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The Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Why is water so important to life? Where can we find life on Earth?. The Hydrosphere. The hydrosphere includes: The water on or near the Earth’s surface All glaciers and icecaps The water found in rock beneath the Earth’s surface The clouds in the sky.

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the hydrosphere and biosphere

The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

Why is water so important to life?

Where can we find life on Earth?

the hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
  • The hydrosphere includes:
  • The water on or near the Earth’s surface
  • All glaciers and icecaps
  • The water found in rock beneath the Earth’s surface
  • The clouds in the sky
the water cycle
The Water Cycle
  • Water is constantly being cycled from the ocean to the air, then on land, and then back again.
  • This process is the water cycle.
the water cycle1
The Water Cycle
  • First, water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, forming clouds.
    • The majority of this water comes from the oceans.
  • Then, the water condenses, combining with dust to form droplets.
the water cycle2
The Water Cycle
  • Next, the droplets become heavy enough to fall back to Earth – a process we call precipitation.
    • Includes rain, snow, sleet and hail.
the water cycle3
The Water Cycle
  • Finally, precipitation becomes runoff, and may either:
  • Collect in freshwater storage (lakes, ponds, etc.)
  • Becomes groundwater
  • Returns to the ocean
earth s oceans
Earth’s Oceans
  • Technically, the Earth’s oceans are all united into one joint ocean. Geographically, however, the joint ocean is divided into five smaller oceans. Together, they cover 70% of the Earth’s surface.
    • From largest to smallest: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (around Antarctica), Artic.
earth s oceans1
Earth’s Oceans
  • Ocean water is laden with salt and other solutes. This is due to erosion and deposition, as well as underwater eruptions.
    • The majority of these solutes is sodium chloride (table salt).
  • The salt content of the ocean is 3.5% of the ocean’s weight. It’s enough to severely dehydrate and kill anyone who drinks it.
earth s oceans2
Earth’s Oceans
  • Note that the oceans are less salty in areas that get a lot of rain, or that receive freshwater.
  • Also, the oceans are saltier in areas where water evaporates rapidly.
  • Why?
earth s oceans3
Earth’s Oceans
  • The ocean can be divided into three areas based on relative temperature.
  • Surface zone
  • Thermocline
  • Deep water
earth s oceans4
Earth’s Oceans
  • Light only penetrates so deep, so only the top layer is relatively warm.
  • Temperature drops dramatically in the thermocline layer.
  • The deep zone is very dark and cold.
earth s oceans5
Earth’s Oceans
  • The oceans are critical for regulating the Earth’s temperature.
  • The ocean absorbs more than half the solar radiation that reaches the surface.
earth s oceans6
Earth’s Oceans
  • Due to water’s high specific heat, it absorbs and releases heat much more slowly than the ground does.
  • This keeps the Earth’s temperature relatively constant.
exit ticket
Exit Ticket
  • Name all four types of precipitation.
  • Most of the water vapor in clouds came from the _____.
  • Runoff (fallen precipitation) ends up in three possible places. Name them.
  • In which layer of the ocean does temperature drop the fastest?
  • How does the ocean moderate Earth’s temperature?
ocean currents
Ocean Currents
  • Ocean currents are the motions of water.
  • Both surface and deep currents exist.
  • Surface currents happen at or near the surface, and are wind-driven.
ocean currents1
Ocean Currents
  • Surface currents may be warm- or cold-water currents. Currents of widely differing temperature do NOT readily mix.
    • This means that a warm-water current can maintain its temperature over long distances.
ocean currents2
Ocean Currents
  • Note that surface currents can affect local temperatures, depending on whether they are warm or cold.
  • Warm currents tend to make moderate climates, and cold currents lower temperatures.
ocean currents3
Ocean Currents
  • For instance, the Scilly Isles (England) and Newfoundland (Canada) are at similar latitudes, but the Scilly Isles are far warmer, due to the presence of a warm water current.
ocean currents4
Ocean Currents
  • Deep currents are very slow, stream-like water movements along the ocean floor.
  • When cold, dense water sinks under warm water, these currents form.
fresh water
Fresh Water
  • About 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh water, but much of that is frozen in large glaciers.
  • The remainder is found in surface freshwater and groundwater, as well as the atmosphere.
fresh water1
Fresh Water
  • A river system is a network of streams and rivers that drains an area. Also, it contains all the land being drained.
  • Tributaries are smaller rivers that feed into large, central rivers.
groundwater
Groundwater
  • Sometimes, runoff infiltrates the ground and collects as groundwater.
  • Aquifers are rock layers that are porous. They allow for water flow, and even store water.
groundwater1
Groundwater
  • The surface at the entry of an aquifer is called a recharge zone.
  • Aquifers are found under most of the continental U.S.
exit ticket1
Exit Ticket
  • There are two types of ocean currents. Name them.
  • ________ currents can be classified as warm- or cold-water.
  • ______-water currents moderate local temperatures.
  • What do we call small rivers that feed into bigger, central rivers?
  • ______ are layers of porous rock that allow for water flow and storage.
the biosphere
The Biosphere
  • The biosphere is the narrow portion of Earth capable of supporting life.
  • It contains the outermost geosphere, most of the hydrosphere, and the innermost atmosphere.
the biosphere1
The Biosphere
  • Recall from Chapter 1 that we discussed Earth as a closed system – one that could not gain or lose matter.
  • However, closed systems CAN gain and lose energy. The sun provides energy to plants and other producers. As organisms are consumed, energy is transferred to the consumer.
  • In the process, much energy is lost as heat, which is lost to space.
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