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lgjf{rg k|0ffnL. k:tf]tf s'df/ Oªgfd. != kl/ro M. -s_ lgjf{rgsf] k[i7e"dL -v_ g]kfndf lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/L -u_ lgjf{rgsf k|sf/ kl/ro -s_ Psn :yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rg ax'dt lgjf{rg rqm lgjf{rg, tTsfn rqm lgjf{rg k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg

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Lgjf rg k 0ffnl

lgjf{rg k|0ffnL

k:tf]tf

s'df/ Oªgfd


Kl ro m
!= kl/ro M

-s_ lgjf{rgsf] k[i7e"dL

-v_ g]kfndf lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/L

-u_ lgjf{rgsf k|sf/ kl/ro

-s_ Psn :yfg

  • a9Ldt lgjf{rg

  • ax'dt lgjf{rg

  • rqm lgjf{rg, tTsfn rqm lgjf{rg

  • k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg

    -v_ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg

  • kf6L{ ;'lr -v'Nnf / aGb_

  • Psn ;+qmd0fLo dt

  • ldl>t ;b:o

    -u_ cw{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg

  • ;dfgfGt/ dtbfg

  • Psn c;+qmd0fLo dt

    -3_ c;dfg'kflts ax':yfg

  • Psd'i7 dt

  • l;ldt dt

    -3_ :jtGq / lgZkIf lgjf{rgsf tTjx?


@= lgjf{rgsf] cGt/fli6«o dfkb08 / gd'gfof]Uo k|of]u

-s_ lgjf{rg clwsf/sf] Joj:yf / k|of]u

-!_ UDHR -@_ CERD -#_ ICCPR -$_ CPRW -%_ CEDAW

-v_ ljZjdf ckgfOPsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] emns

-u_ gd'gfof]Uo lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u

a9Ldt k|0ffnL M a]nfot / To;sf] kmfObf, a]kmfObf

;dfg'kflts ld>Lt k|0ffnL M hd{gL / To;sf] kmfObf, a]kmfObf

k|fyldstfk"0f{ k|0ffnL M ci6]«lnof / To;sf] kmfObf, a]kmfObf

-3_ ljBdfg cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / lgjf{rg Joj:yf kl/ro


#= ;d:ofsf] ljj]rgf

-s_ ;d:ofx?

-v_ c;/x?

$= lgZsif{


Kl ro m s lgjf rgsf k i7e ld m
!= kl/ro M -s_ lgjf{rgsf] k[i7e'ld M

  • gful/snfO{ /fhlso x}l;ot lbnfpg / ;fj{hlgs hjfkmb]xLsf kbk"tL{ ug{, pQd k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ug{, cfkm\gf] efjgf k|ltljlDjt / k|ltlglwTj ug{ cfjZos kb{5 .

  • k|ltlglwx?sf] rogdf JolQmsf] /fHo, ;d'bfo k|lt OdfGbf/ ;dk{0f xf];\ / Ifdtf, bIftf, cfjZostf afx]s cGo afXo tTjx?n] 5gf}6 sfo{df sd eGbf sd k|efj k'¥ofcf]; eGg] wf/0ff /fvL cfOPsf] 5.dtbfg lj=l;= ^ ztfAbLdf Py]G;df z'? ePsf] / !# cf}+ ztfAbLdf e]lg;sf] u|]6 sfpG;Lnsf] lgjf{rgdf k|of]u ePsf] .

  • !&&) df Jean Charles de Borda n] lgjf{rg k4lt ljsf; u/] . Psn ;+qmd0fLo dtljlw Carl Andrae, 8]gdfs{ (!*%^_ / Thomas Hare a]nfot (!*%&_, Andrew InglisClark, t:dgLof (!*(^_ x?n] lgjf{rg ljlw ljsf; u/L k|of]udf NofP .


Lgjf rgsf dxtj
lgjf{rgsf] dxTj

  • clwstd / k|efjsf/L ;xeflutfsf nflu dtbftfx?nfO{ cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt u/]/ dfq oyfy{k"0f{ kfg{ ;lsg] ePsf]n] .

  • dtåf/f k|ltlglwTj ug'{ tyf u/fpg' eGbf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] lgjf{rg ljlw cem dxTjsf] x''gfn] .

  • ;a} ljrf/, ;d'x, ln+u, hftL ;d]tsf] plrt k|ltlglwTj u/fO{ ;/sf/ / /fHosf] >f]t af8FkmfF8 ug]{ / sfg'g lgdf{0f ug]{ x}l;ot k|bfg ug'{ kg]{ eP/ .


V g kfndf lgjf rgsf lifkt hfgsf lm
-v_ g]kfndf lgjf{rgsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/LM

  • ls/fFtsfnsf] ækfg t'DofËÆ, lnR5jLsfnsf] æk~rfnLÆ dNn sfnsf] æk~r ;Dd'RroÆ, k"j{ zfxsfnsf] / /f0ffsfnsf] ædfGohg srx/LÆ .

  • !(*# a}zfv ! df bfª b]pv'/Ldf, !(*& df pkTosfdf, !((@ df k"j{ @, # g+= / ;Kt/Lsf s]xL 7fpFdf :yflgo JolQmx?åf/f k|ltlglwsf] 5gf}6.

  • @))$ klxnf] ;+ljwfg xf] h;n] lgjf{rg cfof]usf] Joj:yf gu/L /fi6« ;efdf dgf]lgt / lgjf{rLt ;b:o /xg] Joj:yf u/]sf], cGtl/d zf;g ljwfg @))& sf] wf/f $@ -!_ -@_ n] lgjf{rg cfof]u / lgjf{rg;Fu ;DaGwLt Joj:yf .


  • @))* df hgk|ltlglwTj P]g, @)!% df g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfgsf] kl/lwdf /xL h]i7 !(, @)!% df cfd r'gfjsf] 3f]if0ff / kmfu'g &, @)!% df !)( ;b:oLo k|ltlglw ;efsf] P]ltxfl;s ?kn] @! jif]{ jflns dt k|of]u u/L lgjf{rg ePsf] }+.

  • @)!( ;fnsf] ;+ljwfg, wf/f *& n] lgjf{rg ;DaGwL Joj:yf u/L !$) ;b:oLo /fli6«o k~rfotdf !!@ :yfgdf / :yflgo txdf ufpF k~rfot, lhNnf k~rfot, gu/ k~rfot / c~rn k~rfotsf] lgjf{rg,

  • g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&, wf/f !)#, !)* ;Dd lgjf{rg cfof]u / lgjf{rg ;DaGwL P]gsf] Joj:yfdf uf=lj=;=, lh=lj=;= k|ltlglw ;ef / /fli6«o ;efsf] lgjf{rg Joj:yf qmlds ?kdf ul/Psf] .

  • :yflgo :jfot zf;g P]g @)%% /

  • g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# wf/f !@*–!#) df lgjf{rg cfof]u ;d]t lgjf{rgsf ;DaGwdf Joj:yf u/]sf] .


  • ufpF k~rfot P]g @))^ b]lv :yflgo :jfot zf;g P]g @)%% / /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .

  • @)$& sf] kl/jt{g kl5 klg cfwf hg;+Vof ePsf dlxnf ju{ / ^) % eGbf a9L hg;+Vof ePsf] blnt, t/fO{ hfltx?sf] Hofb} sd k|ltlglwTj ePsf] / dt k|ltztsf] cfwf/df cNkdtåf/f ax'dt pk/ a9LdtLo lg/+s'ztf nflbPsf] 5 .


S psn yfg k lt kwf m
-s_ Psn :yfg k|lt:kwf{ M /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .

Psn ;+;bLo :yfgsf nflu cjnDaLt o; lgjf{rg k|s[of cGt/ut lgDg k|s[ofx? k|rngdf kb{5g .

  • Plurality -a9L dt k|0ffnL_Plurality k|s[ofnfO{ æh;n] a9L NofpF5 To;n] lhTb5Æ -First past the post_ jf æljhoLs} ;a}Æ -Winner take all_ eGg] :jLsf/LG5 .

  • lhTg] pDd]bjf/n] NofPsf] dt v;]sf] s'n dtsf] sDtLdf ax'dt x'G5 jf x'Fb}g eg]/ dtnj ul/b}g .

  • ;a}eGbf a9L eg]sf] sltnfO{ dfGg] eGg] vf;} lglZrt ;+Vof geP/ æk|lt:kwL{x? dWo] ;a} eGbf a9LÆ ;Fu dfq ;DaGw /fVg] x'Fbf æ3f]8r9L bf}8df hf] klxnf] x'G5Æ -Horse Riding_ ;Fu t'ngf ug{ ;lsG5 . ef/t, cd]l/sf, Sofg8f, nufot k"j{ j]nfotL pklgj]zL ljZjsf *@ d'n'sx?df ckgfOPsf] kfOG5 .


Kmfobf
kmfObf /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .

!=b'O{ bnjLr 5gf}6sf] pQd cj;/ k|fKt x'G5 .

@= Ps bnLo ax'dtdf :yL/ ;/sf/sf] cfwf/ aGb5 .

#= dtbftf / k|ltlglw jLr uf9f ;DaGw sfod ub{5 .

$= sd ;fIf/ dtbftfsf nflu / dtu0fgfsf nflu ;a}eGbf ;/nx'G5 .

%=of]Uo, bIf pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ug{ k|]l/t ub{5 / of]Uoaf6 zfl;t x'g ;lsG5 .

^= k|ltlglwx?nfO{ lgjf{rg If]q k|lt a9L hjfkmb]xL agfp5 .


A kmfobf
a]kmfObf /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .

!= cNkdtn] zf;g ub{5 .

@= ;a} dtsf] plrt sb/ / k|ltlglwTj sb/ x'Fb}g, dt v]/ hfG5 . lgjf{rg b'O{ bndf l;ldt x'G5 .

#= dt ;+Vof / lgjf{rLt :yfgaLr ;DaGw /xFb}g .

$= cNk;+Vof, hflt, au{, ;d"bfosf] r'gfj dfkm{t plrt k|ltlglwTj x'Fb}g.

% ;'/IfLt lgjf{rg If]q / ;'lglZrt lhtsf nflu an, k};f, zlQm, kb, ;/sf/L >f]t / x}l;ot b'?kof]u x'g] clwstd ;+efjgf x'G5 . If]qLo / lgjf{rg If]q d'vL agfpF5 .

^= g/fd|f] pDd]bjf/ kf6L{sf] 5jLn] lhTg] / /fd|f] pDd]bjf/ kf6L{sf] abgfdLn] xfg{ ;Sg] x'G5 .

&= a]sf/ dtk|lt pbf;Lg agfpF5 .

*= lgjf{rg If]q kl/jt{g eO{/xg ;S5 .


Ax dt lgjf rg m run off voting rqm lgjf rg
ax'dt lgjf{rg M /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .Run Off Voting - rqm_ lgjf{rg

pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax'dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df :ki6 ax'dtsf] nflu af/Daf/ ul/g] lgjf{rg k|s[of -rqm dtbfg_ sf lgDg 9fFrfx? k|rngdf 5g\ .

  • Two Round System -b'O{ rqm k|0ffnL_ M

  • o; Joj:yf cGt/ut b'O{ k6s lgjf{rg x'G5,

  • bf];|f] r/0fdf ;a}eGbf a9L dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/x? aLr s'g} Ps pDd]bjf/sf] :ki6 ax'dtsf nflu lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL u/fOG5 . cGo pDd]bjf/x? bf];|f] lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL gu/fOg] x'Fbf o; lgjf{rgdf pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax'dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sb5 lsgsL cl3Nnf] lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL cGo pDd]bjf/nfO{ nufOPsf] dt b'O{ hgf k|lt:kwL{ pDd]bjf/x? aLr nufpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 .


k|]mGr /fli6«o ;ef - /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .Assembly_, a|flhn, kf]r'{un, ci6«Lof, lkmgn]08, 3fgfsf] /fi6«klto lgjf{rg / cd]l/sL ljleGg /fHox?df bf]xf]¥ofP/ lgjf{r ug]{ k|rng 5 . oBkL bf];|f] lgjf{rgdf b'O{ pDd]bjf/x?aLr dtbfg ePsf] cj;:yfdf :ki6 ax'dt cfjZos 7flgb}g . ;fk]IfLt ax'dt g} pDd]bjf/ ljhoL x'g k|ofKt dflgG5 . k|]mGr /fli6«o ;efsf] lgjf{rgdf !@=% % eGbf sd dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/ pDd]bjf/sf] gfdaf6 cnu ul/G5 / afFsL pDd]bjf/x?nfO{ bf];|f] r/0fsf] lgjf{rgsf] nflu of]Uo dflgG5 . h:tf] ljd/ hd{gLsf] /fi6«kltsf] bf];|f] r/0fsf] lgjf{rgdf :ki6 ax'dt cfjZos lyPg .


Exhaustive Ballot /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 . -emGeml6nf] dt_M

  • b'O{ r/0f lgjf{rgdf s'g} klg Ps pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax'dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df ;a} eGbf sd dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ pDd]bfj/Laf6 x6fO{ s'g} Ps pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax'dt k|fKt gu/] ;Dd lgjf{rg u/L /xLG5 .

  • dtbftfx?n] w/} k6s dtflwsf/ k|of]u ug{ kg]{ x'Fbf cfd lgjf{rgdf of] k|s[of Jojxfl/s dflgb}g .

  • a]nfotL n]j/ kf6L{n] cfkm\gf] bnaf6 of]Uo ;+;bLo lgjf{rg pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ of] k|s[of k|rngdf NofPsf] 5 .


Instant run off voting irv ttsfn rqm dtbfg
Instant- run off voting (IRV) /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s'/L, If]qL, afx'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .-tTsfn rqm dtbfg_

  • obL Psn pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6sf] nflu ePsf] lgjf{rgdf s'g} klg pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax'dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fKt k|fyldstf qmdsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ul/G5 . dtbfgs} qmddf k|To]s dtbftfn] k|fyldstf tf]sL dtbfg ub{5g\ / of] k|s[ofdf k6s k6s dtbfg ug{sf] abnfdf dtbfgdf JoQm k|fyldstfn] pDd]bjf/ 5fGg k6s k6s dtkqsf] uGtL ul/G5 .

  • k|To]s u0fgfdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt dtkqdf JoQm k|fyldstfsf] bf];|f], t];|f] k|fyldstfsf pDd]bjf/nfO{ :tfgft/0f ul/G5 . s'g} pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax'dt k|fKt gu/];Dd of] k|s[of bf]xf]¥ofOG5 .


  • ci6]«lnofsf] k|ltlglw ;ef, lkmhLsf] k|ltlglw ;ef, >Ln+sf, cfo/n}08sf] /fi6«klt / kfk'cf Go'lugLsf] /fli6«o ;ef lgjf{rgdf ckgfOPsf] 5 .

  • Ps} kl/0ffd eP klg ci6]«lnofdf k|yfldstfqmdsf] dtbfg -Preferential Voting_ / a]nfot tyf cfo/n}08df j}snKtLs dtbfg -Alternative Vote_ / cd]l/sfdf o;nfO{ qmdR5f dtbfg -Ranked Choice Voting_ gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] 5 . ;a}eGbf a9L OR5Lt pDd]bjf/ / ;f]xL OR5f cg';f/sf] qmd @, # åf/f qmlds tx -Rank_ OR5f dtdf JoQm x'g] x'G5 .

    k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M #)


  • ;a}eGbf sd dt eP lghnfO{ k|fKt dt k|fyldstfsf] qmddf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

  • emGem6Lnf] dtbfgsf] ljsNksf] ?kdf ckgfOPsf] of] k|s[ofdf ;Dk"0f{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ qmdfg';f/ pNn]v ul/g' kg]{ x'Fbf k"0f{ k|fylds dtbfg klg elgG5 . w]/} pDd]bjf/ ePsf] cj:yfdf dtbftfn] cfkm'v'zL k|fyldstf tf]Sg] x'Fbf Donkey Voting sf] 8/ x'g ;S5 .


Kmfo bf
kmfO{bf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

!= sDtLdf ax'dtsf] k|ltlglw agfpF5 .

@= bf]>f] r/0fsf] dtbfg a9L ;'lglZrt -/fd|f] dWo] /fd|f] 5fGg] cj;/_ x'G5 .

#= qmd tf]Sg gkg]{ x'Fbf ;/n x'G5 .

$= tTsfn rqmdf bf]>f] dtbfg geO{ dtbftfn] tf]s]sf] qmdsf] u0fgf qmdzM ul/g] x'Fbf vr{ sd x'G5 .


A kmfo bf
a]kmfO{bf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

!= lgjf{rg emGeml6nf] / vlr{nf] x'G5 .

@= lgjf{rg kl/0ffd l9nf] k|fKt x'g] x'Fbf c:yL/tf x'g] / dtbftf plrt k|ltlglwsf] cefjdf pbfl;g x'G5 .

#= a9Ldtsf] cGo a]kmfObf oyfjt /xG5 .

$= tTsfn rqmdf k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg ;fdfGo dtbftfnfO{ ;d:of x'G5 .


K fyldstf qmdk 0f dtbfg m
k|fyldstf qmdk"0f{ dtbfg M x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

  • dtbftfsf] k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ ;lsg],

  • Psn pDd]bjf/ ax'dt lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf nflu k|o'Qm x'g] .

  • o; lgjf{rgdf k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg qmd g+= qmd gfd, qmd lrGx cfbL 9fFrf dtkqdf /fVg ;lsG5 .

  • k|fyldstfqmdk'0f{ lgjf{rgdf dtbftfn] lgjf{rgdf qmd -Rank_ / :t/ -Rate_ tf]sg / dtåf/f ljsNk /fVg ;lsg] x'Fbf o;nfO{ j}sNkLs dt k|0ffnL klg elgG5 .

  • ci6«]lnof, gf}?, kfk'jfGo'lugL -!(^$–!(&%_, lkmhL -!(((_ df k|of]u .


Kmfo bf1
kmfO{bf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

!= bf]>f], t]>f] k|fyldstfn] dtbftfsf] dtsf] k"0f{ ;Ddfg ub{5 .

@= cfkm\gf] bn afx]s cGo bnnfO{ dt lbFbf bnx?aLr ;f}xfb{tf a9fpg / v08Lt ;dfhdf Pstf z'qsf] sfd ub{5 .

#= t'?Gt} r'gfj ubf{sf] emGem6 / vr{ cGt u/]/ klg ;dfg kl/0ffd k|bfg ub{5 .

$= of]Uo pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf]6 x'g] / ef}uf]lns c;dfgtf cGTo ub{5 .

%= k|ltlglw / pDd]bjf/jLr ;f}xfb{ ;DaGw x'G5 .


A kmfo bf1
a]kmfO{bf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

!= k|fyldstf tf]Sg ;fIf/ / lzlIft geP ;Dej x'Fb}g .

@= Psn :yfg lgjf{rgdf c;dfg'kflts kl/0ffdsf] 8/ x'G5 .

#= dtu0fgf emGeml6nf] x'G5 .

$= ljeflht ;dfhsf nflu pko'Qm eP klg cGo dtbftfsf] qmdf+ssf] ;DaGwn] ;f]r]sf] ;d"bfosf] k|ltlglwTj x'g ;Qm}g .


V dfg kflts k ltlglwtj lgjf rg k s of m
-v_ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg k|s[of M x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

  • ;Dk"0f{ dtsf] ;dfg ;b'kof]u ub}{ hg;+Vofsf] cg'kftdf k|ltlglwx?sf] 5gf}6 ug{ k|of]u x'g] k"0f{ k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg k|s[of,

  • dt;+Vofsf] cg'kftdf k|ltlglwx?sf] ;+Vof to x'gfn] ;fgf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf ;d'bfo, ju{, Joj;foL, hftLsf] ;d]t ;f]xL ?kdf k|ltlglwTj x'g],

  • k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu cfjZos dt æsf]6fÆ / pDd]bjf/L k|s[of cfjZostf cg';f/ lgwf{/0f x'g],

  • ax'dt lgjf{rg k|s[of cjnDag ug]{ b]zx?sf] t'ngfdf of] k|ltlglwTj k|s[of a9L nf]slk|o ePsf],

  • a]nfot nufot ;Dk"0f{ o'/f]lkog o'lgogsf ;b:o /fi6«af6 o'/f]lkog ;+;bsf] k|ltlglwTj oxL k|s[of dfkm{t ePsf],


  • a]nfotsf] x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 . :s6L; ;+;b / j]n; /fli6«o ;ef, Sofg8fsf kfFr k|fGtx? la|l6z sf]nDaLof, cf]G6f/Lcf], sr'j]s, lk|G; O8jf8{ 6fk' / Go" jg{;jLsdf of] lgjf{rgnfO{ ckgfpg k|of; yflnPsf] 5,

  • Go'lhn}08, cd]l/sL /fHo÷dxfgu/x? Go"cf]s{, SofDa|Lh, Dof;fRr'P6;\, OnLg;\ cfbLdf ;d]t k|of]udf /x]sf,]

  • ;fdflhs, cfly{s, /fhg}lts ?kn] k5f8L k/]sf / hflto cNk;+Vos tyf l;dfGt ;d'bfosf nflu of] k|s[of k|efjsf/L aGb} uPsf],

  • hd{gL, pQ/ k"jL{ o'/f]lkog d'n'sx?df cToflws nf]slk|o,

  • k|mfG;n] of] k|s[ofnfO{ k|hftflGqs dfGotf eGbf /fhg}lts k"jf{u|xsf sf/0f k|of]udf Nofpg] / x6fpg] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . bf];|f] ljZjo'4sf] cGt k|Zrft sDo'lgi6 pDd]bjf/nfO{ x6fpg of] k|s[of ckgfP klg !(%* df rfN;{ b]ufnn] ax'dt k|s[of nfu' u/] . !(*# sf] lgjf{rgdf cfkm\gf] dtsf] ;'/Iff ug{ ;f];nLi6x?n] k'gM ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|s[of ckgfP klg pQm lgjf{rgdf pgLx?n] ax'dt u'dfP kl5 o:sf] k|of]u cGt ePsf] 5 .

  • ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf ljleGg 9fFrfx? dWo] lgDg 9fFrfx? a9L k|rngdf 5g\ M


Kf6l rl ljlw m
kf6L{ ;"rL ljlw M x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

  • kf6L{ ;"rL ;dfg'kflt k|ltlglwTj k|s[of cd]l/sf afx]s ljZje/ nf]slk|o 5 . ;DaGwLt /fhg}lts bnx?n] to u/]sf] pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLsf] k|fyldstf qmd / k|fKt dtsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/ lgjf{rg ul/G5 .

  • dtbftfx?n] /fhg}lts bnx?sf] d"Nof+sgsf] cfwf/df cfkm\gf] dt k|of]u ub{5g\ .

  • dtbftfn] Oh/fondf em} k|ToIf /fhg}lts bnnfO{ dt lbg jf 6sL{ / yfOn}08df em} pDd]bjf/ dfkm{t kf6L{df dt lbg klg ;Sb5g\ .

    /fhg}lts bn ;"rL ljlwsf 9fFrf -^@ b]z_

    != v'Nnf ;"rL M o; ljlwdf r'gfjdf ;xefuL /fhg}lts bnx?n] pknAw u/fPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rL dtkqdf pNn]v ul/G5 . dtbftfn] ;"rLsf pDd]bjf/x? cfjZos ;+Vofdf 5gf}6 ub{5g\ / Ps eGbf a9L pDd]bjf/ ePsf] cj:yfdf k|fyldstf qmd klg tf]Sg ;Sb5g\ / k|fyldstf qmd ;f]xL bnsf] ;"rLdf l;ldt x'g] rng 5 .

  • g]b/n}08, lkmgn}08n] of] ljlw ckgfPsf] 5 .

  • Hofb} nfdf] ;"rL / w]/} /fhg}lts bnx?sf] ;xeflutf ePsf] cj:yfdf v'Nnf ;"rL cJojxfl/s x'g ;Sb5 .


@ agb rl m
@= x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 . aGb ;"rL M

  • lgjf{rgdf bnn] g} pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rL qmd tf]s]sf] x'Fbf dtbftfnfO{ pDd]bjf/sf] k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg gkfpg] u/L ;"rL aGb ul/Psf] x'G5 .

  • dtbftfn] ;f]em} /fhg}lts bnnfO{ dt nufpg] aGb ;"rL k|s[of Oh/fonsf] ;Dk"0f{ lgjf{rg If]qx?df / o'/f]lkog o'lgogsf] ;+;bsf] ;f+;bx?sf] lgjf{rgdf / :k]g, kf]r'un, Oh/fon, ci6«Lof, lkmgNof08, kf]n}08, :sfg8]lgleog d'n's, Go'hLn}08, hd{g / cd]l/sfn] ckgfPsf] 5 .

  • k|fKt dtsf] cfwf/df /fhg}lts ;"rL k|s[of dfkm{t ul/g] k|ltlglwTj ;+Vof ;DaGwLt bnn] k|fKt u/]sf] dt a/fa/ x'G5 . h:tf] !) % dt = !) % k|ltlglw . k|ltlglwx?sf] ;+Vof eg] k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu cfjZos dt æsf]6fÆ df e/ ub{5 .

  • /fhg}lts bn leq} ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] ljleGg cjwf/0ffx? k|rngdf 5g\ .

  • sf]6fsf] cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/L a9L ePsf] dt bf];|f] r/0fdf u0fgf u/L ;a} eGbf a9L dt k|fKt pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df afFsL l;6sf nflu lgjf{rLt u/fOG5 .


Rl ljlwsf kmfo bf
;"rL ljlwsf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 . kmfO{bf

!= cNk;+Vos hflt, wd{, efiff, au{, ;d"bfox?sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg pkof]uL x'G5 .

@= bnLo Joj:yf k"0f{ :yflkt u/fpF5 .

#= bn / ljljw au{ ;d"bfo aLr 3lgi6tf a9fpF5 .

$= dtsf] cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] x'Fbf ;+;bdf ;a}sf] ;xeflutf x'g ;S5 .

%= pDd]bjf/ ;"rLsf] cfwf/df ;Dk"0f{ dtbftfx? dtbfg k|lt ;r]t x'G5g\ .

^= If]lqotfjfb cGt ug{ / bnx?aLr ;Qf ;fem]bf/Lsf] k|j{3g ub{5 .

&= kf6L{nfO{ k|fKt dtsf] k"0f{ ;b"kof]u x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 .

*= v'Nnf kf6L{ ;"rLdf dtbftfn] pDd]bjf/sf] qmd tf]Sg klg ;S5g\ .


Rl ljlwsf a kmfo bf
;"rL ljlwsf x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 . a]kmfO{bf

!= ;+o'Qm ;/sf/sf] ;Defjgf aGgfn] ;/sf/ sdhf]/ x'g ;S5 .

@= dtbftf / pDd]bjf/ aLr dha'b ;DaGw /xFb}g .

#= ;"rL tof/ ug{ kf/bzL{ dfkb08 geP kf6L{sf] ck|hftflGqs lg/+s'ztf a9\g ;S5 .

$= ;fgf If]q / Ps :yfgsf nflu o:sf] k|of]u x'g ;Qm}g .

%= ;fgf bnn] klg k|ltlglwTj ug]{ ePsf] x'Fbf bnsf] 6'lqmg] qmd a9g ;S5 .

^= v'Nnf ;"rLdf ;fdfGo dtbftfn] k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg ;Sb}gg\ .

&= 7"nf] lgjf{rg If]qdf ;a} dtbftfn] ;"rLsf dtbftf glrGg] x'Fbf kf6L{n] unt pDd]bjf/ agfpg klg ;Sg] x'G5


Ldl t b o dfg kflts k ltlglwtj m
ldl>t ;b:o ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj M x:tfGt/0f x'g] x'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .

  • of] k|s[ofn] Psn ;+Vof ax'dt lgjf{rg dfkm{t cfwf / cfwf kf6L{ ;"rL dfkm{t lgjf{rg ul/G5 .

  • 7"nf] hg;+Vof, ef}uf]lns, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;fF:s[lts, hflto, wfld{s ljljwtf ePsf] d'n'sx?df :yflgo tyf /fli6«o :t/sf] k|ltlglwTjsf nflu of] k|s[of k|efjk"0f{ dflgG5 .

  • af]lnleof -k|ltlglw ;ef_, Dofs;Lsf], n];f]yf], Go"hLn}08, hd{gL -;+3Lo tNnf] ;bg_ , a]nfot -:s6n}08 / j]N;_[, n];f]yf] -tNnf] ;bg_ d]S;Lsf] -tNnf] ;bg_ Go"lhn}08 -k|ltlglw ;ef_ nufot ljZjsf] w]/} d'n'sx?n] of] k|s[of ckgfPsf 5g\ . vf; u/L Go"hLn}08n] !(() kl5 / x+u]/Ln] of] ljlwnfO{ plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] pQd ljsNk dfg]sf] b]lvG5 .


  • dtbftfx?n] b'O{ dtkqsf] k|of]u ub{5g\, Pp6f lgjf{rg If]q k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu .

  • hd{gLdf Pp6} dtkqnfO{ b'j} k|of]hgsf nflu k|of]u ul/G5 / pDd]bjf/sf] dt a/fa/ kf6L{n] cfkm\gf] dt kfPsf] dflgG5 . ;fdfGotof lgjf{rg If]q / kf6L{ ;"rLdf kg]{ u/L bf]xf]/f] pDd]bjf/L agfOb}g .

  • of] k|0ffnLsf ljleGg k|of]ux?dWo] x+u]/Ldf ax'dt ljlw ckgfOPsf] 5 .

  • e]g]h'Pnfdf *& :yfg a9Ldt / !% :yfg ;dfg'kflt k|ltlglwTjsf nflu ;"rL dfkm{t d]S;Lsf]sf] #)) :yfgdf a9Ldt / @)) :yfg ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj ;'rLsf nflu 5'6\ofO{Psf] 5 .


Ldl t dtkq gd gf
ldl>t dtkq gd'gf k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu .


Bf f dtsf cfwf df l 6 lgwf 0f
bf];|f] dtsf] cfwf/df l;6 lgwf{/0f k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu .


Kmfo bfx
kmfO{bfx? k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu .

!= ;a} dtsf] ;b'kof]u x'G5 .

@= /fli6«o If]q / lgjf{rg If]q aLr ;dGjo / ;Gt'ng x'G5 .

#= ef}uf]lns, hflto / ;fd"bfosf] plrt k|ltlglwTj x'G5 .

a]kmfO{bfx?

!= kf6L{ ;"rLsf cju'0fx? ;a} g} x'G5g\ .


Psn qmd0flo dt
Psn ;+qmd0fLo dt k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu .

  • dtsf] clwstd pkof]u u/L dtbftfx?sf] efjgf adf]lhdsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ / pDd]bjf/ s]lGb|t eO{ lgjf{rg ug{ ;lsof]; egL of] ljlw k|rngdf NofOPsf] xf] .

  • dtsf] ;b'kof]u / k|ltlglwTjsf] cfwf/df nf]slk|o of] lgjf{rg k|s[of ljZjsf] w]/} b]zx?n] k|of]udf NofPsf 5g\ .

  • @))^ sf] lgjf{rgdf pQ/L cfo/n}08 / u0ftGq, ci6«]lnof, Go"lhn}08, dfN6fx?n] k|of]udf NofPsf] of] ljlwdf pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fyldstfqmdsf] cfwf/df dt lbOG5 . :s6n}08sf] lgjf{rg @))& / cd]l/sL gu/ -sofDa|Lh, Dof;fr'P6;_ sf] lgjf{rg @))( df ckgfpg] tof/L ePsf] b]lvG5 .

    Devised by Carl Andrae, Denmark in 1985, Thomas Hare, England in 1857, Promoted by Andrew Inglis Clark.


ci6«]lnofdf of] ljlwnfO{ k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu . "Hare-Clark System" / US df "Choice Voting" sf gfdaf6 hflgG5 .;a} dtkq Ps} :yfgdf /flvG5 / dtbftfsf] k|fyldstf qmdsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/x?sf] qmdfÍ tf]Sg] ul/G5 .

sf]6f M Psn ;+qmd0fLo dtnfO{ pDd]bjf/ lgjf{rLt ug{ ;Sg] Go"gtd dt jf sf]6f lgwf{/0f u/L dt x:tfGt/0f ul/b} nluG5 . sf]6f lgwf{/0f ug]{ ljlwx? dWo] ;a} eGbf nf]slk|o 8'k sf]6f lgDg k|s[ofåf/f ul/G5 .

dt

l;6 ;+Vof + !

pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ cfjZos Go"gtd dt k|fKt gePdf jf a9L ePdf To:tf dt k|fyldstf qmdsf csf]{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ x:tfGQ/0f xFb} hfG5 . of] k|s[of sf]6f adf]lhdsf ;Dk"0f{ k|ltlglwx?sf] 5gf}6 geP;Dd hf/L /xG5 .


dt u0fgfdf cfjZos sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt k|fKt pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

k|fyldstf qmd cg';f/ dtsf] u0fgf ug{ emGeml6nf] eP klg sDKo"6/ k|ljlwaf6 ;xh} u0fgf ug{ ;lsG5 . cfo/n}08, ci6]«lnof, Go"hLn}08, -:yflgo lgsfo lgjf{rg_ df k|of]u . Thomas Hare åf/f !*%& df ljsl;t / ;dsfnLg ;fyL John Styuart Mill / Walter Bagehot åf/f k|;+zLt Hare Model klg nf]slk|o 5 .


Dt qmd0flo k s of sf 6f @ dt
dt ;+qmd0fLo k|s[of -sf]6f @*)) dt_ pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .


Kmfo bfx1
kmfO{bfx? pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

!= dtsf] cg'kftdf pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 x'G5 .

@= ef}uf]lns, hflto, alu{o / ;dfg'kftLs x'G5 . ldlnh'nL ;/sf/sf] jftfj/0f agfpF5 .

#= of] z'Id k|hftflGqs ljlw dflgG5 .

$= o:df dtsf] Go"g ckdfg x'G5 .


A kmfo bfx
a]kmfO{bfx? pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

!= ;fdfGo / ;fIf/ gePsf dtbftfx?df o:sf] plrt k|of]u ug{ ;lsGg .

@= dtbfg / dtkqsf] u0fgf ljlw hl6n x'G5 .

#= o:sf] clt k|of]un] PsbnLo :yL/ ;/sf/sf] cGt ub{5 .

$= hl6n dt k|of]u ljlwsf] sf/0f dt ab/sf] cg'kft a9g ;S5 .


Cw dfg kflts m
cw{ ;dfg'kflts M pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

cw{ ;dfg'kfltssf k|sf/x?

;dfgfGt/ dtbfg M

o; ljlwdf dtbftfn] b'O{ cnu cnu lgjf{rgsf nflu cnu cnu k|s[of ;dfgfGt/ ckgfO{ k|ltlglwsf] 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

a9Ldt lgjf{rg ljlw / ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj ;dfgfGt/ dtbfgdf ldl>t 9+uaf6 k|of]u ul/G5 . ctM Psn :yfg ;+;bLo lgjf{rgsf nflu ax'dt lgjf{rg ljlw / afFsL bnx?n] k|fKt u/]sf] dtsf] cfwf/df ;"rL tof/ ul/ k|ltlglwTj u/fOG5 . cNjflgof, cd]{lgof, ch/j}hfg, Sofd?g, hlh{of, Ujf6]dfnf, hfkfg, blIf0f sf]l/of, n'y'lgof, DofS;Lsf], gfOh/, Kofn]:6fOg, lkmlnlkG;, ;]g]un, l;l;nL, ;f]dflnof, tfOjfg, 6o'lgl;of, sf]:6fl/sfn] of] ljlw cknDag u/]sf 5g . o;nfO{ ldl>t lgjf{rg ljlw klg elgG5 .


Kmfo bfx2
kmfO{bfx? pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

!= 7"nf bnx? a9L dt ljlw dfkm{t / ;fgf bn, cNk;+Vos, ;d"bfosf k|ltlglw ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg dfkm{t lgjf{rLt x'g ;S5g\ . t/ ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rgsf] :yfg a9L x'g' kb{5 .

@= b'O{ cnu dtkq4f/f dtbftf :yfgLo / /fli6«o :t/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;Qm5 .

#= kf6L{ ;"rLdf em} kf6L{ v08Ls/0fsf] ult sd x'G5 .


A kmfo bfx1
a]kmfO{bfx? pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

!= lgjf{rg If]qsf k|ltlglwsf] lgjf{rg If]q;Fu / ;dfg"kftLs k|ltlglwsf] bn;Fu dfq a9L 3lgi6tf /xG5 .

@= ;dfg"kflts k|0ffnL eP/ klg lglZrt k|ltzt k|fKt gug]{ bnn] k|ltlglwTj k|fKt ub}{g .

#= o:sf] k|of]u s]xL hl6n x'Fbf dtbftfdf cGof]ntf a9fpF5 .


Psn c qmd0flo dt
Psn c;+qmd0fLo dt pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

ax':yfg lgjf{rg If]qdf of] ljlw k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG5 . h'g Psn ;+qmdl0fo eGbf km/s 5 . o;df klg dtbftfnfO{ Pp6} dt k|fKt x'G5 . ;fdfGotof Ps} lgjf{rg If]qsf w]/} :yfgdf Ps} k6L{sf w]/} pDd]4f/x?sf] 5gf}6 ubf{ of] lalw ckgfO{G5 . of] ljlw k|of]u u/L k|To]s pDd]4f/n] k|fKtu/]sf] dtsf] cfwf/df pDd]4f/ lahlo x'G5 . t/ Ps pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fKt dt ;f]xL kf6L{sf] csf]{ s'g} pDd]4jf/nfO{ x:tfGt/0f x'Fb}g .


  • ?; / c08f]/fdf cfwf :yfg, ckmuflg:tfg / hf]8{gsf] tNnf], OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf k|of]u NofOPsf] 5 .

  • @)$* cl3 g]kfnsf] ;+;bLo lgjf{rgdfk|of]u u/]sf], 6\o'lgl;ofdf ** % Psd'i7 / !@ % ;'rL ;dfg'kflts, ;f]dflnof (@ % ;dfg'kflts / * % a9L dt, hfkfgdf ^) % a9L dt / $) % ;"rL ;dfg'kflts k|of]udf 5g\ .


Kmfo bfx3
kmfO{bfx? OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf

!= Ps} lgjf{rg If]qdf a9L :yfgsf] lgjf{rg x'Fbf ;f] :yfgsf pDd]bjf/ aLr ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj x'g;S5 .

@= lgjf{rg / u0fgf ljlw ;/n x'G5 .

#= bnx? lgjf{rg If]qdf a9L ;+u7Lt x'g ;S5g\ .


A kmfo bfx2
a]kmfO{bfx? OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf

!= Go"g k|ltztsf ?kdf b]ze/ 5l/Psf dtbftfsf nflu of] b'ef{Uok"0f{ ljlw x'G5 .

@= Ps dtsf] afWotfn] k|ofKt ljsNk dtbftfn] k|fKt ug{ ;Qm}g .

#= Ps} bn leq k|lt:kwf{ / k|lt4lG4tf a9fpF5 .

$= ;a} dt pkof]uL x'g g;sL v]/ hfG5 .

%= kf6L{sf] ks8 adf]lhd pDd]bjf/ gePdf kf6L{sf] ;+efjLt xf/ / k|ltlglwTjsf] cGo x'G5 .


Non propertional multi seat c dfg kflt ax yfg lgjf rg
Non Propertional Multi seat OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf-c;dfg'kflt ax':yfg_ lgjf{rg

o; ljlwdf lgDg 9fFrfx? k|rngdf 5g\

Block Voting -Psd'i6 dt_

  • w]/} l;6 ePsf] Ps} lgjf{rg If]qaf6 w]/} pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ug{ Block Vote k|of]u ul/G5 . Block Vote sf] tl/sf dtkqsf] 9fFrf cg';f/ km/s km/s x'g ;S5 .

  • a9L dt Psd'i7 k|s[of:h'g If]qdf hlt pDd]bjf/ 5g\ Tolt dt dtbftfx?nfO{ k|fKt x'G5 / w]/} dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/ ljhoL x'G5 .

  • k|yfldstfk"0f{ Psd'i6 k|s[of: of] ljlwdf k|To]s dtbftfn] dtkqdf tf]s]sf] qmd cg';f/ yf]/} dtk|fKt ug]{nfO{ qmdzM x6fO{ k|fyldstfsf dtx? ;d]t u0fgf u/L ax'dt geP ;Dd u0fgf ul/G5 .


Psd i7 dt
Psd'i7 dt OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf

  • ax":yfg lgjf{rg If]qdf pDd]bjf/sf] ;+Vof a/fa/ dtbftfnfO{ dt lbg kfpF5g . pQm dt lghsf] O{R5f cg';f/ Ps pDd]bjf/nfO{ ;a} jf cGo pDd]bjf/nfO{ klg lbg ;S5g . a9L dt k|fKt ug]{ JolQm lahoL x'G5 .

    k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M !%

    kmfO{bfx?

    != pDd]bjf/sf] Ifdtf, u'0fsf] cfwf/df dt lbg ;lsG5 .

    @= dtbftfdf a9L clwsf/ x'G5 .

    a]kmfO{bf

    != Ps} bnsf w]/} pDd]bjf/ ePdf a9L dt k|0ffnLsf cju'0f oxfF k'g/fj[Q x'G5 / pDd]bjf/n] xfb{5 .


Bnlo psd i7
bnLo Psd'i7 OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf

of] k|fyldstfk"0f{ Psd'i6 / bnLo Psd'i6 u/L k|of]udf km/s ePsf] kfO{G5 . bnLo Psd'i7df dt bnn] kfpF5 / a9L dt k|fKt ug]{ bnn] p7fPsf ;j} pDd]bjf/ ljhoL x'G5g\ .

k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M !%

kmfO{bfx?

!= of] ljlw ;/n x'G5 .

@= of] ljlwdf hflt, efiff, au{ / ;d"bfosf] ;Gt'n agfpg ;S5 .

a]kmfO{bf

!= ;fdfGo ax'dtaf6 a9L :yfg k|fKt ug]{ x'Fbf a9L dtsf] bf]if o:df sfod x'G5 . -!((! df ^!Ü dtn] (%Ü :yfg lht]sf] l;+ufk'/_



Limited voting l ldt dtbfg
Limited Voting lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg-l;ldt dtbfg_

  • lgjf{rg If]qsf] cg'kftdf cfkmgf] dtbftf sd eP lhTg ;Sg] jf cfkmgf] hlt ;a} dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] JolQm pDd]4f/ agfO{5 . dtbftfn] klg w]/} :yfgx? ePklg yf]/} pDd]4f/nfO{ dtbfg ub{5g . kmnt cNk;+Vofsf ;d'bfo jf dtbftfnfO{ k|ltlglwTj u/fpg yk ;/ntf x'G5 . h:tf] ls lgjf{rg If]qaf6 5 hgf pDd]4jf/ lgjf{rg ug{ ;lsg] eP lhTd] ul/ # hgfnfO{ dfq dt lbg ;lsg] u/L /f]s nufpg ;S5 . h'g lgjf{rg a9L dtsf] cfwf/df 3f]lift x'G5 .

  • l;6 ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dtflwsf/ glbO{ l;ldt ugf{n] ;fdfGo ax'dt k|s[of ckgfpg] xf] eg] lhTg ;Sg] pDd]4f/sf] dt afFl8O{ xfg{ ;S5 . DofS;Lsf], af]lnleof / ch]{G6Lgfsf] l;g]6 / af]lnleofsf] ;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\ lgjf{rg @))^ df of] ljlw lgjf{rgsf] nflu ckgfPsf] kfOG5 .

    k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M !%


  • Kmfo bfx4
    kmfO{bfx? lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    != yf]/} kf6L{ dtaf6 klg pDd]bjf/ lhtfpg ;lsG5 .

    @= ePsf] dtsf] ;b'kof]u x'G5 .

    #= dtbftf;Fu ;f}xfb{ / ;f]emf] ;DaGw aGb5 .

    a]kmfO{bfx?

    != cNk;+Vos / ax' hflt ;dfhdf o:n] plrt k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;Qm}g .

    @= cfkm"nfO{ k|fKt l;6sf] ;b'kof]usf] k|of; g} x'Fb}g .


    Lgzkif jtgq lgjf rgsf rf x
    lgZkIf / :jtGq lgjf{rgsf ;"rfÍx? lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    • lgjf{rg lsg / s;/L < sf] k|Zgn] lgjf{rgsf] ljlzi6 u'0fx? k|i6 ub{5 . ælgjf{rgÆ nfO{ æ5gf}6Æ df l;ldt ubf{ a9L ck|hftflGqs x'G5 .

    • :jtGq / :jR5 lgjf{rgsf] ;fy{stf dtbftf / Joj:yf jLrsf] ;DaGwåf/f ljZn]if0f ug{ h?/L x'G5 .

    • dtbftfn] cfˆgf] x}l;ot b]vfP/ zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;+/rgfdf kx'Fr /fVg ;Sg] hgd'vL lgjf{rg cfjZos x'G5 . lsgsL lgjf{rgsf d'Vo gfosx? dtbftf / pDd]bjf/ x'g\ .


    Lgjf rg k s of nio dagw
    lgjf{rg k|s[of±nIo ;DaGw lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg


    lgjf{rgsf] ;"rfÍn] sDtLdf lgDg dfGotf :jLsf/ ug'{ kb{5 lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    • gful/s + pDd]bjf/ Ö x}l;ot Ù ;fj{ef}d,

    • :jtGqtf / ;Ifdtf,

    • ;dfgtf Ù hft, j0f{, lnË, wd{, ju{ / e'uf]n,

    • Gofo Ù s/0f, ljj]s / Gofof]lrttf .

      ;"rfÍssf ljifoa:t'

    • aflns dtflwsf/, j0f{, lnË, au{, hft hflt, If]q, z}lIfs, Jofj;flos ?kd} pDd]åf/ x'''''g] tyf /fhg}lts bnx?nfO{ r'gfjdf efu lng], k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{ :jtGqtfÙ

    • /fhg}lts ;ef, e]nf, 5nkmn ug]{ :jtGqtfÙ


    • pDd]bjf/sf] ?kdf dtbftf ;fd' k|:t't x'g] :jtGqtfÙ lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    • lgZkIf /fli6«o tyf cGt/fli6«o lgjf{rg cg'udg, kqsf/x?nfO{ dtbfg s]Gb|df ;/n kx'FrÙ

    • :jtGq lgjf{rg cfof]u jf sfof{no dfkm{t lgjf{rg sfo{Ù pko'Qm dtbfg s]Gb| / dtkqsf] Joj:yf,

    • dtkq / dtbfg :yn, dtbftf / pDd]bjf/sf] ;''/Iff,

    • k};f, kb, k|efj Go"lgs/0f, bf]xf]/f], utn / cgflwsf/ dtbfgdf /f]sÙ

    • dtu0fgf / k'g dtu0fgf :ynsf] ;'/IffÙ


    • j}1flgs dtu0fgfsf] k|of]uÙ lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    • r'gfj ;DaGwL cfrf/ ;+lxtfÙ

    • lgjf{rg ck/fw P]gsf] Joj:yf / ;f]sf] lgZkIf ;'g'jfO{Ù

    • wf+wnLo'Qm dtbfg ePdf k'gM dtbfgsf] Joj:yfÙ

    • clwstd j}1flgs dtkq / dtbfg ljlwsf] k|of]u -h:tf] dtkqdf lrGx nufpg], Kjfn kfg]{, ljWo'tLo ;+oGq "Touch screes/push buttom" /fVg], clzlIft dtbftfnfO{

    • Wofgdf /fvL dtkqdf pDd]bjf/sf] t:jL/ /fVg], dtbfgsf] lbgdf sf/0fj; pkl:yt x'g g;Sg] dtbftfn] cluNnf] lbg dt /fVg kfpg] Joj:yf ug{] cfbL_.


    • UN Millennium Declaration lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    • :jtGqtf -clwsf/sf] clwstd /Iff ub}{ dfgjf~5Lt k|hftflGqs / ;xeflutfd'ns zf;gdf ;xefuL x'g]_,

    • ;dfgtf -dlxnf k'?if ;a}nfO{ clwsf/ / cj;/_Ù

    • ;Ddfg -Ps csf{sf c;dfg ljrf/, ;+:s[lt / efiff_ /

      ;f}xfb{tf sfod ub}{] e"ldsf tyf bfloTjnfO{ ;d]t lgZkIf / plrt9+af6 Gofok"0f{ ljt/0f ul/g' kg]{ .

    • Venice commission

    • jflns, ;dfg, :jtGq, uf]Ko / k|ToIf dtbfgnfO{ cfwf/e"t kfFr l;4fGtsf] ?kdf 3f]if0ff,


    Inter Parliamentary Union lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg, Geneva

    :jtGq / lgZkIf lgjf{rgsf ;"rfFsx?sf]{ 3f]if0ff,

    !_ lgjf{rg P]g / Joj:yf,

    @_ lgjf{rg If]q Joj:yf,

    #_ lgjf{rg Joj:yfkg,

    $_ dtflwsf/,

    %_ dtbftf gfdfjnL,

    ^_ gful/s lzIff / dtbftfsf] hfgsf/L,

    &_ pDd]bjf/, /fhg}lts bn, ;+u7g / vr,

    *_ r'gfj k|rf/ k|;f/,

    (_ dtkq, ;'k/Lj]If0f / kl/0ffd,

    !)_ ljjfb / lg/f]k0f,


    @ lgjf rgsf cgt fli6 o dfkb08 gd gf of uo k of u
    @= lgjf{rgsf] cGt/fli6«o dfkb08 / gd"gf of]Uo k|of]u lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    != ljZjJofkL dfgj clwsf/sf] 3f]iff0ff !($*

    • k|:tfjgf ædfgj k|lti7f, ;Ddfg / clwl5Gg clwsf/sf] dfGotf g} ljZjdf :jtGqtf, Gofo / zflGtsf] cfwf/ ePsf]Æ / æcTorf/ / bdgsf] lj?4 c? pkfio gkfP/ ljb|f]x ug'{ g} clGtd pkfo 7fGg dflg; afWo x'g,]Æ

    • wf/f @!-!_ æk|To]s JolQmnfO{ cfˆgf] b]zsf] ;/sf/df k|ToIf ?kn] jf :jtGq ?kn] r'lgPsf k|ltlglw dfkm{t efu lng] clwsf/ x'g]5,Æ

    • pkwf/f -#_ æhgtfsf] OR5f ;/sf/sf] ;Qfsf] cfwf/ x'g]5 / o:tf] OR5f cfd tyf ;dfg dtbfgåf/f ;do ;dodf ul/g] lgZkIf r'gfj dfkm{t cleJoQm ul/g]5 / To:tf] r'gfj u'Kt dtbfg jf To:t} :jtGq dtbfg k|0ffnLaf6 ul/g]5 Æ eGg] Joj:yf .


    • wf=!* /fhg}lts ljrf/, cGts/0f, lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b'j} ;bg

    • wf= @) -!_ zflGtk"0f{ tl/sfn] ;ef ug]{, ;+:yf vf]Ng] clwsf/,

    • wf=@ hflt, j0f{, ln+u, efiff, wd{, /fhg}lts jf cGo dt, /fli6«o jf ;fdflhs pTklt / ;DkQL jf cGo s'g} dof{bfsf] cfwf/df e]befj gu/L k|To]s JolQmnfO{ o; 3f]if0ffdf pNn]lvt clwsf/ / :jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ x'g]5 eGg] Joj:yf .

      @= ;a} k|sf/sf hflto e]befj cGt ug]{ cGt/fli6«o cle;GwL – !(^%


    wf= @ /fHon] hflt, /Ë, /fli6«otf jf hflto pTktLsf] cfwf/df e]befj gu/L lgjf{rgdf efu lng], dt nufpg], pDd]bjf/L lbg], ;a} txsf] ;fj{hlgs ;]jf / ;/sf/df efu lng] clwsf/, ljrf/ / clwJolQmsf] :jtGqtf, zflGtk"0f{ e]nf x'g] / ;ef ug]{ :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt ug}{ k5{ .

    #+ gful/s / /fhg}lts clwsf/ ;DaGwL cGt/fli6«o dxf cg'jGw !(^^

    wf/f # / @% n] gful/s tyf /fhg}lts clwsf/sf] k|of]u ug{ k'?if tyf dlxnfx?nfO{ ;dfg ?kdf /fHon] k|Tofe"t ug'{ kg]{] / plrt sf/0f tyf ljgf e]befj k|ToIf jf k|ltlglw dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs sfo{x?df efulng, jflns dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df x'g] cfjlws lgjf{rgdf OR5Lt AolQmnfO{ dtlbg] jf lgjf{rLt x'g uf]Ko dtbfgsf] k|Tofe"t u/]sf] 5 .


    • k|hftGqdf hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'x / cNk;+Vosx?sf] clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg cfjZos 5 . of] /fhg}lts ljifoa:t' dfq xf]Og . To:tf JolQmx? JoQm efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ dha't ;d]t agfpF5 (Butros Butros Ghali, Angenda for Peace, UN, 2nd ed. para 81, 1995)

      o:sf] k|of]usf yk k|yf;x?

    • jf;f{ 3f]if0ffkq @))),

    • zf]n Nkfg ckm Ps;g @))@

    • ;flG6ofuf] ;Dd]ngn] r/d ul/jL, cfly{s d]befj, ;fdflhs (Exclusion), cNkljsf; / l;dfGttfsf] cGt / e]befj lj/f]wL l;4fGtsf] s8fOsf ;fy kfngf gu/];Dd k|hftGqn] :jfO{Tj k|fKt gx'gfn] dlxnf, o'jf ;d]t ;j}nfO{ /fhlgltdf ;dfj]z ug{ u?/L 5 [1] eGg] lg:sif{ lgsfn]sf] kfOG5 .

      1] The communities of Democracies, 2005, Santiago Ministerial Commitment and Cooperating for Democracy, CD/April 30, 2005.


    • clk|msg o'lgogsf] nf]d] -6f]uf]_ sfg'g ;Ddfg cfjZos 5 . of] /fhg}lts ljifoa:t' dfq xf]Og . To:tf JolQmx? JoQm efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ dha't ;d]t agfpF5 -@)))_, ;f] o'lgog ;/sf/ k|d'vx?sf] ;Dd]ngåf/f kfl/t æclk|msfdf k|hftflGqs lgjf{rg ug]{ l;4fGtsf] 3f]if0ffÆ / blIf0f clk|msg ljsf; ;d'bfon] æk|hftflGqs lgjf{rg ug{ ckgfPsf l;4fGt tyf dfu{bz{g–@))$,Æ æcGt/ cd]l/sg k|hftflGqs j8fkq–))!Æ lndf, jfl;ª\6g k|f]6f]sn / /fi6«d08n (Common Wealth Nation) sf] x/f/] 3f]if0ff– !((!, sf] ljz]if dxTj 5 .

    • o"/f]lkog dfgj clwsf/ ;GwL, e]lg; cfof]u– o'/f]lkog kl/ifb / o'/f]lkog o'lgogsf] df}lns clwsf/ ;DaGwL j8fkq–@))) wf/f–(–!! åf/f k|fbt clwsf/ /fHon] vf]:g ;Qm}g egL j]nkm]o/ kf6L{ lj= 6sL{{{ sf] d'bfdf[1] JofVof u/]sf] kfOG5 . [1] 13 Feb. 2003, Judgement, Para 87, 89


    $= dlxnfx?sf] /fhg}lts clwsf/x? ;DaGwLt cle;GwL–!(%@ ;Ddfg cfjZos 5 . of] /fhg}lts ljifoa:t' dfq xf]Og . To:tf JolQmx? JoQm efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ dha't ;d]t agfpF5

    ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] j8fkq / dfgj clwsf/ ;DaGwL ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ff kqdf pNn]vlt k|fjwfgnfO{ lhjGQtf k|bfg ug{ of] cle;GwL ul/Psf], k|:tfjgfdf .

    %= dlxnf lj?4sf ;j} k|sf/sf e]befjx? leq ug]{ cGt/fli6«o cle;GwL !(&(, # ;]K6]Da/ !(*!,

    • wf/f & /fhg}lts tyf ;fj{hlgs lhjgdf dlxnfx? lj?4sf] e]befj cGt ug{ / ;j} lgjf{rg, hgdt ;+u|xdf dt lbg / lgjf{rLt x'g kfpg], ;/sf/sf] gLlt lgdf{0f, To:sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xefuL x'g], ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{, b]zsf] ;fj{hlgs / /fhg}lts hLjg;+u ;DaGwLt ;+u7g, +;+:yfx?df ;xeflu x'g kfpg] clwsf/ /fHokIfn] ;'lgZrLt ug'{ kg]{ .


    U gd gfof uo lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf k of u
    u_ gd"gfof]Uo lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u ;Ddfg cfjZos 5 . of] /fhg}lts ljifoa:t' dfq xf]Og . To:tf JolQmx? JoQm efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ dha't ;d]t agfpF5

    a9Ldt k|0ffnL (First Past the Post)

    • cGo lgjf{rgx?sf] t'ngfdf a9Ldt k|0ffnL ;/n ePsf] sf/0f ;+;f/sf @!& d'n'sx? dWo] *! d'n'sx?df o:sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 .

    • j]nfot, Sofg8f / lt d'n'sx?af6 k|efjLt b]zx?df of] k|0ffnL nf]slk|o eP klg dtu0fgf ljB'lto pks/0f dfkm{t ul/g yfn]kl5 of] k|0ffnL qmdz sd nf]slk|o x'g nfu]sf] 5 .

      a]nfotdf o:sf] k|of]u M

    • a]nfotsf] k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rgdf of] ljlw k|of]u ul/O{Psf] . pDd]bjf/ dWo] Ps hgf 5fGg Ps hgfsf] r'gfj lrGxdf dtbfg ul/G5 / dtsf] ;+Vofsf] cg'kftdf lgjf{rgsf] t'?Gt} 3f]if0ff ul/G5 . of] k|s[ofn] 7"nf b'O{ bnsf] ar{Zj sfod /fV5 ljz]if cj:yfdf ;fgf /fhg}lts bnx?n] klg cNkdtsf] ;/sf/ jf u7aGwg ;/sf/ jgfpg ;S5g t/ To:tf] ;/sf/ :yL/ / alnof] x'Fb}g .


    • ;/sf/df u+le/ c:tJo:ttf x'g ;S5, o;}] sf/0f ;Ddfg cfjZos 5 . of] /fhg}lts ljifoa:t' dfq xf]Og . To:tf JolQmx? JoQm efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ dha't ;d]t agfpF5 O6nL / Oh/fonn] a9Ldt k|0ffnL cGt u/]sf] kfOFG5 .

    • a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf cNkdtn] ax'dt pk/ zf;g u/] klg To; oyfy{nfO{ of] k|0ffnLn] s'g} ;/f]sf/ /fVb}g .

    • !(%! df 6f]/L / !(&$ df n]j/ kf6L{n] cNkdtdf ax'dt NofP . !((& sf] lgjf{rgdf n]j/ kf6Ln] [email protected] dtdf ^#=^Ü ;+;bLo l;6 lht]sf] / 6f]/L + lnj/n 8]df]qmof6n] n]j/ kf6L{sf] eGbf $Ü a9L $&=%Ü dt NofP klg #@=# l;6dfq lht]sf] / @))! sf lgjf{rgdf n]j/ kf6L{n] $#Ü dtdf $!# / %&Ü dtdf @$^ l;6 lht]sf] kfOG5 . @))% sf] lgjf{rg kl/0ffd klg ;dfg vfnsf] #^Ü dtn] g} ax'dt l;6 lht]sf] kfOG5 .

    • a]nfotsf] ;+;lbo r'gfjsf] Oltxf;df !(#% b]lv xfn;Dd s'g] klg ;/sf/ ax'dtsf] cfwf/df u7g uPsf] kfOb}g . pQm k|s[ofn] cNkdtsf] ;fgf /fhg}lts bnx? a9Ldtsf] ælgjf{rLt lg/Í'ztfÆaf6 ;bf lkl8t k/]sf] 5 .


    • lnj/n 8]df]qmof6;n] @))! df k|fKt dtsf] ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    • Psn :yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rt k|0ffnLsf cltl/Qm ax':yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rg ug{ Psd'i6 k|0ffnL / blno Psd'i6 k|0ffnLx? k|of]udf 5g\ . Psn dt / ax'dt tyf JoQmLnfO{ / bnnfO{ dt k|bfg ug{ ljlwo'Qm leGgtf afx]s cGo k|of]u / k|s[ltsf cfwf/df Psn :yfg lgjf{rg / a9L:yfg lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf vf;} km/s 5}g .


    /fhg}lts bn lgjf{rg aif{ k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    !((& @))!

    dt % ;+Vof dt % ;+Vof

    lnj/n 8]df]qmof6\; !^=* $^ !( %@

    6f]/L #)=& !^% – –

    n]j/ $#=@ $!( $# $!#


    a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnL k|0ffnLsf kmfObfx? M k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    !_ ;/ntf M ;/n dtbfg tyf u0fgf ljlw, 5l/tf] / sd vlr{nf]M ;fwf/0f dtbftfx?sf] nflu a'emfpg ;lhnf] x'g] / kf6L{ /fhgLlt eGbf AolQmsf] 5gf}6 ug{ dtbftfx?sf nflu of] pko'Qm ljlw dflgG5 .

    @_ pko'Qm JolQm dfkm{t zf;gM pDd]bjf/ kf6L{;+u ;DaGwLt eP klg dtbftfn] kf6L{sf] pDd]bjf/ dg gk/fpg ;S5g\ / kf6L{nfO{ lhtfP/ JolQmnfO{ x/fpg jf kf6L{nfO{ x/fP/ JolQmnfO{ lhtfpg ;S5g\ . kmntM nf]slk|o dflgPsf] pDd]bjf/ xfg{ ;S5 . rfx]sf] JolQm dfkm{t zf;g ug]{ of] /fd|f] pkfo x'G5 .


    #=dtbftf;Fusf] k|ToIf ;DaGw / hjfkmb]xLtfM k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . dtbftfsf] dtsf] sb/ ug'{ pDd]bjf/sf] bfloTj ePsf] / pQm bfloTj k"/f gu/]df csf]{ lgjf{rgdf g/fd|f] kl/df0fsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{x'Fbf pDd]bjf/nfO{ dtbftf;Fu k|ToIf ;DaGw agfO{ plgx?k|lt a9L lhDd]jf/ x'g afWo agfpF5 . /fli6«o dxTjsf pDd]bjf/ cfkm\gf] lgjf{rg If]qdf xfg'{sf] d'n sf/0f oxL xf] .

    $=dhj't ljkIfLsf] ;'?jft M ax'dtsf] cfwf/df s'g} bnn] ;/sf/df k|e'Tj hdfpg] x'Fbf bf]>f] 7"nf] /fhg}lts bnn] ljkIfLsf] e"ldsf v]Ng] / ;/sf/nfO{ l7s af6f]df Nofpg ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 .


    %= Ps JolQm Ps dtsf] k|of]u M k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . Psd'i6 jf bnLo Psd'i6 lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf afx]s Psn :yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf Ps JolQm Ps dt k|0ffnL k|of]udf x'G5 .

    ^= If]lqotfM ef}uf]lns ?kdf If]lqo :t/df /x]sf kf6L{x?sf] ;f] If]qdf pRr k|efj x'g / k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;S5g . cWokL /fli6«o ?kdf x]g]{ xf] eg] Tof] dtn] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg g;Sg] klg x'g ;S5 .


    A9ldt lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf a kmfobfx
    a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf a]kmfObfx? k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    != lgjf{rg b'O{ kf6L{df l;ldt x'g], a9Ldt k|0ffnL dfkm{t cGgt lgjf{rgdf b'O{ kf6L{sf] k|lt:kwf{ x'g] ub{5 . a]nfotdf !(@@ b]lv xfn;Ddsf @@ cfd lgjf{rgsf] !* j6f kl/0ffdn] ;+;bdf :ki6 ax'dt lbP/ ;/sf/ agfP klg cGo ;fgf bnx?n] ;/sf/df ;xeflutf hgfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .

    @= dtsf] cgfb/M a9Ldt k|0ffnLsf] ;a} eGbf 7"nf] sdhf]/L g} lgjf{rg dfkm{t JoQm ;a} eGbf a9L dtsf] sb/ gx'g' xf] . lgjf{rgdf cNkdts} ;/sf/ algg] / ;f]xL k|s[of ! jf @ kf6L{df dfq 3'ld/xg] ub{5 . kmntM ax'dt v]/ hfG5 . a]nfotsf] @))% sf] lgjf{rgdf [email protected] dt xfg]{x?sf] / !*Ü dt lhGt]x?sf] a9L ;d]t &)Ü dt v]/ uPsf] b]lvG5 .


    #= plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] cefj M k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .lgjf{rgdf JoQm efjgf cg'?k k|ltlglwTj gx'g] jf JoQm k|ltztsf] t'ngfdf k|ltlglwTjsf] k|ltzt gx'g] ;fgf bn, ju{, ;d"x, hfltx?sf] slxNo} k|ltlglwTj x'g ;Qm}g . k|s[ofs} ?kdf æ;fgfÆx?sf] x}l;ot l;ldt / cGt ug]{ jf æ7"nfÆsf] bofdf e/ kg]{ x'G5 .

    $= lgjf{rg If]qd'vL agfpF5 M lglZrt lgjf{rg If]qn] g} lglZrt pDd]bjf/sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] x'g] x'Fbf /fli6«o :t/sf] JolQmTj To; If]qdf l;ldt x'g]5g\ / cfkm\gf] If]qsf] ultljlw k|lt a9L ;+j]bgzLn x'g afWo agfpF5 . cGtt /fli6«o dxTjsf] JolQmTj lgjf{rgsf] k|fljlws sf/0fn] l;ldt / a]nfjvt ljjflbt x'g] ub{5 .


    %= ;'/IfLt If]qsf] vf]hL / ljs[ltsf] >[hgf M k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .k|hftflGqs k|lqmofdf v]b hgs cfr/0f of] lgjf{rg ljlwsf] pkh dflgG5 . h;/L klg lhTg 7"nf g]tfn] ;'/lIft If]qsf] vf]hL ug]{, cGo pDd]bjf/x?n] klg h;/L klg a9L dt Nofpg k|of; ug]{ jftfj/0f aGb5 . ljslzt d'n'sdf klg ;'/Iflt If]qsf] vf]hL ug]{ / ul/a, cNkljszLt d'n'sdf an, wfs,, wg / k|efjsf] clwstd b'?kof]u x'g] u/]sf] kfO{G5 .

    ^= dlxnfsf] Go"g k|ltlglwTjM ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj gePsf] sf/0f dlxnfx?sf] Go"g k|ltlglwTj x'g] ub{5 . cd]l/sL k|of]u ;d]t @))@ sf] lgjf{rgdf %)Ü dlxnf hg;+Vofaf6 s]an !$Ü l;6df k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] kfO{G5 . a]nfot, ef/t cflb d'n'sx?df klg of] ;d:ofsf] plQs} hl6n ?kdf /x]sf] kfpF5f}+ .


    &= lgjf{rg If]qsf] kl/jt{g M k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    cd]l/sL lgjf{rgsf] kl/0ffd dtbftfn] s;/L dt lbP eGbf klg lgjf{rg If]q s;/L lgwf{/0f ul/of] eGg] cfwf/df a9L k|efljt x'G5 . h:tf] !(() sf] lgjf{rgdf 8]df]qmof6n] 6]S;f;df $(=(Ü dt dfkm{t &)Ü l;6 sAhf u/] . /fhg}lts bnn] cfkm\gf] k|efjsf] cfwf/df cfkm" cg's"n lgjf{rg If]q agfO /xG5g\ / dtbftfx?sf] ckdfg x'g] ub{5 . ctM lgjf{rg If]q c:yL/ kfg]{ / h;/L klg lhTg] æh]/Ld]08/LË ljlw ck|hftflGqs / cGofok"0f{Æ dflgFb} cfPsf] 5 .


    Dfg kflts lgjf rg k 0ffnl
    ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    • ;+;f/sf &$ d'n'sdf ;dfg"kflts / @# d'n'sdf cw{;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLnfO{ hf]8]/ x]g]{ xf] eg] ;+;f/df ;jf{lws (& b]zx?df k|of]udf cfPsf],

    • ljszLt k|hftflGqs b]zx? cli6«of, a]NhLod, ;fOk|;, 8]gdfs{, lkmgn}08, hd{gL, lu|;, cfo/n}08, Oh/fon, nShDju{, dfN6f, g]b/n}08, gj]{, kf]r"{un, :k]g, :jL8]g, :jLh/n}08n] k|of]u u/]sf] .


    • Go"hLn]08n] k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;o aif{ klxnfaf6 k|of]u u/L cfPsf] a9L dt k|0ffnLsf] sdhf]/Lx? 5fgljg ug{ cfof]usf] u7g -!(*)_ / !((# sf] hgdt ;+u|x dfkm{t a9Ldt k|0ffnLsf] abnfdf ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL :yflkt u/]sf], a]nfotdf ;d]t lgjf{rg ;'wf/ ;dfhn] a9Ldt k|0ffnL gckgfpg ;Nnfx lbPsf] / 6f]gL An]o/4f/f u7Lt h]lsG; cfof]un] !((* df cw{ ;dfg"kflts k|0ffnL l;kmf/L; u/]sf] Tof] l;kmf/L; xfn sfof{Gjog geP klg :s6n]08 / a]N;n] cw{ ;dfg'kflts k|0ffnL ckgfO{ ;s]sf 5g\ .

    • lgjf{rgdf JoQm dt k|ltztsf] cfwf/df k|ltlglwTjsf] k|ltzt u/fpg kf6L{ ;"rL, Psn ;+qmd0fLo / ld>Lt ;b:o ;+Vofsf] ljlw k|of]udf 5g\ .


    Hd gldf dfg kflts lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf k of u
    hd{gLdf ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u k|ltlglwTj x'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt !@) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x'G5 . a]nfotdf ax'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .

    hd{gn]] a'G8]:6fu lgjf{rgsf nflu ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj ld>Lt 9fFrfsf] ckgfPsf] 5 . ;f+;bx? dWo] cfwf k|ToIf lgjf{rgsf] dfWodaf6 / cfwf kf6L{n] k|fKt u/]sf] dtsf] cg'kftdf lgjf{rg ul/G5 . @))@ df %(* l;6sf nflu @(( lgjf{rg If]q (Wahlkreise) / xfn #!Ü dlxnfsf] a'G8]:6fudf k|ltlglwTj 5 . pQm ld>Lt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLn] kToIf, :jtGq, ;dfg / uf]Ko dtbfgnfO{ ;'lglZrt u/]sf] kfpFb5f}+ . sDtLdf !* aif{ pd]/ k'u]sf JolQm s'g} lgjf{rg If]q jf kf6L{ lni6df pDd]bjf/sf] ?kdf :6]6 sfps;n] dgf]lgt ub{5 . hd{gdf /x]sf ;fgf kf6L{x?sf] ;d]t ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] o; k|0fflndf s'g} Ps lgjf{rg If]qdf dfq lhTg] ;fgf kf6L{x? klg of] lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL x'G5g, h:tf] lk|m 8]df]qmfo6 kf6L{, oWokL sDtLdf %Ü dt k|fKt gu/L of] ;'ljwf pkof]u ug{ ;lsb}g .


    dtsf] cg'kftdf sd pDd]bjf/ lgjf{rLt ePdf dfq ;dfg'kflts ?kdf k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

    hd{gLdf ;a} dtbftfx?n] @ dt k|of]u ub{5g, Ps dt lgjf{rg If]qsf] ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug{sf nflu / csf]{ dt kf6L{sf] nflu . kf6L{df k|fKt nf]slk|otf tyf bIftfsf cfwf/df kf6L{4f/f qmdfg';f/ tof/ u/]sf] ;+;b pDd]bjf/sf] ;"lrsf [1] pDd]bjf/ kf6L{n] b]ze/L k|fKt u/]sf] dtsf] cg'kftdf qmdzM lgjf{rLt x'G5g . lgjf{rg If]qaf6 lgjf{rLt ePsf ;b:o ;+Vofaf6 gk'u ;+Vofsf nflu dfq ;"rLaf6 afFsL ;+Vof ykL lgjf{lrt ul/G5 . lgjf{rg If]q / kf6L{ ;"rL b'j}lt/ pDd]bjf/L gfd ePsf]df lgjf{rg If]qaf6 lgjf{rLt geP dfq ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ul/G5 . pDd]bjf/sf nflu cfjZos eGbf a9L dt lgjf{rg If]qx?af6 k|fKt ePdf a9L ePsf] dt a/fa/ yk pDd]bjf/ lgjf{lrt ul/G5 . o;/L lgjf{lrt ePsf cltl/Qm ;+VofnfO{ Overhung Seat elgG5 h''g ;+Vofn] ;fljssf] ;f+;b ;+Vof a9g hfG5 . 2]

    [1] oWokL jfefl/ofdf pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rL v'Nnf /flvG5 / w]/} ;+3Lo /fHox?df b'j} dt Pp6} dtkqdf g} lbg] ul/G5 .

    2] hd{g afx]s Go"lhn}08sf] tNnf] ;bgdf klg of] k|rng 5 . @))% sf] lgjf{rgdf !@) ;b:oLo tNnf] ;bgsf] ;+Vof !@! x'g k'Uof] . a]nfotsf] :s6 ;+;b, a]N; / n08gsf] ;efdf a9Ldt cfO{ kf6L{x?nfO{ lbO{G5 / hDdf ;b:o ;+Vofdf kl/jt{g x'Fb}g .


    Ld lt b o dfg kflts lgjf rgsf kmfobf m
    ld>Lt ;b:o ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rgsf] kmfObf M k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

    != dtbftfn] :yfgLo / /fli6«o k|ltlglw 5fGg kfpF5g\ .

    @= :yfgLo k|ltlglw4f/f :yfgLo / /fli6«o k|ltlglw4f/f /fli6«o ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ ;S5g\ tyf lgjf{rg If]qsf] k|ltlglw ;+Fusf] ;DaGw klg ;hLj /xL/G5 . s'g} cj/f]w x'Fb}g .

    #= a9Ldt / ax'dtsf] cju'0fsf] cGt / ;dfg"kflts k|ltlglwTj x'G5 / k|ltlglwTjdf Gofo kb{5 .


    Ldl t b o dfg kflts lgjf rgsf a kmfobf m
    ldl>t ;b:o / ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rgsf a]kmfObf M k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

    != /fli6«o k|ltlglwx? / dtbftfaLr k|ToIf ;DaGw gePsf] sf/0f ;DaGw dha't x'Fb}g .

    @= ;"rL tof/ ul/Fbf kf/bzL{ dfkb08 geP kf6L{ lg/+s'z / e|i6 aGg ;S5 .

    #= v'Nnf ;"rLdf ;fdfGo dtbftfn] k|fyldstfqmd tf]Sg ;Sb}gg\ .

    $= /fHo g} lgjf{rg If]q x'Fbf ;"rLs[t pDd]bjf/ ;DaLt dtbftfn] glrGg] x'Fbf kf6L{n] unt pDd]bjf/ agfpg klg ;S5 .

    %= ;fgf ;d'x, hft, kf6L{n] k|ltlglwTj kfpg] x'Fbf kf6L{ 6'qmL/xg ;S5 .

    ^= ;+o'Qm ;/sf/sf] k|jn ;Defjgfsf sf/0f ;/sf/ sdhf]/ x'G5 .

    &= o:tf k|ltlglwåf/f ;+;bLo sfd sf/jfxLnfO{ ;':t agfpF5 .


    K fyldstfk 0f lgjf rg k 0ffnl m
    k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg k|0ffnL M k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

    • dtbftfsf] dt b'?kof]u gxf]; / OR5Lt pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|ltlglw agfpg ;lsof]; eGgsf nflu k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rgsf k|s[of ckgfOG5 .

    • dt JolQm ul/Fbf ljsNkdf ;d]t dt lbg ;lsg] x'Fbf o;nfO{ j}sNkLs dt k|0ffnL klg elgG5 .

    • of] ljlwdf qmd jf :t/ -!,@,# jf A, B, C_ Psn :yfgsf nflu / ax':yfg ePdf k|fyldstfsf dt qmdfg';f/ ;+qmd0fLo x'g klg ;S5 .


    Ci6 lnofdf k fyldstfk 0f lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf k of u m
    ci6«]lnofdf k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u M k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

    ljZjsf yf]/} b]zx? dWo] ci6«]lnofdf dtbfg clgjfo{ 5 . dtbfg ug{ g;s]df To;sf] :kli6s/0f lbg jf hl/jfgf ltg'{ kg]{ Joj:yf ePsf]n] % % eGbf sd dtbftfn] dfq dt k|of]u ub}{gg\ jf cg}krfl/s dt -vfnL pDd]bjf/ dtbfg_ xfN5g\ .

    ci6«]lnofdf tTsfn rqm k|0ffnL / Psn ;+qmdl0fo ljlw qmdz Psn :yfg / ax':yfg lgjf{rgdf k|of]u ul/G5 . tTsfn rqm k|0ffnL cg';f/ !%) ;b:oLo k|ltlglw ;ef Psn ;b:o[1] lgjf{rg If]qsf ;Dk"0f{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ -!) eP ! b]lv !), @) eP ! b]lv @)_ nfO{ qmd jf :t/ tf]sL k|fyldstfk"0f{ dt lbg] ul/G5 . dtkqsf] gfdqmds} cfwf/df !, @, # qmd n]lv dt lbg] u/]sf] x'Fbf pDd]bjf/sf] gfdfjnL qmd gfdsf] cfwf/df dtkqdf /fVg ylnPsf] 5 .

    [1] /fHo ljwfg ;ef, :yflgo gu/ ;efdf ;d]t oxL ljlw ckgfOG5 .


    3 ljwodfg cgtl d ljwfg lgjf rg joj yf ljutdf epsf hgcfgbf
    3= ljWodfg cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / lgjf{rg Joj:yf k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 . ljutdf ePsf hgcfGbf

    • cfGbf]ng tyf ;+3if{sf] kl/0ffd :j?k)^#.*.% df g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf dfcf]jfbL_ jlr ePsf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf,

    • g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] k|:tfjgfn] æcfkm\gf] nflu cfkm} ;+ljwfg agfpg] / eod'Qm jftfj/0fdf ;+ljwfg ;efsf] :jtGq lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL x'g kfpg] clwsf/Æ k|bfg u/]sf],

    • ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f ^# -!_ n] æcfkm}n] gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{,Æ

    • pkwf/f -#_ df æld>Lt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf cfwf/df lgjf{lrt $)(Æ ;b:ox? lgjf{rg ug]{ / To; dWo] @)% hgf xfn sfod /x]sf lgjf{rg If]qaf6 / @)$ hgf ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL cg';f/ lgjf{lrt ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .


    Lgjf rgsf ljz iftf m
    lgjf{rgsf ljz]iftf M k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

    • != cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] cfd lgjf{rgsf nflu ld>Lt lgjf{rg k|0ffnL , cfwf ;+;b k|ltlglw -@)%_ ;DaGwLt lgjf{rg If]qaf6 lgjf{lrt u/fpg] .

    • dtbftf / pDd]bjf/x? aLrsf] ;f}xfb{ ;DaGwnfO{ oyfjt /fVg] / pQm Joj:yfnfO{ plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] dfkb08 dfGg] ;}4flGts dfGotf sfod u/]sf] b]lvG5 .

    • of] lgjf{rg a9Ldt ljlw -klxnf] x'g] lgjf{rLt x'g]_ g} ePsf] x'Fbf t'ngfTds k|lt:kwf{sf v/fjLx?, vf; u/L kbsf] b'?kof]u, an, wgsf] b'?kof]u x'g] ;DefjgfnfO{ OGsf/ ug{ ;lsGg .

    • @= ;+;bsf] cfwf ;+f;bx? -@)$ hgf_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf cfwf/df lgjf{lrt x'g],

    • b]znfO{ g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q If]q dfgL /fhg}lts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg x'g] x'Fbf b]ze/ /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ cNk;+Vos hftL, au{, ;d"bfo / bnsf] ;d]t plrt k|ltlglwTj x'g] clwstd ;Defjgf 5 .


    #= P]ltxfl;s ?kdf dlxnf pDd]bjf/Lsf] ;+Vof Go"gtd, Ps ltxfO{, clgjfo{ ul/Psf] x'Fbf %)Ü hg;+Vof eP/ klg ljutdf !)Ü dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf of] Joj:yf k|ultzLn dfGg' kb{5, oWokL ;dfg'kflts l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df pQm ;+Vof cem} klg k"0f{ dfGg ;lsGg .

    $= a9L dt ljlw cGt/utsf] @)% ;b:oLo lgjf{rgdf /fhg}lts bnn] ;dfj]zL l;4fGt kfngf u/L pDd]bjf/sf] rog ug'{ kg]{ clgjfo{ Joj:yfnfO{ ;sf/fTds k|of; dfGg' kb{5 . oWokL ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] ;"rgfx? s] x'g eGg] ;ki6 Joj:yf eg] kfOb}g .


    %= ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL cGt/ut lgjf{rLt x'g] @)$ ;b:osf] ;"rL ;DalGwt /fhg}lts bnx?n] tof/ ubf{ dlxnf, blnt, pTkLl8t, cflbjf;L hghflt, lk5l8Psf If]q, dw]zL / cGo au{x? ;d]tsf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] Joj:yfnfO{ lgQfGt k|hftflGqs / Gof]lrt dfGg ;lsG5 .

    pQm ;"rLsf If]qx? to ul/P klg lt If]qaf6 ;"rLt ug{sf nflu cfjZos cGt/ laifoj:t' dfkb08 s] x'g, s:tf] x'g' kb{5 eGg] :ki6tf gePsf] x'Fbf lt If]qnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL ck|hftflGqs tyf ck/fbzL{ 9+|uaf6 kf6L{;"rL tof/ x'g;Sg] vt/fsf] eg] cGt ePsf] 5}g .


    Lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf c ki6tf
    lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf c:ki6tf ;b:osf] ;"rL ;DalGwt /fhg}lts bnx?n] tof/ ubf{ dlxnf, blnt, pTkLl8t, cflbjf;L hghflt, lk5l8Psf If]q, dw]zL / cGo au{x? ;d]tsf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] Joj:yfnfO{ lgQfGt k|hftflGqs / Gof]lrt dfGg ;lsG5 .

    • xfn a9L dt / ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLnfO{ ckgfOPsf] eP klg of] dtsf] k|of]u Psn dtkq jf b'O{ dt kq dfkm{t ul/g] eGg] ;ki6 5}g . ;dfg ?kdf kf6L{ ;"rL dt ljlw v'Nnf u/L k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg ;lsg] xf] jf ;"rLsf] gfd x]g{, k9g afx]s s]xL ug{ g;lsg] u/L aGb 9fFrfsf] x'g] xf], :ki6 5}g .

    • v'Nnf kf6L{ ;"rL a9L k|hftflGqs eP klg l;+uf] /fi6« g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q ePsf] cj:yfdf sDtLdf @)$ hgf pDd]bjf/sf] k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg] sfo{ c;+ej g} b]lvG5 . cWokL pQm lgjf{rg If]qnfO{ $ jf ^ If]qdf ljeflht u/L s]xL ;+Vof sd ug{ ;lsG5 .


    • ;fIf/tfsf] cfwf/df k|fyldstf tf]Sg] v'Nnf ljlw Jojxf/Ls gx'g ;S5 .

    • aGb ;"rL pko'Qm / Jojxfl/s ljsNk eP klg tf]lsPsf If]qaf6 gfdfjnL ;"rLs[t ug{ ;'rf+sx? 3f]lift / ;a} /fhg}lts bnsf nflu Ps} vfnsf x'g h?/L 5 .

    • aGb ;"rL ckgfpFbf kf/bzL{ ;"rf+sx? g/flvg] xf] eg] a9L dtsf] lg/+s'ztf ;Dj4 /fhg}lts bnsf] lg/+s'ztfdf kl/0ft x'g afx]s jf:tljs ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj gx'g;S5 .


    ;fdGtL ;+:sf/sf] lg/Gt/tf ;S5 .

    != dtsf] cfwf/df dfq pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ul/g' kg]{df !^ hgf ;b:o dgf]lgt ug]{ Joj:yf .

    @= wf/f !$! n] /fhg}lts bn vf]Ng, ;+rfng ug{ / To:sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ /f]s gnufP klg wf/f !$@ sf] pkwf/f % n] bn btf{ ug{ sDtLdf bz xhf/ dtbftfx?sf] ;dy{g ;lxtsf] x:tfIf/ o'Qm lgj]bgsf cfwf/df bn btf{ ug]{] zt{nfO{ ;bljj]so'Qm, Gofof]lrt / k|hftflGqs dfGg ;lsGg .


    Jtgq jr5 lgjf rgsf rf
    :jtGq / :jR5 lgjf{rgsf ;"rfÍ ;S5 .

    • :jtGqtfk"j{s :jR5 jftfj/0fdf lgZkIf lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL x'g !* aif{nfO{ of]Uo dtbftf dflg uf]Ko dtbfg ug]{,

    • dtbfg nufPt lgjf{rg ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ug{ ;+a}wflgs lgsfosf] ?kdf lgjf{rg cfof]usf] Joj:yf / cfof]unfO{ ef}lts, cfly{s / hgzlQmsf] k"tL{ ug]{ ;d]tsf] Joj:yf wf/f !@*, !@( / !#) df ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

    • eo / qf; /lxt aftfa/0f >[hgfsf k|of;,


    • ;+ljwfg ;ef ;b:o pDd]bjf/sf] of]Uotfsf] k|Zg lg/f]k0f ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfntn] ug]{, wf/f ^^ t/ wf/f !!*-!_ n] ælgjf{rg ;DaGwL ph'/L x]g{ Ps ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfnt u7g ul/g]5Æ eGg] Joj:yfsf] kl/k|]Iodf wf/f ^^ sf] k|of]hg s] sf nflu c:ki6,

    • lgjf{rgdf :jR5, lge{o jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ / xltof/sf] ;Defljt b'?kof]unfO{ /f]Sgsf nflu wf/f !$& df pNn]v ul/Psf] æxltof/ tyf ;]gfsf] Joj:yfkg cg'udg ;DaGwL ;Demf}tf – )^#Æ -d+l;/ @@_,

    • g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ jLr ;DkGg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf – )^#Æ -d+;L/ %_ nfO{ ljWodfg cj:yfdf lgikIf / :jtGq lgjf{rgsf] cfwf/:tDe dfGg ;lsG5,

    • ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3 ;d]t cGt/f{li6«o cg'udgstf{x?sf] cg'udg .


    D of ljj rgf dtsf plrt k ltlglwtjsf cefj m
    $= ;d:of ljj]rgf ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfntn] ug]{, wf/f ^^ t/ wf/f !!*-!_ n] ælgjf{rg ;DaGwL ph'/L x]g{ Ps ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfnt u7g ul/g]5Æ eGg] Joj:yfsf] kl/k|]Iodf wf/f ^^ sf] k|of]hg s] sf nflu c:ki6, != dtsf] plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] cefj M

    • ljutdf /fHon] ckgfPsf] unt lgjf{rg k|0ffnL / /fHosf] ;+/rgfsf sf/0f /fi6«sf tdfd hflt, ju{, ;d'bfo, cNk;+Vos / If]lqo ;Gt'ng sfod x'g ;s]g .

    • jkmfbf/ /Ifssf ?kdf l;ldIf JolQmx?nfO{ b]zsf cnu cnu If]q / ju{af6 dgf]lgt ug]{ k|rng .

    • %) % eGbf a9L dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj tLg cfd lgjf{rgdf %=*% clwsQd / /fli6«o ;efdf !!=& % clwsQd x'g'n] pRr n}lu+s lje]btf /x]sf].


    • #)=( ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfntn] ug]{, wf/f ^^ t/ wf/f !!*-!_ n] ælgjf{rg ;DaGwL ph'/L x]g{ Ps ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfnt u7g ul/g]5Æ eGg] Joj:yfsf] kl/k|]Iodf wf/f ^^ sf] k|of]hg s] sf nflu c:ki6, % hg;+Vof ePsf] kxf8L afx'g / If]qLsf] Go"gtd %% / a9Ldf ^# % / !!=^ % /x]sf t/fO{ tyf kxf8sf blntx?sf] )=% % dfq k|ltlglwTj x'g',

    • @# % eGbf a9L kxf8L cfbLjf;L hghfltsf] clwsQd !& % / $=# % d':nLdsf] a9Ldf @=% % dfq k|ltlglwTj ePsf] hflto / jlu{o lje]b,

    • %=% % hg;+Vof ePsf] g]jf/sf] ^=* % ;Dd k|ltlglwTj ePsf],

    • !% % t/fO{jf;Lsf] a9Ldf !$=@ % /

    • * % t/fO{jf;L cfbLjf;Lsf] *=* % ;Dd k|ltlglwTj ePsf],

    • k|ltlglwTjsf] k|ltzt !((!, !(($ / !((( sf] lgjf{rgdf kxf8L afx'g If]qL / t/fO{jf;Lsf] qmdzM pRr ljGb' tkm{ / g]jf/ afx]s cGo hfltx?sf] pRraf6 Go"g ljGb' tkm{ ;+qmdLt ePsf] kfOG5 .


    kl/0ffd ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfntn] ug]{, wf/f ^^ t/ wf/f !!*-!_ n] ælgjf{rg ;DaGwL ph'/L x]g{ Ps ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfnt u7g ul/g]5Æ eGg] Joj:yfsf] kl/k|]Iodf wf/f ^^ sf] k|of]hg s] sf nflu c:ki6,

    != c;dfg k|ltlglwTj

    • hg;+Vofsf] cg'kftdf hflt, ju{, ;d'bfo / If]qsf] k|ltlglwTj gx‘g],

    • hflt / tyf ln+u jLr pRr e]befj x'g],

    • pTkLl8t, blnt hftnfO{ cjx]lnt Jojxf/ ug]{,

    • cfGbf]ngsf] b'/L ;fy} l;dfGt, cNk;+Vos, hghflt, cflbjf;L, dw]zL, blnt hfltx? zf;g / cfly{s >f]tsf] kx'Fraf6 cnUofpFb} n}hfg],

    • tL ju{, hftsf] cj;/, ;Ddfg / Ifdtf ;+s'rg kfg]{,

    • OR5Lt pDd]bjf/sf] ;bf cefj x'g] jf dtbfgdf OR5Lt ljsNk gx'g],

    • dtsf] pRr sb/ gx'g] /

    • ;a} hgtf ;fa{ef}d geP/ l;ldt JolQmx?dfq ;fa{ef}d ePsf] .


    @ cnkdtsf lg s ztf m
    @= cNkdtsf] lg/+s'ztf M ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfntn] ug]{, wf/f ^^ t/ wf/f !!*-!_ n] ælgjf{rg ;DaGwL ph'/L x]g{ Ps ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfnt u7g ul/g]5Æ eGg] Joj:yfsf] kl/k|]Iodf wf/f ^^ sf] k|of]hg s] sf nflu c:ki6,

    @= cNkdtsf] lg/+s'ztf M

    • ljutsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnLn] cNkdtåf/f ax'dt pk/ zf;g ug]{ ck|hftflGqs Joj:yf ;+:yfut u/]sf],

    • !((!, !(($ / !((( sf] ;+;bLo lgjf{rg dWo] g]kfnL sf+u|];n] k|yd / t];|f] lgjf{rgdf #&=&% / #^=!$ % dt k|fKt u/]sf]df qmdz !!) -%#=^ %_ / !!! -%$=@ %_ k|ltlglw 5flg ax'dt pk/ zf;g u/]sf],

    • dtåf/f JoQm rfxgfsf] ;dfg'kflts ;Ddfg gx'g] / ul0flto a9L dt k|0ffnL dfkm{t k|ltlglwx?sf] 5gf}6 x'g] x'Fbf k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qdf k|To]s pDd]bjf/n] ax'dtsf] k|ltlglwTj gu/]sf],


    • k|To]s k|ltlglw bnLo l;ldt ;+Vofsf lxt, cfTdLotf, ;';DaGwsf nflu ax'dtnfO{ cgfbf/, ckdfg ug]{ / ;+:yfut?kdf g} :yflgo :t/af6s]Gb|;Dd cNkdtsf] lg/+s'ztf yf]kb{5 .

      kl/0ffdtM

      != /fHosf] 7'nf] lx:;f /fhlso sfo{sf] ;fem]bf/Laf6 cnlub} uPsf,

      @=ax'dt v]/ ,

      #= k|fljlws sf/0fn] 7'nf] dt ;+Vof k|ltlglw ljlxg ePsf,

      $=;fgf bnx? 7"nf bnsf] / yf]/} l;6 ;+Vof ePsf] ;fgf] bn w]/} l;6 ;+Vof ePsf] 7"nf] bnsf] lg/+s'ztfdf lkl;Psf,

      %=;Dk"0f{, ju{, If]q hfltsf] k|ltlglwTj k|foM gePsf],

      ^= /fhg}lts bndf ljrng / sfo{stf{df ljWj+;fTds ;f]r a9\b} uPsf], /

      &= lx+;fTds If]adf lta| cfs{if0f / a[lb ePsf] Jojxf/af6 k|dfl0ft .


    Afx n ljrf tyf fdflhs rgfsf k ltljda gx g m
    #= afx'n ljrf/ tyf ;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] k|ltljDa gx'g' M nflu ax'dtnfO{ cgfbf/, ckdfg ug]{ / ;+:yfut?kdf g} :yflgo :t/af6

    • a9L dt lgjf{rgn] k|lt:kwf{sf pRr b'O{ /fhg}lts bn g} ;lqmo agfpg] / ;/sf/sf] xsbf/ agfpg] x'Fbf b]zleq /x]sf ljrf/, wd{, ;+:s[lt, hft, ju{sf] afx'n :j?k ;+;b tyf ;/sf/df k|ltljlDat x'g ;s]g / gofF ljrf/, rfxfgf /fVg] /fhg}lts bnsf] :yfloTj ;bf ;d:ofk"0f{ ePsf]5 .

    • !((( sf] cfd lgjf{rgdf /fk|kf / Pdfn]af6 cnUuLPsf] -/fk|kf rGb_ / g]skf -dfn]_ n] #=# % / ^=$ % s'n dt NofP/ klg Ps l;6 ;Dd k|fKt ug{ ;s]gg\ .

    • !((!, !(($ / !((( df qmdz !@, !( / #@ j6f /fhg}lts bnx?n] Ps pDd]bjf/ klg lgjf{lrt ug{ ;s]gg\ .


    • lgjf{rgdf ljhoL bn / ;xefuL pDd]bjf/n] ;fdflhs tyf If]lqo ;+/rgfsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;s]gg,

    • /fhg}lts bnx?;Fu c;Dj4tf hfx]/ ug]{ :jtGq pDd]bjf/x?sf] ;+Vof qmdz @!(, #*% / ^## k'Ug'n] klg lgjf{rgsf] cnf]slkotf :ki6 x'‘G5 .

      kl/0ffdtM

      != 7'nf afx]s cGo /fhg}lts bndf ljt[i0ff k}bf u/]sf] b]lvG5,

      @= gofF bn tyf :jtGq pDd]bjf/L k|lt cfs{if0f a9\g] b]lvG5,

      #= plrt ;Ddfgsf] cefjdf c;+Vo pko'Qm /fhg}lts ljrf/ / pDd]bjf/nfO{ knofg ug]{ jftfj/0f yKb} hfG5 .


    A9l dt lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf kl 0ffd m
    a9L dt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] kl/0ffd M ;+/rgfsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;s]gg,

    • ljutaf6 k|of]u ul/Psf] a9L dt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] bf]]if :j?k g]kfn h:tf] !)! hft hflt, ;d'bfo, cNk;+Vos, wd{, ePsf] d'n'sdf clwsf+z To:tf ju{, hflt, ;d'bfox? b]zsf] /fhg}lts, cfly{s / ;fdflhs d'n k|jfxaf6 cnu x'g k'u] .

    • b]zsf] lgjf{rgx?df dtbftfsf] ;xeflutfdf ;Gtf]ifhgs a[l4 x'g ;s]g .

    • dtbftfx?sf] ;xeflutf @)!%, @)#^ -hgdt;+u|x_, @)#*, @)$# -/f=k+= lgjf{rg_, @)$*, @)%) -cfd lgjf{rg_ df qmdzM $@=*, ^^=(@, %@=@&, ^)=#*, ^%=!% / ^@=)! %u/L clwsQd ^& %dtbftfx?n] dfq dtbfg u/]sf] kfOG5 .


    • ;dfg'kflt / ldl>t lgjf{rg ckgfpg] hd{gLsf] %) jif{sf] Oltxf; x]g]{ xf] eg] pQm dtbfg 36Ldf &&=* % / a9Ldf (!=! % ;Dd kfOG5 .

    • clgjfo{ dtbfg ePsf] ci6«]lnofdf (% % ;fdfGotof dtbfg x'g] k|;+udf g]kfnsf] dtbftfx?df dtbfg k|lt pT;fx x'g g;Sg' cfkm}df k|0ffnLsf] g} bf]if dfGg' k5{ lsgsL a9Ldt k|0ffnL ckgfpg] a]nfotdf klg @))! sf] lgjf{rg kl/0ffdn] %(=$ % dfq dtbfg ePsf] b]lvG5 . hd{gLdf dtbfg k|ltzt

      !($( -&*=%_, !(%# -*&_, !(%& -*&=*_, !(^! -*&=(_, !(^% -*^=*_, !(^( -*^=&_, !(&@ -(!=!_, !(&^ -()=@_, !(*) -**=^_, !(*# -*(=!_, !(*& -*$=#_, !(() -&&=*_, !(($ -&(_ / !((* -*@=@_

      Federal Election in German, German Embassy, Washington DC, www.germany.info.org


    Lgzsif
    %= lgZsif{ x]g]{ xf] eg] pQm dtbfg 36Ldf &&=*

    lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] 9fFrfM

    • cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] ldl>t lgjf{rg dWo] a9L dt / ;dfg'kflts k|0ffnL ckgfpg] Joj:yf ul/ ;s]sf] x'Fbf s:tf] a9L dt k|0ffnL / ;dfg'kflt k|0ffnL ckgfpg] eGg] k|Zgdfq lg/f]k0f ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .

    • xfn k|of]udf /x]sf] &% lhNnfsf] ;+/rgf kl/jt{g u/L #÷$ dlxgfleq lgjf{rg ;DkGg ug{ c;Dej 5 / xfns} lhNnf oyfjt /fvL @)% lgjf{rg :yfgnfO{ ax':yfg lgjf{rgdf kl/jt{g ul/Pdf

    • Ps} lhNnfsf] cnu cnu lgjf{rg If]qsf] k|ltlglw aLrsf] åGb ;dfKt x'g] / ;f] lhNnfsf] ;Dk"0f{ dtbftf k|lt ;a} k|ltlglw ;dfg ?kdf lhDd]jf/ x'g] cj:yf >[hgf x'g ;S5 .

    • Ps lgjf{rg If]qaf6 ax' lgjf{rg If]qsf] Joj:yf ugf{;fy dtbftfx?df 5gf}6sf] a9L cj;/ k|fKt e} Psn :yfgdf eGbf a9L of]Uo pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 x'g ;S5 .



    • afFsL @@) -@)$ /fvL jkf}tLsf] g]tf x'g] tyf bn, /fHodf c/fhs x'g] cj:yfsf] cGt x'g ;S5 . ++ !^_ ;b:o g} ;dfg'kflt lgjf{rgsf nflu /fvL ;/sf/af6 dgf]lgt ug]{ u}|x| k|hftflGqs k|s[ofsf] cGt ug]{ .

    • /fHonfO{ g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL dlxnf, blnt, pTkLl8t, cflbjf;L hghflt, lk5l8Psf If]q / dw]zLx?sf] kf6L{ ;"rL tof/ ubf{ ljBdfg !)! hfltx? dWo] sd;'lawfk|fKthfltx?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg], .

    • ;Dk"0f{ b]z g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q x'Fbf ;"rL nfdf] x'g] / ;DaGwLt hflt, ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf ;a} dtbftfn] lrGg sl7gfO{ x'g] x'Fbf b]znfO{ ^÷& lgjf{rg If]q agfO{ r'gfj ug]{,

    • dtx?sf] u0fgf / pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 Psd'i6, s]lGb|s[t u/L dtbftfsf] :t/sf] sf/0f v'Nnf ;"rL Jojxfl/s gx'g] x'Fbf aGb ;"rL k|of]udf Nofpg] /

    • ;"rL agfpg k|o'Qm ju{, If]q, hfltx? aLr 5gf}6 ug{ pgLx?sf] Ps?ktfk"0f{ ;"rf+s agfpg]] .


    cGo /fvL jkf}tLsf] g]tf x'g] tyf bn, /fHodf c/fhs x'g] cj:yfsf] cGt x'g ;S5 .

    @=! b'j} k|s[ofaf6 lgjf{lrt k|ltlglw b]z / bn k|lt hjfkmb]xL agfpg hjfkmb]xLsf ;"rf+s ljsfz ug]{ .

    @=@ cfwf eGbf a9L hg;+Vof cf]u6]sf] dlxnfx?sf] Go"gtd ## % / a9Ldf hg;+Vofsf] cg'kftdf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] .

    @=# pDd]bjf/sf] tl:j/ dtkq / dt ;"rLdf clgjfo{ /fVg] .

    @=$ dtbftfsf] ;'ljwfsf nflu dtbfg s]Gb|sf] plrt Joj:yf ug]{ .

    @=% of]Uo dtbftfsf] clwsQd ;xeflutfsf nflu dtbfg lzIff, dtbftf ;'/Iff / dtkqsf] ;/nLs/0f ug]{ .

    @=^ cnu cnu dtkqsf] k|of]u ug]{ .

    @=& dtbftfsf] gfdfjnL tof/L j}1flgs 9+uaf6 u/L ;dodf g} dtbftfsf] If]qdf pknAw u/fpg] .


    @=* c:yfoL a;f]jf; u/]sf] If]qaf6 dtbfg ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] .

    @=( unt dtbfg pk/ s7f]/ lgoGq0f ug]{ .

    @=!) lgjf{rg ko{j]Ifs, kqsf/ / dfgj clwsf/ 6f]nLnfO{ lgjfw ?kdf dtbfg s]Gb|sf] ko{j]If0f ug{ lbg] .

    lgjf{rg cfof]u k|ltj]bg, @))! / sf]kgx]ug ;Dd]ng -!(()_ n] Joj:yfdf cfwfl/t .


    @=!! dtbfg s]Gb|, dtk]l6sf / dtu0fgf :ynsf] kof{Kt ;'/Iff k|aGw ug]{,

    @=!@ dtkqdf dtbfg clws[tsf] dtbfg s]Gb|df g} x:tfIf/ u/L dtbftfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] .

    @=!# dtbfg s]Gb| / cf;kf;df lge{otfk"j{s, :jtGqtfk"j{s / :jlj]j]sk"j{s uf]Ko dtbfg ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg] .

    @=!$ dtbftf / pDd]bjf/sf] kof{Kt ;'/Iff Joj:yf ug]{ .

    @=!% l;dfGt hflt / cNk ;+Vos hfltsf] nflu ;dfg'kflt lgjf{rgdf ljz]if dt sf]6f 5'6\ofpg] .

    @=!^ pDd]bjf/sf] cof]Uotf ;DaGwL cgfjZos Joj:yf x6fpg] .


    @=!& pDd]bjf/L lbg] / lgjf{rg k|rf/ k|;f/, cfd;ef, h'n'z / 5nkmn ljgf cj/f]w :jtGqtfk"j{s ug{ lbg'kg]{ .

    @=!* dtbftf tyf pDd]bjf/sf] ph'/L, lg0f{o pDd]bjf/ tyf dtbftfsf] clGtd gfdfjnL lgsfNg'k"j{ ug'{kg]{ / lgjf{rg ;DaGwL lg0f{o # dlxgf leq ug'{kg]{ .

    @=!( /fhg}lts bn btf{ ug{ xfn Jojl:yt !) xhf/ dtbftfsf] x:tfIf/ Joj:yf vf/]h u/L ;fdfGo 9+uaf6 bn btf{ ug{ lbg] .

    @=@) lgjf{rg ;+rfng ;DaGwL lgod tyf cfrf/ ;lxtf agfpg] / lgjf{rg ;DkGg ug{ cfjZos k|fljlws, k|zf;lgs / cfly{s Joj:yf k|efjsf/L ?kdf ug]{ .

    @=@! /fhg}lts bn tyf pDd]bjf/n] ug]{ lgjf{rgsf] vr{ Jojxfl/s agfpg] / s7f]/ kfngf u/fpg] .

    @=@@ /fHo / /fhg}lts bnjLr :ki6 ljefhg sfod u/L lgjf{rgdf cnu cnu x}l;otdf /xg clgjfo{ Joj:yf ug]{ .