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Chapter 11. Forgetting. Memory. Internal record or representation of past experience Not necessarily the same as the original experience History & metaphors Slate  Filing cabinet  Computer. Types of Memory. Many different types of memory 2 are important for our purposes:

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Forgetting


Memory

Memory

  • Internal record or representation of past experience

  • Not necessarily the same as the original experience

  • History & metaphors

    • Slate  Filing cabinet  Computer


Types of memory

Types of Memory

  • Many different types of memory

    • 2 are important for our purposes:

  • Working memory: short-term, no need to store each instance for future reference

    • e.g. matching to sample: need to remember what the sample was only until you make the choice

    • Samples change from trial to trial

  • Reference memory: long-term, remember specific information for future reference

    • e.g. maze training: remember lay-out of the maze, doesn’t change across trials


Working memory

Working Memory

Trial #1

Trial #2

Trial #3

Sample:

Remember

“red”

Retention Interval:

Remember “green”

Remember

“red”

Choice:


Reference memory

Reference Memory

Goal is always in the same place… remember over time!

Trial #1

Trial #2

Trial #3

Start

Food

Food

Start

Food

Start


Behaviorist view of memory

Behaviorist View of Memory

  • No need to discuss “representation”

  • No focus on storage & retrieval

  • Experience’s ability to change an organism’s behaviour under certain conditions

  • Stimulus control


Forgetting

Forgetting

  • Deterioration in learned behaviour following a period without practice

  • Defined behaviourally

    • Performance vs Description

  • Note: extinction is not the same as forgetting


Measuring forgetting

Measuring Forgetting

  • Working memory

    • Sample (training)

    • Retention interval (usually short… seconds/minutes/hours)

    • Test

    • Next sample is different

  • Reference memory

    • Training

    • Retention interval (can be much longer… days/weeks)

    • Test

    • Samples (training) are always the same


Free recall method

Free Recall Method

  • Train, wait, test

  • See how much deterioration in performance

  • “All-or-nothing” test of behaviour

  • May not be appropriate for complex tasks

  • Some elements remembered, others not


Free recall

Free Recall

  • Learn:

    • Banana

    • Interesting

    • Annoy

    • Book

    • Computer

  • Recall:

    • _______________

    • _______________

    • _______________

    • _______________

    • _______________


Prompted cued recall

Prompted (Cued) Recall

  • Give prompts to increase likelihood of behaviour

  • Two ways:

    • Measure deterioration (same as free recall)

      • prompts help with complex tasks where free recall task might lead to very low scores

    • Measure number of prompts needed to produce behaviour


Cued recall

Cued Recall:

  • Recall:

    • Ba_________

    • In_________

    • An_________

    • Bo_________

    • Co_________

  • Learn:

    • Banana

    • Interesting

    • Annoy

    • Book

    • Computer


Relearning method

Relearning Method

  • Reinstall original training procedure after retention period

  • How many trials (or time) needed compared to original training to return to initial level of proficiency?

  • Reacquisition


Relearning

Relearning

Trial #1

Trial #2

Trial #3

  • Learn :

    • Banana

    • Interesting

    • Annoy

    • Book

    • Computer

  • Recall:

    • Banana

    • __________

    • Annoy

    • __________

    • __________

  • Recall:

    • Banana

    • __________

    • Annoy

    • Book

    • __________

  • Recall:

    • Banana

    • Interesting

    • Annoy

    • Book

    • Computer

Score = 2/5

Total Trials on Initial Learning = 3

Score = 3/5

Score = 5/5

How many trials to relearn after a break (retention interval)? Difference = amount of forgetting


Recognition method

Recognition Method

  • Subject only has to identify material previously learned

  • E.g., distinguish between original stimulus and a number of distracter stimuli


Recognition

Recognition

  • Which words were on the list?

    • Banana

    • Orange

    • Interesting

    • Annoy

    • Ugly

    • Computer

    • Table

    • Apple

  • Learn:

    • Banana

    • Interesting

    • Annoy

    • Book

    • Computer


Delayed matching to sample

Delayed Matching to Sample

  • Show S+

  • Wait (Delay = Retention Interval)

  • Choose from S+ and S-

  • Working memory only

Sample

Delay

Matching


Extinction method

Extinction Method

  • Train two subjects (groups of subjects)

  • Put both on extinction, but one has delay between training and extinction and the other doesn’t

  • Compare rate of extinction for two subjects


Extinction methods

Extinction methods

Group 1 & 2

Learning Phase

Group 1

Extinction

Group 2

Extinction

break

Compare amount of time


Gradient degradation method

Gradient Degradation Method

  • Establish stimulus control (discrimination training)

  • Measure generalization gradient

  • Repeated measure gen. grad. over time

  • If generalization gradient flattens, forgetting


Gradient degradation

Gradient degradation

No Forgetting

Training: Establish gradient

Forgetting


Variables in forgetting

Variables in Forgetting


Is time a variable

Is time a variable?

  • Retention interval = Time between learning and testing

  • Greater the interval, less retained (i.e., more forgetting)

  • But, time is not an event (time doesn’t account for forgetting)

  • Need causal factors


Variables are

Variables are:

  • Degree of learning (overlearning)

  • Prior Learning

    • Facilitation

    • Interference

  • Subsequent Learning

  • Context


Overlearning

Overlearning

  • Learn to asymptote, then keep training

    • Learning list perfectly, then practice a few more times

  • Better recall for longer

  • Point of diminishing return

    • Not a linear relationship between overlearning and retention

    • i.e. 100% overlearningisn’ttwice as good as 50% overlearning


Krueger 1929

Krueger (1929)

  • Adults learn 3 lists of 12 one-syllable nouns

    • List 1: go through list until they remember all 12

    • List 2: learn list perfectly, then go through again for half as many trials as it took to learn

      • i.e. if they took 10 trials to learn perfectly, they go through list another 5 times

    • Group 3: learn list perfectly, then go through again as many times as it took to learn

      • i.e. another 10 times

  • Relearn after various intervals


Results

Results

  • Greater amount of overlearning, less forgetting

  • 100% overlearning better than 50% overlearning

  • 50% overlearning way better than 0% overlearning

    • i.e. difference between 100% & 50% was LESS THAN difference between 50% & 0%


Facilitation of prior learning

Facilitation of Prior Learning

  • Previous experience makes something easier to remember

  • Meaningful material easier to retain than random material

    • e.g. Easier to learn a complete sentence than 12 random words

  • Prior experience important in determining what is meaningful (e.g., words in known or unknown language)


Degroot 1966

DeGroot (1966)

  • Arranged chess pieces on board as if in the middle of a game

  • Chess masters and novices; 5 seconds to observe

  • Masters reproduced arrangement 90% of time, novices only 40%

  • Is this prior experience, or do chess masters forget less than other people?


Chase simon 1973

Chase & Simon (1973)

  • Chess pieces placed randomly on board

  • Masters no better than novices at recall

  • Past learning of “legal” arrangements is what increased masters’ performance in deGroot (1966) study


Interference of prior learning

Interference of Prior Learning

  • Proactive interference

  • Previous learning interferes with recall of newer learning


Studying proactive interference

Studying proactive interference

  • Paired Associate Learning (PAL) technique

    • Subjects learn paired lists, tested with 1 item and must recall second

    • All learn A-C list, but some previously learned A-B list

    • In testing, give A and ask to recall C

    • Those with A-B learning have more difficulty recalling C when given A


Pal example

PAL example

  • 1 group first learns:

    • Red-Apple

    • Cloud-Shoe

    • Cat-Shelf

    • Plate-Spoon

    • Carpet-Tent

  • Both groups then learn:

    • Red-Book

    • Cloud-Paper

    • Cat-Fence

    • Plate-Notebook

    • Carpet-Window

  • Both groups then RECALL:

    • Red- ________

    • Cloud- ________

    • Cat- ________

    • Plate- ________

    • Carpet- ________


Levine murphy 1943

Levine & Murphy (1943)

  • Proactive interference with attitudes

  • Determine initial attitude towards communism

    • Likert Scale

  • Read pro- and anti-communism passages

  • Students who had prior pro-communist attitudes forgot anti-communist elements of passages but remembered pro-elements (and vice versa)

  • Proactive interference because attitudes are not innate; effect of prior learning


Subsequent learning interference

Subsequent Learning (Interference)

  • Inactivity during retention interval leads to less forgetting than activity

  • Implies forgetting partly based on learning new material

  • Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924)

100

50

sleep

Recall (%)

awake

0 2 4 6 8

Hours after learning tested


Retroactive interference

Retroactive Interference

  • New learning interferes with ability to recall earlier learning

  • PAL technique (opposite order)

    • Subjects learn A-C, but some then learn A-B

    • Test by giving A and recalling C

    • Subjects who learned A-B have worse recall for C

  • e.g. forgetting old phone numbers, license plates, passwords


Pal example1

PAL example

  • BOTH groups first learn:

    • Red-Apple

    • Cloud-Shoe

    • Cat-Shelf

    • Plate-Spoon

    • Carpet-Tent

  • 1 group then learns:

    • Red-Book

    • Cloud-Paper

    • Cat-Fence

    • Plate-Notebook

    • Carpet-Window

  • Both groups then RECALL:

    • Red- ________

    • Cloud- ________

    • Cat- ________

    • Plate- ________

    • Carpet- ________

Order is just “switched” from last example


Context

Context

  • Learning occurs in a context

  • Various stimuli around the learner

  • These stimuli serve as cues to evoke a behaviour

  • If stimuli absent, may have cue-dependent forgetting

  • Stimulus control

  • e.g. forgetting names when in a different context


Context1

Context

Cue set, set of SD’s, has changed! Less cues to signal correct response.

SD

Colour, size, shape, etc…


Perkins weyant 1958

Perkins & Weyant (1958)

  • Train two groups of rats in two mazes, one black, one white

  • 1 minute retention interval

  • Half of each group tested in original maze, half in maze of opposite colour

  • Opposite colour rats did poorly compared to original maze tested rats


Kamin 1957

100

50

Avoidance (%)

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84

Retention Interval (hr)

Kamin (1957)

  • Gave rats avoidance learning, tested at various retention intervals.

  • Time of day, internal clock

  • Internal physiological state cues recall

  • “internal” context


State dependent learning

State-Dependent Learning

  • Train under a particular physiological state (e.g., drug condition) and test under various states

  • Recall best when in the same state as training

  • Drug conditions: alcohol, caffeine, etc.

  • Internal State: tired, level of stress, emotions, etc.


Application foraging

Application: Foraging

  • Food Caching

  • Cache: food store

  • Retrieval of food later

  • Spatial memory

  • Wide variety of species

  • Accuracy can be quite high for very long times


Application eyewitness testimony

Application: Eyewitness Testimony

  • Notoriously poor

  • Basic issue of retention interval and forgetting

  • Also the nature of the question used to retrieve information


Loftus zanni 1975

Loftus & Zanni (1975)

  • Subjects watched film of car accident

  • Asked “Did you see <the>/<a> broken headlight?”

  • “the” subjects twice as likely as “a” subjects to say “yes”

  • Actually, no broken headlight shown

  • Reinforcement history

  • Previous conditioning: “the” (definite article) implies presence; “a” implies possible presence


Loftus palmer 1974

Loftus & Palmer (1974)

  • Watch film of car accident

  • “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”

  • Underlined word replaced with smashed, collided, bumped, contacted

  • Speed estimates varied based on wording of question

  • Reports of broken glass varied based on wording


Learning to remember

Learning to Remember


Learning to remember1

Learning to Remember

  • In essence, improving learning

  • Practice increases retention

  • Techniques:

    • Overlearning

    • Mnemonics

    • Context cues

    • Prompts


Overlearning1

Overlearning

  • Practice beyond learning

  • e.g. Tiger Woods putting practice

  • e.g. Flash Cards (SAFMEDS)


Mnemonics

Mnemonics

  • Rhymes, First Letters

    • HOMES, Roy G. Biv

  • Method of Loci

    • Associate learned items with locations on a well-known route

  • Peg Word System

    • 1 = “bun”, 2 = “shoe”, 3 = “tree”…

    • Also works with visual

    • 1 looks like a pencil, 2 looks like a swan, 3 is a tricycle…


Mnemonic example

Mnemonic example

  • 1 – “coffee cup” – imagine using a coffee cup as a pencil holder

  • 2 – “rubber ball” – imagine a swan holding a rubber ball in its beak

  • 3 – “printer” – imagine a printer printing a piece of paper with a tricycle on it

  • 4 – “yoga mat” – imagine trying to balance in yoga positions while on top of a table (4 legs)

  • Etc….

  • The more bizarre the image, the easier it is to remember (lack of interference)


Context cues

Context Cues

  • Keep context the same

    • Study in classroom

    • Pay attention to habits, internal states


Prompts

Prompts

  • Creating S+’s

  • Memos, notes, calendar markings

    • Often don’t contain all info, so just a “reminder” of what needs to be done

    • E.g. “3-Choice meeting”

  • String on finger, watch beep, cell phone reminders


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