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What is Flexibility?

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What is Flexibility?. Flexibility is the ability of a joint to move through its range of motion Flexibility involves your bones, joints, surrounding tissue, nervous system, but most importantly your muscles. Bicep Muscle. Tendon. Radius Bone. Humerus Bone. Hinge Joint.

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what is flexibility
What is Flexibility?
  • Flexibility is theability of a joint to move through itsrange of motion
  • Flexibility involves your bones,

joints, surrounding tissue,

nervous system, but most

importantlyyour muscles




Radius Bone





Ulna Bone

Ulnar Nerve

Flexibility is highly adaptable, and is increased through stretching exercises.
  • Muscles/joints can also become less flexible (reversibility)
  • Stretching is a type of physical

activity done with the intent of

improving flexibility.

benefits of flexibility and stretching exercises
Benefits of Flexibility and Stretching Exercises
  • Which benefits would help you?
    • Joint Health
    • Protection against low-back pain and injuries
    • Reduction of post-exercise muscle soreness
    • Potential relief of aches and pains
    • Improved posture
    • Improve athletic performance
    • Enhances range of motion
    • Relaxation
what determines flexibility 1 joint structure
What Determines Flexibility #1 JOINT - Structure

A joint is where two bones come together.

3 Types of Joints

  • Fibrous Joint (Syndesmoses)

Rigid (sutures of the skull)

  • Cartilaginous (Synchrondoses)

Allows slight movement (pubic bones meet)

  • Synovial Joints (Diathrodial)

Very mobile. Joints have lots of movement

#2 Muscle Elasticity and Length

Determines Flexibility

  • Muscle tissue can be lengthened if regularly stretched
  • To increase the length of a muscle, you must stretch it more than its normal length (overload) but not over stretch it.
#3 Nervous System Activity

Determines Flexibility

  • Muscles contain stretch receptors that
  • control their length
  • When a muscle is first stretched, a reflex causes the muscle to contract, to resist the change in length.
  • If the stretch is maintained, the stretch reflex subsides and muscles can be stretched beyond its normal length.
4 uncontrollable risk factors determine flexibility
#4 Uncontrollable Risk Factors DetermineFlexibility


Old Vs. Young


Girls Vs Boys


types of stretching
Types of Stretching

Static Stretching

  • Stretching muscles until tight and

hold for several seconds

Ballistic Stretching

  • Quick gentle bouncing type of

bobbing motion held for a few



  • exercises that contract and

relax at the same time

fitt formula
FITT Formula

F -Stretch 3-7 days per week

I– Muscles must be stretched beyond its normal length (overload). Muscles should feel tight but NOT painful.

T - Be sure to use correct technique for each stretch, hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds, and perform at least 3-4 repetitions

T- Ballistic, Static, PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)

muscles needing the most stretching
Muscles Needing The “Most” Stretching
  • There are hundreds of exercises that can improve flexibility
  • Your program should include exercises that work all the major joints of the body by stretching their associated muscles
    • Chest muscles Calf Muscles
    • Front of shoulders Lower Back
    • Hip Joint Inside of thighs
    • Hamstrings Trunk muscles
assessing flexibility in physical education class
Assessing Flexibility in Physical Education Class
  • Flexibility is specific to each joint
  • There are no specific tests to

measure general flexibility

  • “Sit-and-reach” test measures flexibility

of joints in the lower back

and hamstrings

  • “Zipper” test measures flexibility of

joints in the shoulders

  • “Trunk Lift” test measures flexibility

of lower back.

  • Flexibility is highly adaptable and
  • specific to each joint
  • Benefits include reducing the risk of injury, and preventing abnormal stresses that lead to joint deteriorations
  • Range of motion can be limited by joint structure, muscle elasticity, and stretch receptor activity
  • Developing flexibility depends on stretching the elastic tissues within muscles regularly
training principles
Training Principles

S- Specificity

P- Progression

O- Overload

R- Reversibility

T- Train & Maintain