Chapter 7
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CHAPTER 7. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches. Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. There are five major approaches to learning. Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning.

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CHAPTER 7

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CHAPTER 7

Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches


Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. There are five major approaches to learning.


Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning

Behavioral

Approaches to

Learning

Classical

Conditioning

Operant

Conditioning


Ivan Pavlov – Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.


Classical Conditioning


Classical Conditioning Principles


Systematic Desensitization

Reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive

visualizations of

increasingly

anxiety-producing

situations.


Pavlov’s Classical ConditioningTheory into Practice

Patty does poorly on a math test. This makes her feel anxious. From that point on, she always becomes anxious when taking a math test. As the school year progresses, she begins experiencing anxiety when she has tests in other subject areas as well.

Q.1:Identify the UCS in the example above.

Q.2:Identify the UCR in the example above.

Q.3:Identify the CS in the example above.

Q.4:Identify the CR in the example above.


Pavlov’s Classical ConditioningTheory into Practice

Patty does poorly on a math test. This makes her feel anxious. From that point on, she always becomes anxious when taking a math test. As the school year progresses, she begins experiencing anxiety when she has tests in other subject areas as well.

Q: Why would Patty begin to experience anxiety in response to tests in content areas other than math?


Evaluation of Classical Conditioning

  • Good at explaining how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responses

  • Good at understanding students’ anxieties and fears

  • Not as effective at explaining voluntary behaviors


Operant Conditioning

…is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur.


Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

Consequences are contingent on the organism’s behavior.

  • Reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will occur.

  • Punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.


Operant Conditioning Principles

7.13


Applied Behavior Analysis

…is applying principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.


Select the BEST

reinforcement schedule.

Make reinforcers

contingent and timely.

Choose effective

reinforcers.

Consider contracting.

Use prompts and shaping.

Use negative reinforcement

effectively.

Increasing Desirable Behaviors


Applied Behavior Analysis

A  B  C


Reinforcement: Shaping and Fading

Shaping:Involves teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior.

  • First, reward any response.

  • Next, reward responses that resemble the desired behavior.

  • Finally, reward only target behavior.

    Fading:Slowly removing reinforcement

  • Use to initiate behavior.

  • Once desired behavior is consistent, slowly reduce or remove reinforcement.


Reinforcement Schedules

Fixed-RatioReinforce after a set number of responses

Variable-RatioReinforce after an average but unpredictable number of responses

Fixed-Interval Reinforce appropriate response after a fixed amount of time

Variable-IntervalReinforce appropriate response after a variable amount of time


Reinforcement Schedules


Reinforcement

Guidelines for the Classroom:

  • Initial learning is better with continuous reinforcement.

  • Students on fixed schedules show less persistence, faster response extinction.

  • Students show greatest persistence on variable-interval schedule.

The Premack principle states that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability activity.

“Eat your dinner and you can go out to play.”


What would you do to increase the frequency of these behaviors?

  • Your class quiets down when you are ready to start a lesson

  • An eighth grader hands in his homework

  • The class lines up for lunch in an orderly way

  • Your social studies class listens attentively to a classmate giving a presentation

  • A fourth grader asks you insightful questions during a science lesson


Identify positive reinforcement, the Premack principle, and negative reinforcement in the following examples:

  • Katya sits at the front of the auditorium where a speech is being given to get away from the talking that is going on in the back.

  • Thomas puts his toys away more frequently now because he earns colored stickers when he does.

  • Nickie is finishing more of her homework now because she is allowed to listen to CDs when she is done.


Operant Conditioning

  • Response Cost:removal of pre-established reinforcement

  • Time Out:removal of reinforcing situation


Caveats of Time Out

  • Child must understand what is going on

  • Adults must be aware

  • Time out area should be humane and safe

  • Time out area should be nonreinforcing

  • Time out should not be used for extended periods of time

  • Time out cannot be used to exclude children from education


Operant Conditioning

  • Response Cost:removal of pre-established reinforcement

  • Time Out:removal of reinforcing situation

  • Satiation/Negative Practice:reduce negative behavior through overload of positive behavior


Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors

1. Use differential reinforcement by reinforcing more appropriate behavior.

2. Withdraw positive reinforcement (extinction) from a child’s inappropriate behavior.

3. Remove desirable stimuli through “time-out” and “response cost.”

4. Present aversive stimuli (punishment).


How would you attempt to decrease the following behaviors?

  • Andrew likes to utter profanities every now and then

  • Sandy tells you to quit bugging her when you ask her questions

  • Matt likes to mess up other students’ papers

  • Rebecca frequently talks with other students around her while you are explaining or demonstrating something


Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory into Practice

Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics.

Q.1:What is Mr. Lincoln attempting to do when he scolds Nick?

Q.2:Why does Nick continue his antics in spite of being scolded?

Q.3:What are three strategies Mr. Lincoln could try to keep Nick more on task?

7.16


Evaluation of Operant Conditioning

  • Good job of describing how teachers give rewards and take away rewards to modify behavior

  • Critics argue places too much emphasis on external control of behavior

  • Critics also point out potential ethical problems exist when used inappropriately


Reflection

Reflection:

  • In your educational experience, what types of incentives did teachers use?

  • How effective was their use? Why were they effective or ineffective?


Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

Social, cognitive, and behavioral factors play important roles in learning.

Self-efficacy: The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.

Observational learning occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else’s behavior.


B

Behavior

E

Environment

P/C Personal and cognitive factors

Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism


Bandura’s Contemporary Model of Observational Learning

Attention

Students are more likely to

be attentive to high-status

models (teachers).

Retention

Student retention will be improved when teachers give logical and clear demonstrations.

Production

Poor motor ability inhibits

reproduction of the model’s

behavior. Help improve skills.

Motivation

When given a reinforcement,

modeling increases.


Bandura’s Social Cognitive TheoryTheory into Practice

Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics. After several days of this, other boys in the class begin to get out of their seats and make humorous remarks as well.

Q.1:Why do the other boys begin to misbehave? Explain.

Q.2:What does this say about Nick?


Classroom Use of Observational Learning

Decide what type of

model you will be

Demonstrate and teach

new behaviors

Use peers as

effective models

Use mentors as

models

Consider the models

children observe

in the media


Self-Reflection

  • In terms of my final course grades, I am trying very hard to:

    • Earn all As

    • Earn all As and Bs

    • Keep my overall GPA at or above the minimally acceptable level at Lycoming


Self-Reflection (con’t)

  • As I am reading or studying a textbook:

    • I often notice when my attention is wandering, and I immediately get my mind back on my work.

    • I sometimes notice when my attention is wandering, but not always.

    • I often get so lost in daydreams that I waste a lot of time.


Self-Reflection (con’t)

  • Whenever I finish a study session:

    • I write down how much time I have spent on my schoolwork.

    • I make a mental note of how much time I have spent on my schoolwork.

    • I don’t really think much about the time I have spent.


Self-Reflection (con’t)

  • When I turn in an assignment:

    • I usually have a good idea of the grade I will get on it.

    • I am often surprised by the grade I get.

    • I don’t think much about the quality of what I have done.


Self-Reflection (con’t)

  • When I do exceptionally well on an assignment:

    • I feel good about my performance and might reward myself in some way.

    • I feel good about my performance but don’t do anything special for myself afterward.

    • I don’t feel much differently than I had before I received a grade on the assignment.


A Model of Self-Regulatory Learning

Self-Evaluationand Monitoring

Monitoring Outcomesand Refining Strategies

Goal Setting andStrategic Planning

Putting a Plan intoAction and Monitoring It


Characteristics of Self-Regulated Learners

  • Establish goals and standards for their own performance

  • Plan a course of action for a learning task

  • Control and monitor their cognitive processes and progress during a learning task


  • I have to remember to go slowly to get it right. Look carefully at this one, now look at these carefully. Is this one different? Yes, it has an extra leaf. Good, I can eliminate this one. Now, let’s look at this one. I think it’s this one, but let me first check the others. Good, I’m going slow and carefully. Okay, I think it’s this one.


Characteristics of Self-Regulated Learners (con’t)

  • Monitor and try to control their motivation and emotions

  • Seek assistance and support when they need it

  • Evaluate the final outcomes of their efforts

  • Self-impose consequences for their performance


Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective

  • Provides important insights to understanding children

  • Emphasis on self-responsibility as opposed to being controlled by others

  • Use of self-enacted strategies can significantly improve students’ learning

  • Critics feel still places too much emphasis on behavior and external factors


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