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Management Past to Present. CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES. Frederick Taylor & The Gilbreths. Henry Fayol Mary Parker Follett. Max Weber. CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES. Who? Frederick W. Taylor When? Beginning of the 20 th century Why? Search for efficiency Basis?

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Management past to present

Management

Past to Present


CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES

Frederick Taylor

& The Gilbreths

Henry Fayol

Mary Parker Follett

Max Weber



Who?

Frederick W. Taylor

When?

Beginning of the 20th century

Why?

Search for efficiency

Basis?

People will work in a manner that is most economically beneficial to themselves


What he believed:

“The principal object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee”


Problem:

Workers did their jobs “their own way” and without clear and uniform specifications.

RESULT

inefficiency & performing below true capacities


One of my most famous studies involved shovels. I noticed that workers used the same shovel for all materials. I determined that the most effective load was 21½ lb, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount. I was however, generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied and was dismissed from Bethlehem Steel. Nevertheless, I was able to convince workers who used shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt my advice about the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and recommending better ways to perform these movements.


  • What I Discovered? that workers used the same shovel for all materials. I determined that the most effective load was 21½ lb, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount. I was however, generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied and was dismissed from Bethlehem Steel. Nevertheless, I was able to convince workers who used shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt my advice about the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and recommending better ways to perform these movements.

  • - Workers purposely work at a pace slower than their capability

  • What I did

  • Instituted a piecework pay system


Key Principles of SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT that workers used the same shovel for all materials. I determined that the most effective load was 21½ lb, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount. I was however, generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied and was dismissed from Bethlehem Steel. Nevertheless, I was able to convince workers who used shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt my advice about the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and recommending better ways to perform these movements.

  • Develop for every job a “science”—rules of motion

  • Carefully select skilled workers

  • Properly train & give incentives

  • Provide supervisory support


Who? that workers used the same shovel for all materials. I determined that the most effective load was 21½ lb, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount. I was however, generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied and was dismissed from Bethlehem Steel. Nevertheless, I was able to convince workers who used shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt my advice about the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and recommending better ways to perform these movements.

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

When?

Followers of Taylor in the early 1900’s

Why?

Search for efficiency

Basis?

Using motion studies to reduce a task to its basic physical motions


One of their most interesting research projects was their motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.


Working together, the motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.Gilbreths developed number techniques and strategies for eliminating inefficiency. They applied many of their ideas to their family. Their experiences in raising 12 children are document in the book and movie “Cheaper by the Dozen”.


  • Modern Applications: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

  • Job simplification

  • Work standards

  • Incentive wage plans


CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

Max Weber


Who? motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

Henri Fayol

When?

In Early 1900’s

Why?

Focus on improving management skills

Basis?

Used his experience as an engineer leading large-scale enterprises of 1000s of employees


MANAGEMENT CAN motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

BE TAUGHT!


I motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.believe managers have 5 duties:

Foresight

Organization

Command

Coordination

Control

I was a pretty smart dude as I was ahead of my time because my 5 duties for a manager closely resemble the functions of a manager you follow today. (planning, organizing, implementing and controlling.


Who? motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

Mary Parker Follett

When?

In early-1900’s

Why?

How to get diverse groups of individuals to work cooperatively for greater good


What she believed… motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

“Organizations were ‘communities’ in which managers and workers should labour in harmony without one party dominating the other & with freedom to talk over & reconcile differences.


Modern Applications: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

  • Employee ownership

  • Profit sharing

  • Gain-sharing plans

  • Managerial ethics

  • Social responsibility


She said: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

  • Managers must respect the experience & knowledge of workers

  • Warned against organizations having too much of a “hierarchy”

This leads to today’s …


Modern Applications: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

  • empowerment

  • involvement

  • flexibility

  • self-management


CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.


Who? motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

Max Weber

When?

Late 1900’s in Germany

Why?

Reaction to organizational performance inefficiencies & unfair promotions & hiring based on “privileged” status

Basis?

A bureaucracy could solve these problems


Characteristics of a Bureaucratic Organization: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

  • Clear division of labour

  • Clear hierarchy of authority

  • Formal rules and procedures

  • Impersonality

  • Careers based on merit


The DOWNSIDE of Bureaucratic Organization: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

  • excessive paperwork or “red tape”

  • slowness in handling problems

  • rigidity in the face of shifting customer/client needs

  • resistance to change

  • employee apathy…lack motivation or interest


Modern Day Management: motion study of bricklayers at work, after which they developed several procedures for doing the job more efficiently. For example, they specified standard materials and techniques including the positioning of the bricklayer, the bricks and the mortar at different levels. The results of these changes were a reduction from 18 separate physical movements to 5 and an increase in output of about 200%.

“Current trends in management include many innovations that seek the same goals as Weber, but with different approaches to how organizations can be structured.”


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