Brave new world
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Brave New World. By Aldous Huxley. Brave New World. First published in 1932. Set in a future seemingly utopian society. Utopia = a perfect or ideal society. What would be included/allowed in your utopia?. Brave New World. No one ever gets old or ill. No one has parents.

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Brave New World

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Brave new world

Brave New World

By Aldous Huxley

Brave new world1

Brave New World

  • First published in 1932.

  • Set in a future seemingly utopian society.

  • Utopia = a perfect or ideal society.

  • What would be included/allowed in your utopia?

Brave new world2

Brave New World

  • No one ever gets old or ill.

  • No one has parents.

  • There are no long term, loving relationships – e.g. between boyfriend and girlfriend or man and wife.

  • You can have as much sex as you want and there is no moral judgement made. Infact multiple sexual partners are encouraged!!!!!

Brave new world3

Brave New World

  • Drug taking is encouraged – soma rations are handed out to all citizens to stop them being depressed/angry/unhappy.

  • There is no fighting, rebellion or questioning of authority because everyone is content.

  • Because no-one ever forms real attachments to each other – e.g. no mother, father, sister, brother then you will never experience grief and you are conditioned to accept death without emotion.

Biological engineering

Biological Engineering

  • Human beings are grown in laboratories and brought up in large nurseries by staff rather than parents.

  • The opening chapter takes place in The Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre.

Caste system

Caste System

  • Alphas – most intelligent, attractive and physically developed.

  • Betas

  • Gammas

  • Deltas

  • Epsilons – least intelligent and physically developed, often handicapped.

Bokanovsky process

Bokanovsky Process

  • The Bokanovsky process means one embryo can be split to produce hundreds of human beings who are the same. Only applies to Gammas, Deltas and Epsilons.

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

  • In your own words try to explain the purpose of the Bokanovsky process. (pg.4)

  • Explain what the predestinators do.

  • What is a freemartin? (pg. 9)

  • How do they prepare the foetuses to be lower caste members?

  • In what other ways are the the foetuses prepared for their future life?

Chapter 11

Chapter 1

The writer uses the Director’s lecture to his students as a way of introducing and explaining his imagined setting.

  • What does the process that the foetuses go through in the Hatchery remind you of? Explain your answer.



We are introduced to Lenina at the end of this chapter.

1. What do we find out about her? Write down as much info as you can.

2. Is there anything surprising to the reader about the encounter with Lenina? Explain

Chapter 12

Chapter 1

Look at the descriptions of the fertilizing room on page one. Copy down any words or phrases which suggest the place is cold, scientific and unnatural.

Chapter 2

Chapter 2

  • The tour of the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre is continued with a trip to the Infant Nurseries.

  • We see a group of Delta children being conditioned to dislike books and flowers.

  • The Director explains to them how sleep teaching or hypnopaedia was discovered and how it is used to condition children.

Chapter 21

Chapter 2

  • Children given lessons on Elementary Sex and Elementary Class Consciousness:

    “Alpha children wear grey. They work much harder than we do, because they’re so frightfully clever. I’m really awfully glad I’m a Beta, because I don’t work so hard. And then we are much better than the Gammas and Deltas. Gammas are stupid…”

Chapter 22

Chapter 2

  • Describe the methods used to condition children in this chapter.

  • Do you agree with them?

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

  • Chapter 3 moves between three situations:

  • Lenina getting ready.

  • Mustapha Mond talking to the students.

  • Bernard Marx and Henry Foster.

Chapter 31

Chapter 3

What do we find out about the following three characters in this chapter:

  • Henry Foster

  • Lenina Crowne

  • Bernard Marx

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

  • Look at page 49. How do the men in the lift react to Lenina? What annoys Lenina? Why do you think this detail is included?

  • How does Bernard react when Lenina agrees to the date? Why does he react like this?

  • Look at pages 50-51. What does the description of the lift attendant show us?



  • What more do we find out about Bernard on page 55? Write down as much as you can.

  • Why do you think Bernard is discontent?

  • Compare Bernard with his friend Hemholtz Watson. What do they have in common?

  • In what way are they opposites?

Chapter 5

Chapter 5

  • Part One – Lenina and Henry go to a multi-sensory concert

  • Part Two – Bernard goes to a Solidarity Service.

  • Both events are designed to create a sense of being part of something greater than an individual, they are also about pleasure – the main pursuit in this society.

Chapter 51

Chapter 5

  • Look at page 63. What does Lenina say that shows she has been conditioned to dislike lower castes?

  • What does Henry say which tells us the reason the lower castes never rebel? (pg.64)

  • In what way is Henry’s reaction to the cremation unexpected? (pg. 64-65)

  • Describe Lenina and Henry’s evening.

  • Describe Bernard’s evening. In what ways are they similar? In what ways are they different?

Brave new world4

Differences to our world

Similarities to our world

Brave New World

Communism v capitalism

Communism v Capitalism

  • Communism – Based on the idea that the workers are the most necessary part of any economy. There is no private property or business. The government own and control everything and the government is run by the workers.

  • Everyone has equal status as there is no private property and everyone is paid the same

  • “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need” – Karl Marx.

  • Classless society.

Communism v capitalism1

Communism v Capitalism

  • Capitalism – Less government interference. Means of production (factories, businesses) are privately owned and run for profit.

  • Classes are important as the middle and upper class run the businesses while the working class work.

  • There is more inequality.

  • Consumer Capitalism is encouraged as a way of creating continuous growth in the economy.

Historical context of novel

Historical Context of novel

  • Written in 1931 and published in 1932.

  • The novel is a response to the rapid changes that were taking place in society at this time.

  • The Industrial Revolution meant the world was transformed through science and machinery – improved medicine, sanitation, transport and communication links meant life was getting better for many. There was a lot of utopian fiction written at this point.

  • Then WW1 – 1914 and post world war era.

Historical context

Historical Context

  • First World War brought the end of this idealistic view of the future.

  • Russian Revolution – Communist revolution in Russia – state controls everything and everybody – we can see that this is satirised in ‘Brave New World’.

Roaring twenties

Roaring Twenties

  • The Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s, principally in North America, but also in London, Berlin and Paris for a period of sustained economic prosperity.

  • After the doom of the First World war people started to break free from traditions:

  • Women gained more independence.

  • The working classes had more money to spend on leisure pursuits – drinking, dancing, music halls, etc.

  • Jazz and dancing rose in popularity and sexual morals began to change.

  • Consumer consumption was encouraged as a way of achieving economic stability.

Henry ford

Henry Ford

  • Founder of the Ford Motor Company.

  • Developed assembly line technique of mass production.

  • Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry.

  • He became one of the richest and best-known people in the world.

  • He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace.

Brave new world5

Brave New World

  • What elements of both Capitalism and Communism do we see in ‘Brave New World’?

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

  • In groups list as many hypnopaedic phrases as you can from part one, chapter six.

Chapter 6 part two

Chapter 6 – Part Two

  • What does the Director tell Bernard about?

  • Why is the Director’s story inappropriate?

  • What does the Director threaten Bernard with?

  • What is Bernard’s initial reaction to this threat? (pg.85)

  • What faults does Helmholtz pick out in Bernard?

Chapter 7 vii

Chapter 7 (VII)

1.List at least five quotations that show Lenina’s disgust/shock/horror at life in the Savage Reservation.

2.What various things about Linda disturb Lenina?

3. What else do we find out about Linda?

4. Why do the other women in the village dislike her?

Chapter 8 viii

Chapter 8 (VIII)

Told from John’s point of view. Through a series of flashbacks:

  • Memories of Linda and Pope - Linda finding comfort in sex and alcohol.

  • The way he is ostracized by the other children.

  • Rejected by his mother

  • Shakespeare helps John to express his emotions and inspired by Hamlet he attempts to stab Pope.

  • John feels completely unhappy and alone, except when he makes the waterpot – this gives him a sense of purpose.

  • At the end of the chapter he finally has hope – “Oh brave new world” – The Tempest. We know that like Shakespeare’s character (Miranda) he will be left disappointed.

Chapter 8 viii1

Chapter 8 (VIII)

Why might John be disappointed in the new world?

Chapter 9 ix

Chapter 9 (IX)

  • How does Bernard act towards the Warden? What does this tell us about Bernard? (pg. 123)

  • What does John do when Lenina is sleeping (on soma holiday)?

  • How does he feel about her?

  • What emotion does he feel when he thinks about taking her clothes off? Use a quotation to show this.

Chapter 10 x

Chapter 10 (X)

  • Where does this chapter take place?

  • What is Bernard accused of? (pg 129-130)

  • How do the other workers respond to Linda and John? (use quotations)

  • How does the Director respond? (use quotations)

Chapter 11 xi

Chapter 11 (XI)

  • We see Bernard start to change in this section. What evidence is there of this? Use quotations.

  • How do we know that Bernard is still not accepted in this society?

  • What disgusts John about ‘Brave New World’?

  • What more do we find out about education at Eton?

  • Why do you think John rejects Lenina at the end of this chapter?

Chapters 11 12

Chapters 11 & 12

  • Bernard introduces John to life in The World State.

  • John is disgusted by how superficial, inhumane and immoral life is – treatment of Linda, free sexual morals, lack of individuality, etc.

  • Bernard show that he wasn’t actually as unorthodox as he believed. He is seen to be a hypocrite as he now enjoys the features of society he had previously criticized – privileges of being and Alpha male, sex and even soma.



What questions do you have about the novel so far…………..

In groups

In groups

  • List the various personality traits of Bernard so far…… e.g. insecure.

  • Now use these to create a group mind map about Bernard.

  • You can also include appearance and background.

Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Placemat activity:

  • What happens in this chapter?

  • What is the most significant event?

  • Why does John react the way he does to Lenina?

  • Is his treatment of Lenina fair?

Chapter 131

Chapter 13

  • Why is Lenina frustrated at the start of this chapter?

  • What shocks Fanny about Lenina?

  • What is Fanny’s advice?

  • How does John react when Lenina seduces him and why?

Chapter 14 pg174

Chapter 14 pg174

  • This chapter takes place in The Park Lane Hospital for the Dying.

  • The attitude towards death in The World State is very different to our own.

    Task: List as many details from this chapter which highlight this contrast in attitude.

    Now put them in order starting with the one you find the most shocking.

Chapter 14

Chapter 14

  • In what way is John rejected by his mother in this chapter?

  • Why does John get so angry with the children in the ward?

  • What happens at the end of this chapter? What pattern can you see in John’s behaviour?

Chapter 15 pg 183

Chapter 15 – pg 183

  • What is the most important event in this chapter and why does it occur?

  • What does John believe he is offering the workers by throwing the soma away and why?

  • When the soma ration appears we are told it was “as though they were looking at fireworks” (pg 184). What does this simile suggest?

  • Explain John, Helmholtz and Bernard’s differing reactions to the riot.

  • What does the fact there are police with weapons and an ‘Anti-Riot Speech’ tell us?

Mustapha mond

Mustapha Mond

Which of the following words/phrases best describe Mustapha Mond. Pick 3 and explain your reasoning:

  • Rational

  • Intelligent

  • The villain of the novel

  • Harsh

  • Charming/charismatic

  • Self-sacrificing

  • Unorthodox

Mustapha mond1

Mustapha Mond

What do we found out about Mustapha Mond’s background in this chapter?

Bullet point any relevant information

Chapter 16

Chapter 16

  • Explain the results of the Cyprus experiment. What does this prove? (pg 196-7)

  • Why can’t science be allowed to develop unrestricted?

  • What has to be sacrificed in order to achieve happiness?

  • How does Bernard act in this chapter?

Chapter 17

Chapter 17

  • Mustapha Mond and John are left alone in this chapter.

  • John argues for God and Mustapha Mond against God.

  • What does Mustapha Monda tell John about God in this chapter?

  • What is a Violent Passion Surrogate and what is it for? (pg. 211)

  • Is this chapter for or against religion? Explain your answer.

Chapter 171

Chapter 17

Mustapha Mond argues that God may exist but that society no longer has a need for him.

All the problems that make people turn to God – ill health, the vulnerability of old-age, unhappiness, etc no longer exist.

John argues that religion is necessary as a means of guidance and that there must be something above human existence. There must be something more noble that the way of life in The World State.

Chapter 172

Chapter 17

  • John argues that life in the World State is simply “too easy”. The have got rid of anything that might cause suffering or pain.

  • John thinks there is no challenge for the human spirit anymore: “Nothing costs enough here”.

  • Extremes of emotion/human experience are shown to be necessary with the Violent Passion Surrogate (Pg. 211)

  • “But I don’t want comfort. I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want goodness, I want sin” (pg. 211) – John believes we need these extremes of emotion to truly have the full human experience, otherwise we are living a half-life, unfulfilled by any true/experience or higher emotion – e.g. love, heroism.

  • The disadvantage of these emotions is that with love also comes hatred, betrayal, fear – instability. Mond argues we only need religion when there is instability!!

Chapter 18

Chapter 18

Bullet point the main events in this chapter.

Chapter 181

Chapter 18

  • What causes the happiness experienced by the three men on page 214? In what way is it different from the happiness experienced by most citizens in the World State?

  • John prays for forgiveness from various Gods. What does he want forgiveness for? (pg. 215-216)

  • Why does John enjoy the physical work? (pg. 218)

  • How do you think Lenina feels about John? Give evidence for your answer (pg. 227)

  • Why did John kill himself?

Themes placemat activity

Themes– Placemat Activity

Individually –

What is a theme?

What are the themes of the novel?

Groups- Pick out the top 5 themes.



  • The use of technology to control society

  • The misuse of science

  • Dangers of a consumer society

  • The incompatibility of happiness and truth

  • The decline of the individual

  • The dangers of an all powerful state

  • The State versus the individual

  • Isolation/Alienation

  • Government control



List the main characters in the novel.


The World State

The Savage Reservation

Pages 92 -126 ,

Chapters 7-9


Critical essay assessment

Critical Essay Assessment

  • In the exam you only have 1 hour and 30 mins to write 2 essays

  • 45 minutes per essay.

  • Assessed on:

    • Understanding

    • Analysis

    • Relevance

    • Technical Accuracy

Essay question

Essay Question

Choose a novel in which a character chooses to escape from the constraints of his or her environment or situation.

Explain why the character feels the need to escape and show how his or her response to the situation illuminates a central concern of the text. (2010)

Essay question1

Essay Question

Choose a novel in which a character chooses to escape from the constraints of his or her environment or situation.

Explain why the character feels the need to escape and show how his or her response to the situation illuminates a central concern of the text. (2010)



  • Which character will you choose and what constraints are they trying to escape?

  • What themes (central concerns) does their situation and their actions help explore (illuminate/highlight) for us – keep it simple and just pick one or two!

The start of the novel

The Start of the Novel

Read over the first few pages again.

We are immediately meant to be disturbed by this world.

How does the writer make it seem disturbing? In what ways does this world seem strange?

The ending

The Ending

  • Explain what happens at the end of the novel.

  • Why do you think Lenina goes to see John?

  • Why does John attack Lenina?

  • Why does John take part in the orgy?

  • Why does John kill himself?

Christmas holiday homework

Christmas Holiday Homework

  • Choose a novel in which the setting in time and/or place is a significant feature.

    Show how the writer’s use of setting contributes to your understanding of character and theme. (2009)

Christmas holiday homework1

Christmas Holiday Homework

2. Choose a novel, set in a time different from your own, with a theme relevant to the world today.

Show how you are led to an appreciation of the theme’s continuing relevance, despite its setting in time. (2006)



  • “Everyone belongs to everyone else”.

  • Explanation: This is one of the World State’s mottos and children are taught this from an early age. Lenina repeats this several times throughout the novel, as does Linda to justify her promiscuity. The motto shows us that there is no such thing as monogamy and love for one other person. Instead the state encourages people to be promiscuous. Huxley uses this motto to show the lack of morality and the superficial values promoted by the World State. Huxley saw a decline in sexual morals in the post war years and wants to highlight the superficial nature of this type of society, where sex has more value than love.

Write you own explanations for the following

Write you own explanations for the following:

  • They’re blissfully ignorant of passion and old age…they’ve got no wives or children or lovers to feel strongly about – 194

  • Lenina Crowne…Wonderfully pneumatic. I’m surprised you haven’t had her - 37

  • But I don’t want comfort. I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want goodness. I want sin. - 211

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