What is flexibility
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What is Flexibility?. Flexibility is the ability of a joint to move through its range of motion Flexibility involves your bones, joints, surrounding tissue, nervous system, but most importantly your muscles. Bicep Muscle. Tendon. Radius Bone. Humerus Bone. Hinge Joint.

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What is Flexibility?

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What is flexibility

What is Flexibility?

  • Flexibility is theability of a joint to move through itsrange of motion

  • Flexibility involves your bones,

    joints, surrounding tissue,

    nervous system, but most

    importantlyyour muscles




Radius Bone





Ulna Bone

Ulnar Nerve

What is flexibility

  • Flexibility is highly adaptable, and is increased through stretching exercises.

  • Muscles/joints can also become less flexible (reversibility)

  • Stretching is a type of physical

    activity done with the intent of

    improving flexibility.

Benefits of flexibility and stretching exercises

Benefits of Flexibility and Stretching Exercises

  • Which benefits would help you?

    • Joint Health

    • Protection against low-back pain and injuries

    • Reduction of post-exercise muscle soreness

    • Potential relief of aches and pains

    • Improved posture

    • Improve athletic performance

    • Enhances range of motion

    • Relaxation

What determines flexibility 1 joint structure

What Determines Flexibility #1 JOINT - Structure

A joint is where two bones come together.

3 Types of Joints

  • Fibrous Joint (Syndesmoses)

    Rigid (sutures of the skull)

  • Cartilaginous (Synchrondoses)

    Allows slight movement (pubic bones meet)

  • Synovial Joints (Diathrodial)

    Very mobile. Joints have lots of movement

Synovial joints joints used in movement

Synovial Joints- Joints used in movement

Pivot joint

Pivot Joint

Oval ball and socket joint

Oval Ball and Socket Joint

Saddle joint

Saddle Joint

Ball and socket

Ball and Socket

Hinge joint

Hinge Joint

Gliding joint

Gliding Joint

What is flexibility

#2 Muscle Elasticity and Length

Determines Flexibility

  • Muscle tissue can be lengthened if regularly stretched

  • To increase the length of a muscle, you must stretch it more than its normal length (overload) but not over stretch it.

What is flexibility

#3 Nervous System Activity

Determines Flexibility

  • Muscles contain stretch receptors that

  • control their length

  • When a muscle is first stretched, a reflex causes the muscle to contract, to resist the change in length.

  • If the stretch is maintained, the stretch reflex subsides and muscles can be stretched beyond its normal length.

4 uncontrollable risk factors determine flexibility

#4 Uncontrollable Risk Factors DetermineFlexibility


Old Vs. Young


Girls Vs Boys


Types of stretching

Types of Stretching

Static Stretching

  • Stretching muscles until tight and

    hold for several seconds

    Ballistic Stretching

  • Quick gentle bouncing type of

    bobbing motion held for a few



  • exercises that contract and

    relax at the same time

Fitt formula

FITT Formula

F -Stretch 3-7 days per week

I– Muscles must be stretched beyond its normal length (overload). Muscles should feel tight but NOT painful.

T - Be sure to use correct technique for each stretch, hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds, and perform at least 3-4 repetitions

T- Ballistic, Static, PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)

Muscles needing the most stretching

Muscles Needing The “Most” Stretching

  • There are hundreds of exercises that can improve flexibility

  • Your program should include exercises that work all the major joints of the body by stretching their associated muscles

    • Chest muscles Calf Muscles

    • Front of shouldersLower Back

    • Hip JointInside of thighs

    • HamstringsTrunk muscles

Assessing flexibility in physical education class

Assessing Flexibility in Physical Education Class

  • Flexibility is specific to each joint

  • There are no specific tests to

    measure general flexibility

  • “Sit-and-reach” test measures flexibility

    of joints in the lower back

    and hamstrings

  • “Zipper” test measures flexibility of

    joints in the shoulders

  • “Trunk Lift” test measures flexibility

    of lower back.



  • Flexibility is highly adaptable and

  • specific to each joint

  • Benefits include reducing the risk of injury, and preventing abnormal stresses that lead to joint deteriorations

  • Range of motion can be limited by joint structure, muscle elasticity, and stretch receptor activity

  • Developing flexibility depends on stretching the elastic tissues within muscles regularly

Training principles

Training Principles

S- Specificity

P- Progression

O- Overload

R- Reversibility

T- Train & Maintain

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