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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs. Lesson 5: The U.S. Navy in the Napoleonic Era, 1783-1815. Learning Objectives:. The student will comprehend the influence of European events upon American trade and naval policy during this period.

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Sea power and maritime affairs

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

Lesson 5: The U.S. Navy in the Napoleonic Era,

1783-1815


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives:

  • The student will comprehend the influence of European events upon American trade and naval policy during this period.

  • The student will understand and be able to explain the term “Battle of Annihilation.”

  • The student will know the background of Jefferson’s defensive naval strategy including the use of gunboats and forts. Know the causes and naval operations of the Napoleonic Wars.

  • The student will know (recall) operations against the Barbary corsairs during this period.

  • The student will comprehend the main factors of the European war and their effect on causing the War of 1812.

  • The student will understand and be able to explain the term “Guerre de Course.”

  • The student will know the U.S. and British Naval Strategy during the war.


Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives:

  • The student will comprehend the Great Lakes campaign and its importance to the U.S. war effort.

  • The student will comprehend (compare and contrast) the naval strategies of Rodgers and Decatur.

  • The student will comprehend the significance of the Washington and New Orleans campaigns.

  • The student will know the contributions of the U.S. Navy during the war of 1812, and assess the state of the Navy after the treaty of Ghent


Remember our themes
Remember our Themes!

  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy

  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy

  • Interservice Relations

  • Technology

  • Leadership

  • Strategy and Tactics

  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine


Remember our themes1
Remember our Themes!

  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy

  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy

  • Interservice Relations

  • Technology

  • Leadership

  • Strategy and Tactics

  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine (or lack thereof)


A new nation
A New Nation:

  • Articles of Confederation

    • Weak central government

      • No power of taxation.

    • Congress unable to fund a Navy after Rev War.

      • 1785 - All Continental Navy warships decommissioned.

  • New maritime trade markets-

    • Large American merchant fleet.

    • China and Mediterranean Sea.

    • American merchant ships no longer protected by the Royal Navy.


A word on neutrality
A word on Neutrality…

  • US wanted to trade with anyone, anywhere

    • “Free ships make free goods”

  • Belligerents didn’t want US taking their trade during war

  • This policy was adapted due to the United States’s desire and need to increase revenue

  • Policy remained in effect until WWI, when the Monroe Doctrine was abandoned

  • This policy demonstrates America’s lack of identity at the time and how its interests still did not mirror those of the European nations

  • Image: “colony or nation”


Pop quiz
POP QUIZ:

What was the “Monroe Doctrine”?

The Monroe Doctrine, expressed in 1823, proclaimed the United States' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas, such as the United States, Mexico, and others. In return, the United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in wars between a European power and its colonies. However, if these latter type of wars were to occur in the Americas, the U.S. would view such action as hostile toward itself.

The doctrine was issued by President James Monroe during his seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress. It was met first with doubt, then with enthusiasm. This was a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States.

The doctrine was conceived by its authors, especially John Quincy Adams, as a proclamation by the United States of moral opposition to colonialism, but has subsequently been re-interpreted in a wide variety of ways, including by President Theodore Roosevelt as a license for the U.S. to practice its own form of colonialism.


Initial challenges to a new nation
Initial Challenges To a New Nation:

  • Barbary States -- North Africa (Morocco, Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers)

    • Demands for tribute to guarantee safe passage in Mediterranean.

  • War of the French Revolution -- U.S. neutral rights violated.

    • Great Britain - Orders in Council

    • French Privateers seize American merchants

  • The foundation for a naval requirement is laid and debate begins


Initial influences on the u s
Initial Influences on the U.S.:

  • The Treaty of Paris (1783)

    • State of Navy after 1785 was poor

    • Federalists (Hamilton, Jay): strong Navy, balance of power, must protect trade

    • Republicans (Jefferson, Henry): too expensive, do not want to provoke European powers, imperialistic

  • Barbary Pirate attacks (1783-1787)

    • Demonstrated the need for naval power

    • Federalist: fight / Republicans: pay tribute

  • The French Revolution (1792)

  • 1794: The Navy Act

    - construction of six superior frigates begins (including USS Constitution)


Naval policy debate begins
Naval Policy Debate Begins:

  • U.S. Constitution - 1788.

    • Stronger federal government with ability to tax.

    • “The Congress shall have Power To provide and maintain a Navy.”

    • “The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States.”

  • Federalists: New England -- Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, John Adams

    • Proponents of a strong Navy.

    • Ensure neutral rights on the seas and protect vital trade interests.

  • Republicans: Middle and Southern States -- Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry

    • Strong U.S. Navy would provoke European powers.

    • Navies are expensive and imperialistic - a “luxury”.


Beginnings of the u s navy
Beginnings of the U.S. Navy:

  • Navy Act of 1794

  • Navy becomes part of the Department of War.

    • Secretary of War Henry Knox.

    • Large 44-gun frigates planned.

      • More heavily armed than normal frigates.

      • Faster than Ships of the Line.

      • 1797: United States, 44 and Constitution, 44 completed -- called Humphrey’s frigates.

  • Marines deployed on Navy ships.

    • Continue tradition of British Royal Marines.

      • Protect Captain and officers from the crew.

      • Provide musket fire from quarterdeck and “fighting tops”.


Too little too late
Too Little Too Late:

  • Pinckney Treaty

  • 1794 Breakdown Portuguese-Algerian Relations

  • 1796 Treaty with Algiers

  • Treaties with Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis

  • The Med is reopened to American trading without a Naval response – frigates lay uncompleted in their shipyards



Jay s treaty 1794
Jay’s Treaty – 1794:

  • Spring 1794: Congress finds out about British Orders in Council against US shipping (over 250 U.S. merchant ships seized by this point)

  • 30-day embargo on all American exports to Britain (capitalizing on Britain’s poor grain harvest that year)

  • Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton engineer John Jay’s appointment as emissary to London

  • Hamilton’s Instructions:

    1) Do not contravene Franco-American alliance of 1778

    2) British West Indies opened to American trade

    3) Most favored nation status

    Treaty fails: American public reacts with hostility – Jay denounced as a scoudrel


The results
The Results:

  • Britain promises to relinquish northwest forts

  • Opened British East Indies to American trade

  • MFN status to Americans trading in the British home Isles

  • British do not rescind their policy of impressment

  • Americans cannot trade in Caribbean


However
HOWEVER...

  • No headway on neutral rights

    • Seizure of goods bound for France

    • Abandons “Free ships make free goods”

  • Restrictions on shipping in British West Indies

  • President Washington delays proclamation of the treaty until 2 February 1796


France now the villain
France now the Villain:

  • Franco-American Alliance severed by Jay’s Treaty

  • 1796 French seizure of commerce in West Indies

  • Eject American minister Charles C. Pinckney enrages President Adams

  • John Adams calls special session of Congress

    • Non-partisan council to go to France

    • Money for Navy

    • A provisional Army

  • Congress answers 1 July 1797

    • United States, Constitution, and Constellation back in the game


The xyz affair
The XYZ Affair:

  • French Foreign Minister Talleyrand attempts to extort money from United States

  • XYZ Affair

    • American delegation to Paris insulted - Congress and American public outraged.

    • 1200 copies distributed

  • “Millions for Defense, not one cent for tribute”


Department of navy
Department of Navy:

  • Department of the Navy established -- 1798.

    • Benjamin Stoddert - First Secretary of the Navy.

    • Increase in naval expenditures for:

      • Shipyards

      • Ships - completed frigates begun by Navy Act of 1794.

  • Stoddert’s Navy

    • 50 ships by end of 1799

    • Wanted fleet navy (ships of the line)

    • Not guerre de course

  • Major step towards America becoming a major power – America not ready for this level of warfare, thus Stoddert’s effectiveness reduced


Republican naval policy
Republican Naval Policy:

  • Thomas Jefferson elected in 1800.

  • Large reductions in Naval funding.

    • Republicans reduce federal taxation and spending.

  • All Navy ships sold except 13 frigates.

    • 7 of the 13 frigates in mothballs.

  • Jefferson’s “Gunboat” Navy -- a strictly defensive strategy.

    • Static and weak defense of American coast.

    • Floating gun platforms - reduced maneuverability.


President thomas jefferson 1801 1809
PresidentThomas Jefferson1801-1809

Louisiana Purchase

Lewis and Clark

Expedition



Barbary wars 1801 1805
Barbary Wars 1801-1805

  • Increasing tribute demands of North African states.

    • William Bainbridge forced to sail George Washington under Algerian flag with tribute to Ottoman sultan.

  • Undeclared war against the Barbary States begins - 1801.

    • Secretary of Navy Smith deploys Commodore Richard Dale to Mediterranean


Samuel smith s instructions
Samuel Smith’s Instructions:

  • Protection of American merchantmen vessels from non-European powers

  • Wars against such powers blockade would be strategy of choice

  • Seizure or destruction of ships- whether armed or not

  • Solitary American frigate would suffice


Barbary wars 1801 18051
Barbary Wars 1801-1805

  • Early commodores unsuccessful:

    • Robert Dale fails to be aggressive - resigns in 1802.

    • Thomas Truxton turns down command due to lack of a captain for his flagship and is dismissed from service.

    • Richard Morris - dismissed for “dilatory conduct”.

  • Commodore Edward Preble takes command - Sept 1803.

    • Aggressive tactics are highly successful.

    • “Preble’s Boys” will command U.S. ships in the War of 1812.


Commodore edward preble preble s boys
CommodoreEdwardPreble“Preble’s Boys”


Barbary wars operations
Barbary Wars Operations:

  • “Hard Luck” Captain William Bainbridge -- Philadelphia captured in Tripoli harbor and crew imprisoned.

  • Philadelphia held under Tripoli’s guns.

    • Lieutenant Stephen Decatur -- special warfare mission.

      • Uses captured Intrepid to board and burn Philadelphia.

      • Promoted to Captain at age 25.

  • Eaton’s march on Tripoli.

    • Includes First Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon and six Marines.

      • Capture of Derna in April 1805.

      • Awarded Mameluke sword by Prince Hamet - still used today.

      • “The shores of Tripoli.”

      • Boost in support for Marine Corps.



Burning of the philadelphia
Burning of the Philadelphia

“The most heroic

and bold act of the age.”- Admiral Horatio Nelson




Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars:

  • French Revolution - 1789

    • French aristocracy overthrown.

    • War with Great Britain resumes in 1793.

    • French Navy leadership adversely affected.

    • French Army leadership relatively unaffected - artillery officers.

      • Change in strategy and tactics from more formal and professional armies.

  • War between France and continental European powers.

    • Britain forms a series of five “Coalitions” with continental powers to counter the French - continues Pitt’s Plan.

  • Early failures by British and allies while French counter-revolution threatened republicans.

  • French Empire established under Emperor Napoleon.


Napoleonic wars naval confrontation
Napoleonic Wars Naval Confrontation :

  • Fleet engagements between Royal Navy and French Navy and French allies’ navies:

    • Battle of the “Glorious” First of June -- 1794

    • Battle of Cape St. Vincent -- February 1797

    • Battle of Camperdown -- October 1797

    • Battle of the Nile -- 1 August 1798

    • Battle of Copenhagen -- 2 April 1801

    • Battle of Trafalgar -- 21 October 1805

  • Admiral Horatio Nelson

    • Highly successful through the use of melee tactics.

    • “Concept of Operations” to ship captains prior to battle.


Admiral horatio nelson
AdmiralHoratioNelson




British victory at trafalgar
British Victory at Trafalgar

  • Great Britain secures command of the seas.

    • French threat to invade England ended.

    • Great Britain’s overseas commerce flourishes.

    • Royal Navy gains ability to threaten U.S. commerce with France and other countries.

  • French Navy declines in strength.

    • Napoleon’s army still supreme on European continent.

    • Continental System established in Europe to isolate Great Britain.

  • Napoleonic Wars continue until Napoleon is defeated by Britain’s Duke of Wellington at Waterloo - 1815.



Causes of the war of 1812
Causes of the War of 1812

  • British at war with France

  • British begin to seize U.S. Ships

  • Neutral rights categorized

  • Visit and search of merchant men by naval vessels

  • Ports closed in peacetime

  • Impressment


Neutral rights of u s shipping
Neutral Rights of U.S. Shipping

  • Great Britain at war with the French Empire

  • British seize U.S. merchant ships.

  • Dispute over neutral rights:

    • Blockade

      • United States: Must be effective to be legal.

      • Great Britain: “Paper blockades” are binding.

    • Visit and search of merchants by naval vessels.

      • United States: Only in restricted areas.

      • Great Britain: Virtually anywhere on high seas.

    • Ports

      • United States: Can be open to neutral trade during war.

      • Great Britain: Must remain closed.

    • Impressment

      • United States: Search of neutral vessels for British subjects is illegal.

      • Great Britain: Search of neutral vessels for British subjects is okay.


Chesapeake leopard affair 1807
Chesapeake - Leopard Affair (1807)

  • Impressment

  • USS Chesapeake attacked by HMS Leopard.

  • Issues

    • Sanctity of a warship as part of national territory.

    • American commander's unreadiness to fight.

  • Result

    • American public opinion increases against Great Britain.

    • Jefferson imposes embargo on American merchants.


Chesapeake leopard affair 18071
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair – (1807):


Jefferson s gunboat navy 1807 1809
Jefferson’sGunboat Navy1807-1809


The road to war
The Road to War:

  • President Madison - 1809

    • Begins to move naval policy away from building gunboats.

    • Responds to Congress’ wish to build up frigate Navy

      • Jeffersonian

  • 1 May 1811: HMS Guerrière impresses American seaman within sight of New York

  • 10 May 1811: USSPresident vs. HMSLittle Belt

    • John Rodgers

    • Destroys British sloop-of-war


The road to war1
The Road to War:

  • 12th Congress: the “War Hawks”

    • Henry Clay of Kentucky

    • John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

  • Madison was on-board

    • coastal fortifications

    • limited activation of gunboats

    • offshore operation of frigates

    • recommendations for military augmentation


Congress answered
Congress Answered:

  • Navy receives funds to refortify

    • dockyard for frigate repair

    • refused proposal for 10 new frigates and twelve 74s

  • Opponents of new Construction

    • Same arguments as before- but they’re valid


The road to war2
The Road to War:

  • War in Europe turns in France’s favor -- 1812.

  • U.S. Declaration of war against Great Britain - June 1812.

    • Neutral rights, impressment, and Indian relations.

    • Minimal U.S. Army and Navy strength.

  • US is unprepared


Napoleonic wars 1812 1815
Napoleonic Wars -- 1812-1815

  • Continental Europe

    • Napoleon’s France (Land Power) versus Coalitions.

  • Maritime Europe

    • Great Britain (Sea Power) versus France (Severely weakened at sea by defeat at Trafalgar in 1805).

  • Naval Strategies

    • Britain blockades French ports.

    • French use “Continental System” as a blockade of British trade.

    • “Guerre de Course” -- Commerce Raiding

      • Practiced by both sides.

      • Includes privateering.

    • Global war:

      • Atlantic, West Indies, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, Pacific


U s naval policies
U.S. Naval Policies:

  • Strategy

    • Rodgers: Proponent of squadron operations.

    • Decatur: Proponent of single-ship operations.

    • Commerce Raiders

      • Atlantic Ocean

        • English Channel

      • USS Essex in the Pacific Ocean -- Captain David Porter

        • Raids on British whaling fleet.

      • Letters of marque issued to privateers.

  • Naval Administration

    • Small organization.

    • Inadequate coastal defenses.

    • Limited resources available.

      • Funding increases significantly during the course of the war.


Course of the war 1812
Course of the War – 1812:

  • Cruise of Commodore Rodgers' squadron unsuccessful.

  • Single-ship engagements won by Americans:

    • USS Constitution versus HMS Guerriere

      • Captain Isaac Hull

    • USS United States versus HMS Macedonian

      • Captain Stephen Decatur

    • USS Constitution versus HMS Java

      • Captain William Bainbridge

    • Superiority of U.S. ships, training, and commanders is evident.

  • Naval victories increase morale and support.

    • Congress authorizes expanded naval building program.

  • Unsuccessful American invasion of Canada.

    • Detroit occupied by British and Indians - threat to NW Territory.



Uss constitution versus hms guerriere
USS Constitution versus HMS Guerriere


Uss constitution versus hms guerriere1
USS Constitution versus HMS Guerriere


Uss constitution versus hms guerriere 19 august 1812
USS Constitution versus HMS Guerriere 19 August 1812


USS Constitution

“Old Ironsides”


Uss united states versus hms macedonian
USS United States versus HMS Macedonian


Course of the war 1813
Course of the War -- 1813

  • British Strategy

    • Victories in Europe allow movement of ships and troops from Europe to America.

      • Increase blockade on American ports.

      • Raid American coasts.

  • USS Chesapeake versus HMS Shannon

  • Great Lakes Campaign


Captain james lawrence
CaptainJamesLawrence

USS Chesapeake

“Don’t give up the ship!”


Uss chesapeake versus hms shannon
USS Chesapeake versus HMS Shannon


Uss chesapeake versus hms shannon1
USS Chesapeake versus HMS Shannon

1 June 1813


Great lakes campaign 1813
Great Lakes Campaign -- 1813

  • British supply forces via St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes.

    • Control of communications routes on the lakes is necessary.

  • Lake Ontario

    • Commodore Isaac Chauncey and Commodore Sir James Yeo.

    • Shipbuilding race and lack of initiative lead to stalemate.

  • Lake Erie

    • Oliver Hazard Perry

      • Flagship: Named USS Lawrence in honor of fallen friend.

    • Defeats British fleet in the Battle of Lake Erie.

      • “We have met the enemy and they are ours .”

    • British forces cut off from supplies.

      • General William Henry Harrison receives Perry’s message, recaptures Detroit, and defeats British and Indians at the Battle of the Thames.

      • Indian leader Tecumseh is killed and NW Territory secured for U.S.



Oliver hazard perry
OliverHazardPerry

Commander

American

Lake Erie Squadron

1813


Captain robert barclay
CaptainRobertBarclay

Commander

British

Lake Erie Squadron

1813


Perry s battle flag uss lawrence
Perry’s Battle Flag - USS Lawrence

Battle of Lake Erie



Battle of lake erie
Battle of Lake Erie

Perry transfers flag from Lawrence to Niagara.


Battle of lake erie 10 september 1813
Battle of Lake Erie: 10 September 1813

“We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

Oliver Hazard Perry


Course of the war 1814
Course of the War – 1814:

  • British blockade of American ports - highly effective.

    • American Navy unable to sortie.

    • U.S. economy in decline due to reduced maritime commerce.

  • Washington Campaign

    • British forces raid Chesapeake.

    • Washington burned.

    • Baltimore -- Fort McHenry - Star Spangled Banner.

    • Militia and gunboats very ineffective for coastal defense.

  • Battle of Lake Champlain near Plattsburg.

    • Commodore Thomas MacDonough

      • Remembers Nelson’s tactics at the Battle of the Nile.

    • British invasion of New York from Canada.

    • British defeated and retreat to Canada.

  • Star Spangled Banner


That the flag was still there
“…that the flag was still there…”

  • Major George Armistead, the commanding officer at Fort McHenry requested a flag "... so large that the British will have no difficulty in seeing it from a distance..." to be flown over the Fort.

  • On Sept. 13, 1814, Francis Scott Key visited the British fleet in Chesapeake Bay to secure the release of Dr. William Beanes, who had been captured after the burning of Washington, D.C. The release was secured, but Key was detained on ship overnight during the shelling of Fort McHenry, one of the forts defending Baltimore. In the morning, he was so delighted to see the American flag still flying over the fort that he began a poem to commemorate the occasion.


Battle of lake champlain
Battle of Lake Champlain

11 September 1814


Uss lake champlain cg 57
USS Lake Champlain (CG 57)


Peace and aftermath
Peace and Aftermath:

  • Great Britain agrees to peace.

    • American victories at Lakes Erie and Champlain.

    • American privateers capture British merchants.

  • Treaty of Ghent -- 24 December 1814

    • “Status Quo Ante Bellum”

    • British end impressment of American seamen.

  • Battle of New Orleans -- 1815

    • Occurred after peace treaty signed.

    • Gunboats delay British at Lake Borgne.

    • British defeated by General Andrew Jackson’s makeshift army.

      • Victories in Creek War and at New Orleans - emerges as national hero.



General andrew jackson
GeneralAndrew Jackson



Naval contributions
Naval Contributions:

  • Victory on the lakes:

    • Lake Erie: Restores American control of Northwest Territory.

    • Lake Champlain: Prevented invasion of New York.

    • Created stalemate.

  • Commerce Raiding

    • Ultimately ineffective.

    • BUT - Plays a factor in British agreement to peace.

  • Single ship engagements:

    • Superiority of American shipbuilding and command.

    • Boost to national morale.

    • BUT - Ineffective against British blockade.

  • British sea power’s effectiveness increased throughout the war as French were defeated on continental Europe.


Summary war of 1812
Summary -- War of 1812:

  • British view as a “Limited War”.

  • Americans view as:

    • A struggle to end British-supported Indian attacks.

    • An attempt to acquire Canada.

    • An assertion of the nation’s neutral rights against British interference.

  • Main Theatres

    • Atlantic

      • Effective British blockade of US ports.

      • Gunboat policy fails to prevent British raids.

    • Great Lakes

      • U.S. wins control of sea lines of communication.

      • British forced to retreat.


Learning objectives2
Learning Objectives:

  • The student will comprehend the influence of European events upon American trade and naval policy during this period.

  • The student will understand and be able to explain the term “Battle of Annihilation.”

  • The student will know the background of Jefferson’s defensive naval strategy including the use of gunboats and forts. Know the causes and naval operations of the Napoleonic Wars.


Learning objectives3
Learning Objectives:

  • The student will know (recall) operations against the Barbary corsairs during this period.

  • The student will comprehend the main factors of the European war and their effect on causing the War of 1812.

  • The student will understand and be able to explain the term “Guerre de Course.”

  • The student will know the U.S. and British Naval Strategy during the war.


Learning objectives4
Learning Objectives:

  • The student will comprehend the Great Lakes campaign and its importance to the U.S. war effort.

  • The student will comprehend (compare and contrast) the naval strategies of Rodgers and Decatur.

  • The student will comprehend the significance of the Washington and New Orleans campaigns.

  • The student will know the contributions of the U.S. Navy during the war of 1812, and assess the state of the Navy after the Treaty of Ghent


Next time: The United States Navy, 1815-1860:

The Search for Professionalism


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