concluded that there is a genetic aspect to the disorder (National Institute, 2011).

    • . . . (Complete section on Causes) . . .

    • Controversy over Asperger’s Syndrome

    • Continue writing paper. ….

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