Classification
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Classification. Topic 5.5. Assessment Statements. 5.5.1Outline the binomial system of nomenclature. 5.5.2 List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa—kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species—using an example from two different kingdoms for each level.

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Classification

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Classification

Classification

Topic 5.5


Assessment statements

Assessment Statements

5.5.1Outline the binomial system of nomenclature.

5.5.2 List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa—kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species—using an example from two different kingdoms for each level.

5.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta and angiospermophyta.

5.5.4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca and arthropoda.

5.5.5 Apply and design a key for a group of up to eight organisms.


Binomial nomenclature

binomial nomenclature

  • ‘bi’ means two, ‘nomial’ means name, and ‘nomenclature’ refers to a system used to name things

  • Can you guess the common name of this animal?

    • Myrmecophaga tridactyla

    • Which means ‘eater of ants’ + ‘with three fingers’

  • Giant anteater of Central and South America

  • 1st name is always capitalized and refers to genus

  • 2nd name always begins with a small letter and refers to the species

  • Both are always written in italics (typed) or underlined (handwritten)


Carolus carl linnaeus

Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus

  • Systema Naturae listed and explained the binomial system of nomenclature for species which had been brought to him from all over the world

  • Reasons for putting living organisms into groups:

    • Trying to make sense of biosphere

    • Showing evolutionary links

    • Predicting characteristics shared by members of a group

  • Pill bug and woodlouse (Armadillidium vulgare)

What is one international advantage of the binomial nomenclature system?


Levels of organization then and now

Levels of organization then and now

  • 1st organization: plants and animals

  • Now there are 5 kingdoms:

    • Plantae

    • Animalia

    • Fungi

    • Protoctista

    • Prokaryotae


Seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa subdivisions

seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa (subdivisions)

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species

  • How will you remember the order of these taxa?

  • King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup

Other examples


Other methods of classifying

Other methods of classifying

  • Feeding habits

  • Habitat

  • Daily activity

  • Risk

  • Anatomy


Distinguish between the following phyla of plants using simple external recognition features

Bryophyta

Filicinophyta

Coniferophyta

Angiospermophyta

Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features:


To distinguish between these four phyla divide them into two categories of characteristics

To distinguish between these four phyla, divide them into two categories of characteristics.

Use a table to display the information you find.


Porifera

Porifera

  • Simple marine animals

  • Sessile

  • Feed by pumping water their tissues to filter out food

  • No mouths or digestive tracts

  • No muscle

  • No nervous tissue

  • No distinct internal organs


Cnidaria

Cnidaria

  • Have stinging cells called nematocysts

  • Some sessile, others free-swimming, some can be both

  • Have a gastric pouch with only one opening


Platyhelminthes

Platyhelminthes

  • Have a gut with one opening for food to enter and waste to exit

  • No heart or lungs

  • Exchange gases by diffusion

  • Includes tapeworm which can infest mammalian intestines


Annelida

Annelida

  • Segmented worms

  • Bodies are divided up into sections separated by rings

  • Have bristles on their bodies

  • Have a gastric tract with a mouth at one end and the intestines have an opening at the other end where wastes are released


Mollusca

Mollusca

  • Many produce a shell using calcium

  • Usually has a muscular foot

  • One way digestive tract


Arthropoda

Arthropoda

  • Hard exoskeleton made of chitin

  • Segmented bodies

  • Jointed limbs


Using a dichotomous key

Using a dichotomous key

  • Look at first pair of sentences describing a characteristic

  • Look at the organism to see if the particular characteristic described in the first line is present

  • If yes, then go to the end of the line and follow the number given; If no, go to the second statement end of line and follow the number given

  • Keep going until the end of the line has a name instead of a number


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