Ordered to care chapter 7 professionalism and its discontents
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Ordered to Care Chapter 7 Professionalism and its Discontents. Angela Bridges Wendy DuBose BEF 644 Fall 2012. Introduction. Trained Nurse and Hospital Review (1889) Discussed need for national organization for nursing Intent was to: Limit number of nurses

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Ordered to Care Chapter 7 Professionalism and its Discontents

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Ordered to care chapter 7 professionalism and its discontents

Ordered to Care Chapter 7 Professionalism and its Discontents

Angela Bridges

Wendy DuBose

BEF 644

Fall 2012


Introduction

Introduction

  • Trained Nurse and Hospital Review (1889)

    • Discussed need for national organization for nursing

    • Intent was to:

      • Limit number of nurses

      • Standardize education requirements

      • Increase education requirements


Obstacles for reform

Obstacles for Reform

  • Womanly character vs “unladylike” conduct

  • Service oriented work ethic vs self-interest

  • Wages vs commercialism

  • Female vs Male gender

  • Admission standards

  • Exploitation of nursing students

  • Criterion for education

  • Lack of public buy-in for educating nurses

  • Alienation from working nurses


Professional reformation

Professional Reformation

1893

Isabel Hampton Robb

  • Instrumental in founding the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools (ASSTS)-known today as the National League of Nursing Education (NLNE)

  • ASSTS drafted and approved bylaws that set standards for admission into nursing schools


History of nursing reformation

History of Nursing Reformation

  • 1897- Funds collected for official nursing journal

    (American Journal of Nursing)

  • 1889-proposition for organization called the American Nurses Association (ANA)

  • State Board examinations

    On left from top, clockwise:

    Lillian Wald, Lavinia Dock, & Adelaide Nutting


Hostility and indifference in the public realm

Hostility and Indifferencein the Public Realm

  • Environment changing

    • Nursing education/training more accepted in medicine

    • Growing hostility from administrators and physicians

  • Dr. Catlin

    • Endowed home for nurses

    • Training by physicians

    • Fees determined by physicians


Nursing ununited

Nursing: Ununited

  • Worker-Nurse Perspective

  • Concern with wages, working conditions, practical skills, independence

  • Resisted professionalization through registration and educational reform

  • Selection of nurses through character

  • Some adept in skills, modifying hospital techniques

  • Some inadequate based on training.

“Where there is one nurse with a missionary spirit,….there are forty-nine others who are obliged to make the humiliating confession: I am a nurse because I must earn a living for myself and those dependent on me, because my nursing is well paid, honorable and to me is interesting.” Trained Nurse (1888)


Traditionalists versus rationalizers

Traditionalists versus Rationalizers

Annette Fiske-private duty nurse and educator

Charlotte Aikens-nurse and hospital superintendent

Character/service; not education

Raise nursing standards through organizational power

Provide hospitals with cheap labor

Proposed grading/classification of nurses.

  • Character/service; not education

  • Private duty most important

  • Attacked elitism of leadership

  • Objected to routinization

  • Recognized problems-no solutions


References

References:

Reverby, S. M. (1987). Ordered to care: The dilemma of American nursing, 1850-1945.

Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press


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