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lgjf{rg k|0ffnL. k:tf]tf s\'df/ Oªgfd. != kl/ro M. -s_ lgjf{rgsf] k[i7e"dL -v_ g]kfndf lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/L -u_ lgjf{rgsf k|sf/ kl/ro -s_ Psn :yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rg ax\'dt lgjf{rg rqm lgjf{rg, tTsfn rqm lgjf{rg k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg

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lgjf rg k 0ffnl

lgjf{rg k|0ffnL

k:tf]tf

s\'df/ Oªgfd

kl ro m
!= kl/ro M

-s_ lgjf{rgsf] k[i7e"dL

-v_ g]kfndf lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/L

-u_ lgjf{rgsf k|sf/ kl/ro

-s_ Psn :yfg

  • a9Ldt lgjf{rg
  • ax\'dt lgjf{rg
  • rqm lgjf{rg, tTsfn rqm lgjf{rg
  • k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg

-v_ ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg

  • kf6L{ ;\'lr -v\'Nnf / aGb_
  • Psn ;+qmd0fLo dt
  • ldl>t ;b:o

-u_ cw{ ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg

  • ;dfgfGt/ dtbfg
  • Psn c;+qmd0fLo dt

-3_ c;dfg\'kflts ax\':yfg

  • Psd\'i7 dt
  • l;ldt dt

-3_ :jtGq / lgZkIf lgjf{rgsf tTjx?

slide3
@= lgjf{rgsf] cGt/fli6«o dfkb08 / gd\'gfof]Uo k|of]u

-s_ lgjf{rg clwsf/sf] Joj:yf / k|of]u

-!_ UDHR [email protected]_ CERD -#_ ICCPR -$_ CPRW -%_ CEDAW

-v_ ljZjdf ckgfOPsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] emns

-u_ gd\'gfof]Uo lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u

a9Ldt k|0ffnL M a]nfot / To;sf] kmfObf, a]kmfObf

;dfg\'kflts ld>Lt k|0ffnL M hd{gL / To;sf] kmfObf, a]kmfObf

k|fyldstfk"0f{ k|0ffnL M ci6]«lnof / To;sf] kmfObf, a]kmfObf

-3_ ljBdfg cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / lgjf{rg Joj:yf kl/ro

slide4
#= ;d:ofsf] ljj]rgf

-s_ ;d:ofx?

-v_ c;/x?

$= lgZsif{

kl ro m s lgjf rgsf k i7e ld m
!= kl/ro M -s_ lgjf{rgsf] k[i7e\'ld M
  • gful/snfO{ /fhlso x}l;ot lbnfpg / ;fj{hlgs hjfkmb]xLsf kbk"tL{ ug{, pQd k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ug{, cfkm\gf] efjgf k|ltljlDjt / k|ltlglwTj ug{ cfjZos kb{5 .
  • k|ltlglwx?sf] rogdf JolQmsf] /fHo, ;d\'bfo k|lt OdfGbf/ ;dk{0f xf];\ / Ifdtf, bIftf, cfjZostf afx]s cGo afXo tTjx?n] 5gf}6 sfo{df sd eGbf sd k|efj k\'¥ofcf]; eGg] wf/0ff /fvL cfOPsf] 5.dtbfg lj=l;= ^ ztfAbLdf Py]G;df z\'? ePsf] / !# cf}+ ztfAbLdf e]lg;sf] u|]6 sfpG;Lnsf] lgjf{rgdf k|of]u ePsf] .
  • !&&) df Jean Charles de Borda n] lgjf{rg k4lt ljsf; u/] . Psn ;+qmd0fLo dtljlw Carl Andrae, 8]gdfs{ (!*%^_ / Thomas Hare a]nfot (!*%&_, Andrew InglisClark, t:dgLof (!*(^_ x?n] lgjf{rg ljlw ljsf; u/L k|of]udf NofP .
lgjf rgsf dxtj
lgjf{rgsf] dxTj
  • clwstd / k|efjsf/L ;xeflutfsf nflu dtbftfx?nfO{ cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;\'lglZrt u/]/ dfq oyfy{k"0f{ kfg{ ;lsg] ePsf]n] .
  • dtåf/f k|ltlglwTj ug\'{ tyf u/fpg\' eGbf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] lgjf{rg ljlw cem dxTjsf] x\'\'gfn] .
  • ;a} ljrf/, ;d\'x, ln+u, hftL ;d]tsf] plrt k|ltlglwTj u/fO{ ;/sf/ / /fHosf] >f]t af8FkmfF8 ug]{ / sfg\'g lgdf{0f ug]{ x}l;ot k|bfg ug\'{ kg]{ eP/ .
v g kfndf lgjf rgsf lifkt hfgsf lm
-v_ g]kfndf lgjf{rgsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/LM
  • ls/fFtsfnsf] ækfg t\'DofËÆ, lnR5jLsfnsf] æk~rfnLÆ dNn sfnsf] æk~r ;Dd\'RroÆ, k"j{ zfxsfnsf] / /f0ffsfnsf] ædfGohg srx/LÆ .
  • !(*# a}zfv ! df bfª b]pv\'/Ldf, !(*& df pkTosfdf, !((@ df k"j{ @, # g+= / ;Kt/Lsf s]xL 7fpFdf :yflgo JolQmx?åf/f k|ltlglwsf] 5gf}6.
  • @))$ klxnf] ;+ljwfg xf] h;n] lgjf{rg cfof]usf] Joj:yf gu/L /fi6« ;efdf dgf]lgt / lgjf{rLt ;b:o /xg] Joj:yf u/]sf], cGtl/d zf;g ljwfg @))& sf] wf/f [email protected] -!_ [email protected]_ n] lgjf{rg cfof]u / lgjf{rg;Fu ;DaGwLt Joj:yf .
slide8
@))* df hgk|ltlglwTj P]g, @)!% df g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfgsf] kl/lwdf /xL h]i7 !(, @)!% df cfd r\'gfjsf] 3f]if0ff / kmfu\'g &, @)!% df !)( ;b:oLo k|ltlglw ;efsf] P]ltxfl;s ?kn] @! jif]{ jflns dt k|of]u u/L lgjf{rg ePsf] }+.
  • @)!( ;fnsf] ;+ljwfg, wf/f *& n] lgjf{rg ;DaGwL Joj:yf u/L !$) ;b:oLo /fli6«o k~rfotdf [email protected] :yfgdf / :yflgo txdf ufpF k~rfot, lhNnf k~rfot, gu/ k~rfot / c~rn k~rfotsf] lgjf{rg,
  • g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&, wf/f !)#, !)* ;Dd lgjf{rg cfof]u / lgjf{rg ;DaGwL P]gsf] Joj:yfdf uf=lj=;=, lh=lj=;= k|ltlglw ;ef / /fli6«o ;efsf] lgjf{rg Joj:yf qmlds ?kdf ul/Psf] .
  • :yflgo :jfot zf;g P]g @)%% /
  • g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# wf/f [email protected]*–!#) df lgjf{rg cfof]u ;d]t lgjf{rgsf ;DaGwdf Joj:yf u/]sf] .
slide9
ufpF k~rfot P]g @))^ b]lv :yflgo :jfot zf;g P]g @)%% / /fli6«o k~rfot -:gfts k|ltlglwTj, juL{o tyf Joj;flos k|ltlglwTj / c~rn ;ef k|ltlglwTj_ P]g @)!( / /f=k+=;= lgjf{rg P]g @)## b]lv k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rg P]g @)$& / To;aLr k|of]udf NofOPsf P]gåf/f tf]lsPsf] lgjf{rg k4ltx? Psn :yfg jf ax\':yfg a9L dt k4ltdf cfwfl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgjf{rgdf b/jf/, 7s\'/L, If]qL, afx\'g hfltx?sf] ;xhtf, ;Ddfgsf] dfWod ePsf] / lglZrt hflt æSnf]gÆ sf nflu l;ldt ePsf] b]lvG5 .
  • @)$& sf] kl/jt{g kl5 klg cfwf hg;+Vof ePsf dlxnf ju{ / ^) % eGbf a9L hg;+Vof ePsf] blnt, t/fO{ hfltx?sf] Hofb} sd k|ltlglwTj ePsf] / dt k|ltztsf] cfwf/df cNkdtåf/f ax\'dt pk/ a9LdtLo lg/+s\'ztf nflbPsf] 5 .
s psn yfg k lt kwf m
-s_ Psn :yfg k|lt:kwf{ M

Psn ;+;bLo :yfgsf nflu cjnDaLt o; lgjf{rg k|s[of cGt/ut lgDg k|s[ofx? k|rngdf kb{5g .

  • Plurality -a9L dt k|0ffnL_Plurality k|s[ofnfO{ æh;n] a9L NofpF5 To;n] lhTb5Æ -First past the post_ jf æljhoLs} ;a}Æ -Winner take all_ eGg] :jLsf/LG5 .
  • lhTg] pDd]bjf/n] NofPsf] dt v;]sf] s\'n dtsf] sDtLdf ax\'dt x\'G5 jf x\'Fb}g eg]/ dtnj ul/b}g .
  • ;a}eGbf a9L eg]sf] sltnfO{ dfGg] eGg] vf;} lglZrt ;+Vof geP/ æk|lt:kwL{x? dWo] ;a} eGbf a9LÆ ;Fu dfq ;DaGw /fVg] x\'Fbf æ3f]8r9L bf}8df hf] klxnf] x\'G5Æ -Horse Riding_ ;Fu t\'ngf ug{ ;lsG5 . ef/t, cd]l/sf, Sofg8f, nufot k"j{ j]nfotL pklgj]zL ljZjsf *@ d\'n\'sx?df ckgfOPsf] kfOG5 .
kmfobf
kmfObf

!=b\'O{ bnjLr 5gf}6sf] pQd cj;/ k|fKt x\'G5 .

@= Ps bnLo ax\'dtdf :yL/ ;/sf/sf] cfwf/ aGb5 .

#= dtbftf / k|ltlglw jLr uf9f ;DaGw sfod ub{5 .

$= sd ;fIf/ dtbftfsf nflu / dtu0fgfsf nflu ;a}eGbf ;/nx\'G5 .

%=of]Uo, bIf pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ug{ k|]l/t ub{5 / of]Uoaf6 zfl;t x\'g ;lsG5 .

^= k|ltlglwx?nfO{ lgjf{rg If]q k|lt a9L hjfkmb]xL agfp5 .

a kmfobf
a]kmfObf

!= cNkdtn] zf;g ub{5 .

@= ;a} dtsf] plrt sb/ / k|ltlglwTj sb/ x\'Fb}g, dt v]/ hfG5 . lgjf{rg b\'O{ bndf l;ldt x\'G5 .

#= dt ;+Vof / lgjf{rLt :yfgaLr ;DaGw /xFb}g .

$= cNk;+Vof, hflt, au{, ;d"bfosf] r\'gfj dfkm{t plrt k|ltlglwTj x\'Fb}g.

% ;\'/IfLt lgjf{rg If]q / ;\'lglZrt lhtsf nflu an, k};f, zlQm, kb, ;/sf/L >f]t / x}l;ot b\'?kof]u x\'g] clwstd ;+efjgf x\'G5 . If]qLo / lgjf{rg If]q d\'vL agfpF5 .

^= g/fd|f] pDd]bjf/ kf6L{sf] 5jLn] lhTg] / /fd|f] pDd]bjf/ kf6L{sf] abgfdLn] xfg{ ;Sg] x\'G5 .

&= a]sf/ dtk|lt pbf;Lg agfpF5 .

*= lgjf{rg If]q kl/jt{g eO{/xg ;S5 .

ax dt lgjf rg m run off voting rqm lgjf rg
ax\'dt lgjf{rg M Run Off Voting - rqm_ lgjf{rg

pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax\'dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df :ki6 ax\'dtsf] nflu af/Daf/ ul/g] lgjf{rg k|s[of -rqm dtbfg_ sf lgDg 9fFrfx? k|rngdf 5g\ .

  • Two Round System -b\'O{ rqm k|0ffnL_ M
  • o; Joj:yf cGt/ut b\'O{ k6s lgjf{rg x\'G5,
  • bf];|f] r/0fdf ;a}eGbf a9L dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/x? aLr s\'g} Ps pDd]bjf/sf] :ki6 ax\'dtsf nflu lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL u/fOG5 . cGo pDd]bjf/x? bf];|f] lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL gu/fOg] x\'Fbf o; lgjf{rgdf pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax\'dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sb5 lsgsL cl3Nnf] lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL cGo pDd]bjf/nfO{ nufOPsf] dt b\'O{ hgf k|lt:kwL{ pDd]bjf/x? aLr nufpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 .
slide15
k|]mGr /fli6«o ;ef -Assembly_, a|flhn, kf]r\'{un, ci6«Lof, lkmgn]08, 3fgfsf] /fi6«klto lgjf{rg / cd]l/sL ljleGg /fHox?df bf]xf]¥ofP/ lgjf{r ug]{ k|rng 5 . oBkL bf];|f] lgjf{rgdf b\'O{ pDd]bjf/x?aLr dtbfg ePsf] cj;:yfdf :ki6 ax\'dt cfjZos 7flgb}g . ;fk]IfLt ax\'dt g} pDd]bjf/ ljhoL x\'g k|ofKt dflgG5 . k|]mGr /fli6«o ;efsf] lgjf{rgdf [email protected]=% % eGbf sd dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/ pDd]bjf/sf] gfdaf6 cnu ul/G5 / afFsL pDd]bjf/x?nfO{ bf];|f] r/0fsf] lgjf{rgsf] nflu of]Uo dflgG5 . h:tf] ljd/ hd{gLsf] /fi6«kltsf] bf];|f] r/0fsf] lgjf{rgdf :ki6 ax\'dt cfjZos lyPg .
slide16
Exhaustive Ballot -emGeml6nf] dt_M
  • b\'O{ r/0f lgjf{rgdf s\'g} klg Ps pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax\'dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df ;a} eGbf sd dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ pDd]bfj/Laf6 x6fO{ s\'g} Ps pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax\'dt k|fKt gu/] ;Dd lgjf{rg u/L /xLG5 .
  • dtbftfx?n] w/} k6s dtflwsf/ k|of]u ug{ kg]{ x\'Fbf cfd lgjf{rgdf of] k|s[of Jojxfl/s dflgb}g .
  • a]nfotL n]j/ kf6L{n] cfkm\gf] bnaf6 of]Uo ;+;bLo lgjf{rg pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ of] k|s[of k|rngdf NofPsf] 5 .
instant run off voting irv ttsfn rqm dtbfg
Instant- run off voting (IRV)-tTsfn rqm dtbfg_
  • obL Psn pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6sf] nflu ePsf] lgjf{rgdf s\'g} klg pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax\'dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fKt k|fyldstf qmdsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ul/G5 . dtbfgs} qmddf k|To]s dtbftfn] k|fyldstf tf]sL dtbfg ub{5g\ / of] k|s[ofdf k6s k6s dtbfg ug{sf] abnfdf dtbfgdf JoQm k|fyldstfn] pDd]bjf/ 5fGg k6s k6s dtkqsf] uGtL ul/G5 .
  • k|To]s u0fgfdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt dtkqdf JoQm k|fyldstfsf] bf];|f], t];|f] k|fyldstfsf pDd]bjf/nfO{ :tfgft/0f ul/G5 . s\'g} pDd]bjf/n] :ki6 ax\'dt k|fKt gu/];Dd of] k|s[of bf]xf]¥ofOG5 .
slide18
ci6]«lnofsf] k|ltlglw ;ef, lkmhLsf] k|ltlglw ;ef, >Ln+sf, cfo/n}08sf] /fi6«klt / kfk\'cf Go\'lugLsf] /fli6«o ;ef lgjf{rgdf ckgfOPsf] 5 .
  • Ps} kl/0ffd eP klg ci6]«lnofdf k|yfldstfqmdsf] dtbfg -Preferential Voting_ / a]nfot tyf cfo/n}08df j}snKtLs dtbfg -Alternative Vote_ / cd]l/sfdf o;nfO{ qmdR5f dtbfg -Ranked Choice Voting_ gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] 5 . ;a}eGbf a9L OR5Lt pDd]bjf/ / ;f]xL OR5f cg\';f/sf] qmd @, # åf/f qmlds tx -Rank_ OR5f dtdf JoQm x\'g] x\'G5 .

k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M #)

slide19
;a}eGbf sd dt eP lghnfO{ k|fKt dt k|fyldstfsf] qmddf x:tfGt/0f x\'g] x\'Fbf lghsf] gfd pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLaf6 x6fO bf];|f] k6s u0fgf ul/Fbf ;"rLaf6 x6fOPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dt u0fgf gu/L lghkl5sf] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/sf] dfq dt u0fgf ul/G5 .
  • emGem6Lnf] dtbfgsf] ljsNksf] ?kdf ckgfOPsf] of] k|s[ofdf ;Dk"0f{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ qmdfg\';f/ pNn]v ul/g\' kg]{ x\'Fbf k"0f{ k|fylds dtbfg klg elgG5 . w]/} pDd]bjf/ ePsf] cj:yfdf dtbftfn] cfkm\'v\'zL k|fyldstf tf]Sg] x\'Fbf Donkey Voting sf] 8/ x\'g ;S5 .
kmfo bf
kmfO{bf

!= sDtLdf ax\'dtsf] k|ltlglw agfpF5 .

@= bf]>f] r/0fsf] dtbfg a9L ;\'lglZrt -/fd|f] dWo] /fd|f] 5fGg] cj;/_ x\'G5 .

#= qmd tf]Sg gkg]{ x\'Fbf ;/n x\'G5 .

$= tTsfn rqmdf bf]>f] dtbfg geO{ dtbftfn] tf]s]sf] qmdsf] u0fgf qmdzM ul/g] x\'Fbf vr{ sd x\'G5 .

a kmfo bf
a]kmfO{bf

!= lgjf{rg emGeml6nf] / vlr{nf] x\'G5 .

@= lgjf{rg kl/0ffd l9nf] k|fKt x\'g] x\'Fbf c:yL/tf x\'g] / dtbftf plrt k|ltlglwsf] cefjdf pbfl;g x\'G5 .

#= a9Ldtsf] cGo a]kmfObf oyfjt /xG5 .

$= tTsfn rqmdf k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg ;fdfGo dtbftfnfO{ ;d:of x\'G5 .

k fyldstf qmdk 0f dtbfg m
k|fyldstf qmdk"0f{ dtbfg M
  • dtbftfsf] k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ ;lsg],
  • Psn pDd]bjf/ ax\'dt lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf nflu k|o\'Qm x\'g] .
  • o; lgjf{rgdf k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg qmd g+= qmd gfd, qmd lrGx cfbL 9fFrf dtkqdf /fVg ;lsG5 .
  • k|fyldstfqmdk\'0f{ lgjf{rgdf dtbftfn] lgjf{rgdf qmd -Rank_ / :t/ -Rate_ tf]sg / dtåf/f ljsNk /fVg ;lsg] x\'Fbf o;nfO{ j}sNkLs dt k|0ffnL klg elgG5 .
  • ci6«]lnof, gf}?, kfk\'jfGo\'lugL -!(^$–!(&%_, lkmhL -!(((_ df k|of]u .
kmfo bf1
kmfO{bf

!= bf]>f], t]>f] k|fyldstfn] dtbftfsf] dtsf] k"0f{ ;Ddfg ub{5 .

@= cfkm\gf] bn afx]s cGo bnnfO{ dt lbFbf bnx?aLr ;f}xfb{tf a9fpg / v08Lt ;dfhdf Pstf z\'qsf] sfd ub{5 .

#= t\'?Gt} r\'gfj ubf{sf] emGem6 / vr{ cGt u/]/ klg ;dfg kl/0ffd k|bfg ub{5 .

$= of]Uo pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf]6 x\'g] / ef}uf]lns c;dfgtf cGTo ub{5 .

%= k|ltlglw / pDd]bjf/jLr ;f}xfb{ ;DaGw x\'G5 .

a kmfo bf1
a]kmfO{bf

!= k|fyldstf tf]Sg ;fIf/ / lzlIft geP ;Dej x\'Fb}g .

@= Psn :yfg lgjf{rgdf c;dfg\'kflts kl/0ffdsf] 8/ x\'G5 .

#= dtu0fgf emGeml6nf] x\'G5 .

$= ljeflht ;dfhsf nflu pko\'Qm eP klg cGo dtbftfsf] qmdf+ssf] ;DaGwn] ;f]r]sf] ;d"bfosf] k|ltlglwTj x\'g ;Qm}g .

v dfg kflts k ltlglwtj lgjf rg k s of m
-v_ ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg k|s[of M
  • ;Dk"0f{ dtsf] ;dfg ;b\'kof]u ub}{ hg;+Vofsf] cg\'kftdf k|ltlglwx?sf] 5gf}6 ug{ k|of]u x\'g] k"0f{ k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg k|s[of,
  • dt;+Vofsf] cg\'kftdf k|ltlglwx?sf] ;+Vof to x\'gfn] ;fgf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf ;d\'bfo, ju{, Joj;foL, hftLsf] ;d]t ;f]xL ?kdf k|ltlglwTj x\'g],
  • k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu cfjZos dt æsf]6fÆ / pDd]bjf/L k|s[of cfjZostf cg\';f/ lgwf{/0f x\'g],
  • ax\'dt lgjf{rg k|s[of cjnDag ug]{ b]zx?sf] t\'ngfdf of] k|ltlglwTj k|s[of a9L nf]slk|o ePsf],
  • a]nfot nufot ;Dk"0f{ o\'/f]lkog o\'lgogsf ;b:o /fi6«af6 o\'/f]lkog ;+;bsf] k|ltlglwTj oxL k|s[of dfkm{t ePsf],
slide26
a]nfotsf] :s6L; ;+;b / j]n; /fli6«o ;ef, Sofg8fsf kfFr k|fGtx? la|l6z sf]nDaLof, cf]G6f/Lcf], sr\'j]s, lk|G; O8jf8{ 6fk\' / Go" jg{;jLsdf of] lgjf{rgnfO{ ckgfpg k|of; yflnPsf] 5,
  • Go\'lhn}08, cd]l/sL /fHo÷dxfgu/x? Go"cf]s{, SofDa|Lh, Dof;fRr\'P6;\, OnLg;\ cfbLdf ;d]t k|of]udf /x]sf,]
  • ;fdflhs, cfly{s, /fhg}lts ?kn] k5f8L k/]sf / hflto cNk;+Vos tyf l;dfGt ;d\'bfosf nflu of] k|s[of k|efjsf/L aGb} uPsf],
  • hd{gL, pQ/ k"jL{ o\'/f]lkog d\'n\'sx?df cToflws nf]slk|o,
  • k|mfG;n] of] k|s[ofnfO{ k|hftflGqs dfGotf eGbf /fhg}lts k"jf{u|xsf sf/0f k|of]udf Nofpg] / x6fpg] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . bf];|f] ljZjo\'4sf] cGt k|Zrft sDo\'lgi6 pDd]bjf/nfO{ x6fpg of] k|s[of ckgfP klg !(%* df rfN;{ b]ufnn] ax\'dt k|s[of nfu\' u/] . !(*# sf] lgjf{rgdf cfkm\gf] dtsf] ;\'/Iff ug{ ;f];nLi6x?n] k\'gM ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|s[of ckgfP klg pQm lgjf{rgdf pgLx?n] ax\'dt u\'dfP kl5 o:sf] k|of]u cGt ePsf] 5 .
  • ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj lgjf{rg k|s[ofsf ljleGg 9fFrfx? dWo] lgDg 9fFrfx? a9L k|rngdf 5g\ M
kf6l rl ljlw m
kf6L{ ;"rL ljlw M
  • kf6L{ ;"rL ;dfg\'kflt k|ltlglwTj k|s[of cd]l/sf afx]s ljZje/ nf]slk|o 5 . ;DaGwLt /fhg}lts bnx?n] to u/]sf] pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rLsf] k|fyldstf qmd / k|fKt dtsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/ lgjf{rg ul/G5 .
  • dtbftfx?n] /fhg}lts bnx?sf] d"Nof+sgsf] cfwf/df cfkm\gf] dt k|of]u ub{5g\ .
  • dtbftfn] Oh/fondf em} k|ToIf /fhg}lts bnnfO{ dt lbg jf 6sL{ / yfOn}08df em} pDd]bjf/ dfkm{t kf6L{df dt lbg klg ;Sb5g\ .

/fhg}lts bn ;"rL ljlwsf 9fFrf -^@ b]z_

!= v\'Nnf ;"rL M o; ljlwdf r\'gfjdf ;xefuL /fhg}lts bnx?n] pknAw u/fPsf] pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rL dtkqdf pNn]v ul/G5 . dtbftfn] ;"rLsf pDd]bjf/x? cfjZos ;+Vofdf 5gf}6 ub{5g\ / Ps eGbf a9L pDd]bjf/ ePsf] cj:yfdf k|fyldstf qmd klg tf]Sg ;Sb5g\ / k|fyldstf qmd ;f]xL bnsf] ;"rLdf l;ldt x\'g] rng 5 .

  • g]b/n}08, lkmgn}08n] of] ljlw ckgfPsf] 5 .
  • Hofb} nfdf] ;"rL / w]/} /fhg}lts bnx?sf] ;xeflutf ePsf] cj:yfdf v\'Nnf ;"rL cJojxfl/s x\'g ;Sb5 .
@ agb rl m
@= aGb ;"rL M
  • lgjf{rgdf bnn] g} pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rL qmd tf]s]sf] x\'Fbf dtbftfnfO{ pDd]bjf/sf] k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg gkfpg] u/L ;"rL aGb ul/Psf] x\'G5 .
  • dtbftfn] ;f]em} /fhg}lts bnnfO{ dt nufpg] aGb ;"rL k|s[of Oh/fonsf] ;Dk"0f{ lgjf{rg If]qx?df / o\'/f]lkog o\'lgogsf] ;+;bsf] ;f+;bx?sf] lgjf{rgdf / :k]g, kf]r\'un, Oh/fon, ci6«Lof, lkmgNof08, kf]n}08, :sfg8]lgleog d\'n\'s, Go\'hLn}08, hd{g / cd]l/sfn] ckgfPsf] 5 .
  • k|fKt dtsf] cfwf/df /fhg}lts ;"rL k|s[of dfkm{t ul/g] k|ltlglwTj ;+Vof ;DaGwLt bnn] k|fKt u/]sf] dt a/fa/ x\'G5 . h:tf] !) % dt = !) % k|ltlglw . k|ltlglwx?sf] ;+Vof eg] k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu cfjZos dt æsf]6fÆ df e/ ub{5 .
  • /fhg}lts bn leq} ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] ljleGg cjwf/0ffx? k|rngdf 5g\ .
  • sf]6fsf] cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/L a9L ePsf] dt bf];|f] r/0fdf u0fgf u/L ;a} eGbf a9L dt k|fKt pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df afFsL l;6sf nflu lgjf{rLt u/fOG5 .
rl ljlwsf kmfo bf
;"rL ljlwsf kmfO{bf

!= cNk;+Vos hflt, wd{, efiff, au{, ;d"bfox?sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg pkof]uL x\'G5 .

@= bnLo Joj:yf k"0f{ :yflkt u/fpF5 .

#= bn / ljljw au{ ;d"bfo aLr 3lgi6tf a9fpF5 .

$= dtsf] cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] x\'Fbf ;+;bdf ;a}sf] ;xeflutf x\'g ;S5 .

%= pDd]bjf/ ;"rLsf] cfwf/df ;Dk"0f{ dtbftfx? dtbfg k|lt ;r]t x\'G5g\ .

^= If]lqotfjfb cGt ug{ / bnx?aLr ;Qf ;fem]bf/Lsf] k|j{3g ub{5 .

&= kf6L{nfO{ k|fKt dtsf] k"0f{ ;b"kof]u x\'g] ;Defjgf x\'G5 .

*= v\'Nnf kf6L{ ;"rLdf dtbftfn] pDd]bjf/sf] qmd tf]Sg klg ;S5g\ .

rl ljlwsf a kmfo bf
;"rL ljlwsf a]kmfO{bf

!= ;+o\'Qm ;/sf/sf] ;Defjgf aGgfn] ;/sf/ sdhf]/ x\'g ;S5 .

@= dtbftf / pDd]bjf/ aLr dha\'b ;DaGw /xFb}g .

#= ;"rL tof/ ug{ kf/bzL{ dfkb08 geP kf6L{sf] ck|hftflGqs lg/+s\'ztf a9\g ;S5 .

$= ;fgf If]q / Ps :yfgsf nflu o:sf] k|of]u x\'g ;Qm}g .

%= ;fgf bnn] klg k|ltlglwTj ug]{ ePsf] x\'Fbf bnsf] 6\'lqmg] qmd a9g ;S5 .

^= v\'Nnf ;"rLdf ;fdfGo dtbftfn] k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg ;Sb}gg\ .

&= 7"nf] lgjf{rg If]qdf ;a} dtbftfn] ;"rLsf dtbftf glrGg] x\'Fbf kf6L{n] unt pDd]bjf/ agfpg klg ;Sg] x\'G5

ldl t b o dfg kflts k ltlglwtj m
ldl>t ;b:o ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj M
  • of] k|s[ofn] Psn ;+Vof ax\'dt lgjf{rg dfkm{t cfwf / cfwf kf6L{ ;"rL dfkm{t lgjf{rg ul/G5 .
  • 7"nf] hg;+Vof, ef}uf]lns, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;fF:s[lts, hflto, wfld{s ljljwtf ePsf] d\'n\'sx?df :yflgo tyf /fli6«o :t/sf] k|ltlglwTjsf nflu of] k|s[of k|efjk"0f{ dflgG5 .
  • af]lnleof -k|ltlglw ;ef_, Dofs;Lsf], n];f]yf], Go"hLn}08, hd{gL -;+3Lo tNnf] ;bg_ , a]nfot -:s6n}08 / j]N;_[, n];f]yf] -tNnf] ;bg_ d]S;Lsf] -tNnf] ;bg_ Go"lhn}08 -k|ltlglw ;ef_ nufot ljZjsf] w]/} d\'n\'sx?n] of] k|s[of ckgfPsf 5g\ . vf; u/L Go"hLn}08n] !(() kl5 / x+u]/Ln] of] ljlwnfO{ plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] pQd ljsNk dfg]sf] b]lvG5 .
slide32
dtbftfx?n] b\'O{ dtkqsf] k|of]u ub{5g\, Pp6f lgjf{rg If]q k|ltlglwsf nflu / bf];|f] /fhg}lts bnsf] nflu .
  • hd{gLdf Pp6} dtkqnfO{ b\'j} k|of]hgsf nflu k|of]u ul/G5 / pDd]bjf/sf] dt a/fa/ kf6L{n] cfkm\gf] dt kfPsf] dflgG5 . ;fdfGotof lgjf{rg If]q / kf6L{ ;"rLdf kg]{ u/L bf]xf]/f] pDd]bjf/L agfOb}g .
  • of] k|0ffnLsf ljleGg k|of]ux?dWo] x+u]/Ldf ax\'dt ljlw ckgfOPsf] 5 .
  • e]g]h\'Pnfdf *& :yfg a9Ldt / !% :yfg ;dfg\'kflt k|ltlglwTjsf nflu ;"rL dfkm{t d]S;Lsf]sf] #)) :yfgdf a9Ldt / @)) :yfg ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj ;\'rLsf nflu 5\'6\ofO{Psf] 5 .
kmfo bfx
kmfO{bfx?

!= ;a} dtsf] ;b\'kof]u x\'G5 .

@= /fli6«o If]q / lgjf{rg If]q aLr ;dGjo / ;Gt\'ng x\'G5 .

#= ef}uf]lns, hflto / ;fd"bfosf] plrt k|ltlglwTj x\'G5 .

a]kmfO{bfx?

!= kf6L{ ;"rLsf cju\'0fx? ;a} g} x\'G5g\ .

psn qmd0flo dt
Psn ;+qmd0fLo dt
  • dtsf] clwstd pkof]u u/L dtbftfx?sf] efjgf adf]lhdsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ / pDd]bjf/ s]lGb|t eO{ lgjf{rg ug{ ;lsof]; egL of] ljlw k|rngdf NofOPsf] xf] .
  • dtsf] ;b\'kof]u / k|ltlglwTjsf] cfwf/df nf]slk|o of] lgjf{rg k|s[of ljZjsf] w]/} b]zx?n] k|of]udf NofPsf 5g\ .
  • @))^ sf] lgjf{rgdf pQ/L cfo/n}08 / u0ftGq, ci6«]lnof, Go"lhn}08, dfN6fx?n] k|of]udf NofPsf] of] ljlwdf pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fyldstfqmdsf] cfwf/df dt lbOG5 . :s6n}08sf] lgjf{rg @))& / cd]l/sL gu/ -sofDa|Lh, Dof;fr\'P6;_ sf] lgjf{rg @))( df ckgfpg] tof/L ePsf] b]lvG5 .

Devised by Carl Andrae, Denmark in 1985, Thomas Hare, England in 1857, Promoted by Andrew Inglis Clark.

slide37
ci6«]lnofdf of] ljlwnfO{ "Hare-Clark System" / US df "Choice Voting" sf gfdaf6 hflgG5 .;a} dtkq Ps} :yfgdf /flvG5 / dtbftfsf] k|fyldstf qmdsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/x?sf] qmdfÍ tf]Sg] ul/G5 .

sf]6f M Psn ;+qmd0fLo dtnfO{ pDd]bjf/ lgjf{rLt ug{ ;Sg] Go"gtd dt jf sf]6f lgwf{/0f u/L dt x:tfGt/0f ul/b} nluG5 . sf]6f lgwf{/0f ug]{ ljlwx? dWo] ;a} eGbf nf]slk|o 8\'k sf]6f lgDg k|s[ofåf/f ul/G5 .

dt

l;6 ;+Vof + !

pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ cfjZos Go"gtd dt k|fKt gePdf jf a9L ePdf To:tf dt k|fyldstf qmdsf csf]{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ x:tfGQ/0f xFb} hfG5 . of] k|s[of sf]6f adf]lhdsf ;Dk"0f{ k|ltlglwx?sf] 5gf}6 geP;Dd hf/L /xG5 .

slide38
dt u0fgfdf cfjZos sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt k|fKt pDd]bjf/sf] gfd x6fOG5 / ;f] dt ;DefJo pDd]bjf/sf] dtdf u0fgf u/L k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 . a9L ePsf] dt k\'gM bf];|f] qmdsf] pDd]bjf/df x:tfGt/0f u/Lbf sf]6f k|fKt gePdf ;a} eGbf sd dt ePsf] csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] dt ;d]t u0fgf u/L sf]6f k\'/f ul/G5 / k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

k|fyldstf qmd cg\';f/ dtsf] u0fgf ug{ emGeml6nf] eP klg sDKo"6/ k|ljlwaf6 ;xh} u0fgf ug{ ;lsG5 . cfo/n}08, ci6]«lnof, Go"hLn}08, -:yflgo lgsfo lgjf{rg_ df k|of]u . Thomas Hare åf/f !*%& df ljsl;t / ;dsfnLg ;fyL John Styuart Mill / Walter Bagehot åf/f k|;+zLt Hare Model klg nf]slk|o 5 .

kmfo bfx1
kmfO{bfx?

!= dtsf] cg\'kftdf pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 x\'G5 .

@= ef}uf]lns, hflto, alu{o / ;dfg\'kftLs x\'G5 . ldlnh\'nL ;/sf/sf] jftfj/0f agfpF5 .

#= of] z\'Id k|hftflGqs ljlw dflgG5 .

$= o:df dtsf] Go"g ckdfg x\'G5 .

a kmfo bfx
a]kmfO{bfx?

!= ;fdfGo / ;fIf/ gePsf dtbftfx?df o:sf] plrt k|of]u ug{ ;lsGg .

@= dtbfg / dtkqsf] u0fgf ljlw hl6n x\'G5 .

#= o:sf] clt k|of]un] PsbnLo :yL/ ;/sf/sf] cGt ub{5 .

$= hl6n dt k|of]u ljlwsf] sf/0f dt ab/sf] cg\'kft a9g ;S5 .

cw dfg kflts m
cw{ ;dfg\'kflts M

cw{ ;dfg\'kfltssf k|sf/x?

;dfgfGt/ dtbfg M

o; ljlwdf dtbftfn] b\'O{ cnu cnu lgjf{rgsf nflu cnu cnu k|s[of ;dfgfGt/ ckgfO{ k|ltlglwsf] 5gf}6 ul/G5 .

a9Ldt lgjf{rg ljlw / ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj ;dfgfGt/ dtbfgdf ldl>t 9+uaf6 k|of]u ul/G5 . ctM Psn :yfg ;+;bLo lgjf{rgsf nflu ax\'dt lgjf{rg ljlw / afFsL bnx?n] k|fKt u/]sf] dtsf] cfwf/df ;"rL tof/ ul/ k|ltlglwTj u/fOG5 . cNjflgof, cd]{lgof, ch/j}hfg, Sofd?g, hlh{of, Ujf6]dfnf, hfkfg, blIf0f sf]l/of, n\'y\'lgof, DofS;Lsf], gfOh/, Kofn]:6fOg, lkmlnlkG;, ;]g]un, l;l;nL, ;f]dflnof, tfOjfg, 6o\'lgl;of, sf]:6fl/sfn] of] ljlw cknDag u/]sf 5g . o;nfO{ ldl>t lgjf{rg ljlw klg elgG5 .

kmfo bfx2
kmfO{bfx?

!= 7"nf bnx? a9L dt ljlw dfkm{t / ;fgf bn, cNk;+Vos, ;d"bfosf k|ltlglw ;dfg\'kflts lgjf{rg dfkm{t lgjf{rLt x\'g ;S5g\ . t/ ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rgsf] :yfg a9L x\'g\' kb{5 .

@= b\'O{ cnu dtkq4f/f dtbftf :yfgLo / /fli6«o :t/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;Qm5 .

#= kf6L{ ;"rLdf em} kf6L{ v08Ls/0fsf] ult sd x\'G5 .

a kmfo bfx1
a]kmfO{bfx?

!= lgjf{rg If]qsf k|ltlglwsf] lgjf{rg If]q;Fu / ;dfg"kftLs k|ltlglwsf] bn;Fu dfq a9L 3lgi6tf /xG5 .

@= ;dfg"kflts k|0ffnL eP/ klg lglZrt k|ltzt k|fKt gug]{ bnn] k|ltlglwTj k|fKt ub}{g .

#= o:sf] k|of]u s]xL hl6n x\'Fbf dtbftfdf cGof]ntf a9fpF5 .

psn c qmd0flo dt
Psn c;+qmd0fLo dt

ax\':yfg lgjf{rg If]qdf of] ljlw k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG5 . h\'g Psn ;+qmdl0fo eGbf km/s 5 . o;df klg dtbftfnfO{ Pp6} dt k|fKt x\'G5 . ;fdfGotof Ps} lgjf{rg If]qsf w]/} :yfgdf Ps} k6L{sf w]/} pDd]4f/x?sf] 5gf}6 ubf{ of] lalw ckgfO{G5 . of] ljlw k|of]u u/L k|To]s pDd]4f/n] k|fKtu/]sf] dtsf] cfwf/df pDd]4f/ lahlo x\'G5 . t/ Ps pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fKt dt ;f]xL kf6L{sf] csf]{ s\'g} pDd]4jf/nfO{ x:tfGt/0f x\'Fb}g .

slide46
?; / c08f]/fdf cfwf :yfg, ckmuflg:tfg / hf]8{gsf] tNnf], OG8f]g]l;of / yfOn}08sf] dflyNnf] ;bg, / k|6f]l/sf], tfOjfg, hfkfg, b=sf]l/ofdf k|of]u NofOPsf] 5 .
  • @)$* cl3 g]kfnsf] ;+;bLo lgjf{rgdfk|of]u u/]sf], 6\o\'lgl;ofdf ** % Psd\'i7 / [email protected] % ;\'rL ;dfg\'kflts, ;f]dflnof (@ % ;dfg\'kflts / * % a9L dt, hfkfgdf ^) % a9L dt / $) % ;"rL ;dfg\'kflts k|of]udf 5g\ .
kmfo bfx3
kmfO{bfx?

!= Ps} lgjf{rg If]qdf a9L :yfgsf] lgjf{rg x\'Fbf ;f] :yfgsf pDd]bjf/ aLr ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj x\'g;S5 .

@= lgjf{rg / u0fgf ljlw ;/n x\'G5 .

#= bnx? lgjf{rg If]qdf a9L ;+u7Lt x\'g ;S5g\ .

a kmfo bfx2
a]kmfO{bfx?

!= Go"g k|ltztsf ?kdf b]ze/ 5l/Psf dtbftfsf nflu of] b\'ef{Uok"0f{ ljlw x\'G5 .

@= Ps dtsf] afWotfn] k|ofKt ljsNk dtbftfn] k|fKt ug{ ;Qm}g .

#= Ps} bn leq k|lt:kwf{ / k|lt4lG4tf a9fpF5 .

$= ;a} dt pkof]uL x\'g g;sL v]/ hfG5 .

%= kf6L{sf] ks8 adf]lhd pDd]bjf/ gePdf kf6L{sf] ;+efjLt xf/ / k|ltlglwTjsf] cGo x\'G5 .

non propertional multi seat c dfg kflt ax yfg lgjf rg
Non Propertional Multi seat -c;dfg\'kflt ax\':yfg_ lgjf{rg

o; ljlwdf lgDg 9fFrfx? k|rngdf 5g\

Block Voting -Psd\'i6 dt_

  • w]/} l;6 ePsf] Ps} lgjf{rg If]qaf6 w]/} pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ug{ Block Vote k|of]u ul/G5 . Block Vote sf] tl/sf dtkqsf] 9fFrf cg\';f/ km/s km/s x\'g ;S5 .
  • a9L dt Psd\'i7 k|s[of:h\'g If]qdf hlt pDd]bjf/ 5g\ Tolt dt dtbftfx?nfO{ k|fKt x\'G5 / w]/} dt k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/ ljhoL x\'G5 .
  • k|yfldstfk"0f{ Psd\'i6 k|s[of: of] ljlwdf k|To]s dtbftfn] dtkqdf tf]s]sf] qmd cg\';f/ yf]/} dtk|fKt ug]{nfO{ qmdzM x6fO{ k|fyldstfsf dtx? ;d]t u0fgf u/L ax\'dt geP ;Dd u0fgf ul/G5 .
psd i7 dt
Psd\'i7 dt
  • ax":yfg lgjf{rg If]qdf pDd]bjf/sf] ;+Vof a/fa/ dtbftfnfO{ dt lbg kfpF5g . pQm dt lghsf] O{R5f cg\';f/ Ps pDd]bjf/nfO{ ;a} jf cGo pDd]bjf/nfO{ klg lbg ;S5g . a9L dt k|fKt ug]{ JolQm lahoL x\'G5 .

k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M !%

kmfO{bfx?

!= pDd]bjf/sf] Ifdtf, u\'0fsf] cfwf/df dt lbg ;lsG5 .

@= dtbftfdf a9L clwsf/ x\'G5 .

a]kmfO{bf

!= Ps} bnsf w]/} pDd]bjf/ ePdf a9L dt k|0ffnLsf cju\'0f oxfF k\'g/fj[Q x\'G5 / pDd]bjf/n] xfb{5 .

bnlo psd i7
bnLo Psd\'i7

of] k|fyldstfk"0f{ Psd\'i6 / bnLo Psd\'i6 u/L k|of]udf km/s ePsf] kfO{G5 . bnLo Psd\'i7df dt bnn] kfpF5 / a9L dt k|fKt ug]{ bnn] p7fPsf ;j} pDd]bjf/ ljhoL x\'G5g\ .

k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M !%

kmfO{bfx?

!= of] ljlw ;/n x\'G5 .

@= of] ljlwdf hflt, efiff, au{ / ;d"bfosf] ;Gt\'n agfpg ;S5 .

a]kmfO{bf

!= ;fdfGo ax\'dtaf6 a9L :yfg k|fKt ug]{ x\'Fbf a9L dtsf] bf]if o:df sfod x\'G5 . -!((! df ^!Ü dtn] (%Ü :yfg lht]sf] l;+ufk\'/_

slide52
Kofnf:6fOg, ax/fog, cfOe/L sf]i6, klZrdL ;f]dfcf], j/d\'8f, lkmhL, nf]cf];, yfOn}08, s\'j]t, dfNbLE;, lkmlnlkG;, df]l/;;, o\' P; -hhL{of_, ci6]«]lnof -!()!–!(!*_, kf]Nof08 -l;g]6 lgjf{rg_ Knfn]i6fOg -;+;b_, a]NhLodsf b\'j} ;bg -xfn k|of]udf 5}g_ df o:sf] k|of]u ePsf] kfO{5 .
limited voting l ldt dtbfg
Limited Voting-l;ldt dtbfg_
    • lgjf{rg If]qsf] cg\'kftdf cfkmgf] dtbftf sd eP lhTg ;Sg] jf cfkmgf] hlt ;a} dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] JolQm pDd]4f/ agfO{5 . dtbftfn] klg w]/} :yfgx? ePklg yf]/} pDd]4f/nfO{ dtbfg ub{5g . kmnt cNk;+Vofsf ;d\'bfo jf dtbftfnfO{ k|ltlglwTj u/fpg yk ;/ntf x\'G5 . h:tf] ls lgjf{rg If]qaf6 5 hgf pDd]4jf/ lgjf{rg ug{ ;lsg] eP lhTd] ul/ # hgfnfO{ dfq dt lbg ;lsg] u/L /f]s nufpg ;S5 . h\'g lgjf{rg a9L dtsf] cfwf/df 3f]lift x\'G5 .
  • l;6 ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dtflwsf/ glbO{ l;ldt ugf{n] ;fdfGo ax\'dt k|s[of ckgfpg] xf] eg] lhTg ;Sg] pDd]4f/sf] dt afFl8O{ xfg{ ;S5 . DofS;Lsf], af]lnleof / ch]{G6Lgfsf] l;g]6 / af]lnleofsf] ;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\ lgjf{rg @))^ df of] ljlw lgjf{rgsf] nflu ckgfPsf] kfOG5 .

k|of]u ug]{ b]zsf] ;+Vof M !%

kmfo bfx4
kmfO{bfx?

!= yf]/} kf6L{ dtaf6 klg pDd]bjf/ lhtfpg ;lsG5 .

@= ePsf] dtsf] ;b\'kof]u x\'G5 .

#= dtbftf;Fu ;f}xfb{ / ;f]emf] ;DaGw aGb5 .

a]kmfO{bfx?

!= cNk;+Vos / ax\' hflt ;dfhdf o:n] plrt k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;Qm}g .

@= cfkm"nfO{ k|fKt l;6sf] ;b\'kof]usf] k|of; g} x\'Fb}g .

lgzkif jtgq lgjf rgsf rf x
lgZkIf / :jtGq lgjf{rgsf ;"rfÍx?
  • lgjf{rg lsg / s;/L < sf] k|Zgn] lgjf{rgsf] ljlzi6 u\'0fx? k|i6 ub{5 . ælgjf{rgÆ nfO{ æ5gf}6Æ df l;ldt ubf{ a9L ck|hftflGqs x\'G5 .
  • :jtGq / :jR5 lgjf{rgsf] ;fy{stf dtbftf / Joj:yf jLrsf] ;DaGwåf/f ljZn]if0f ug{ h?/L x\'G5 .
  • dtbftfn] cfˆgf] x}l;ot b]vfP/ zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;+/rgfdf kx\'Fr /fVg ;Sg] hgd\'vL lgjf{rg cfjZos x\'G5 . lsgsL lgjf{rgsf d\'Vo gfosx? dtbftf / pDd]bjf/ x\'g\ .
slide57
lgjf{rgsf] ;"rfÍn] sDtLdf lgDg dfGotf :jLsf/ ug\'{ kb{5
  • gful/s + pDd]bjf/ Ö x}l;ot Ù ;fj{ef}d,
  • :jtGqtf / ;Ifdtf,
  • ;dfgtf Ù hft, j0f{, lnË, wd{, ju{ / e\'uf]n,
  • Gofo Ù s/0f, ljj]s / Gofof]lrttf .

;"rfÍssf ljifoa:t\'

  • aflns dtflwsf/, j0f{, lnË, au{, hft hflt, If]q, z}lIfs, Jofj;flos ?kd} pDd]åf/ x\'\'\'\'\'g] tyf /fhg}lts bnx?nfO{ r\'gfjdf efu lng], k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{ :jtGqtfÙ
  • /fhg}lts ;ef, e]nf, 5nkmn ug]{ :jtGqtfÙ
slide58
pDd]bjf/sf] ?kdf dtbftf ;fd\' k|:t\'t x\'g] :jtGqtfÙ
  • lgZkIf /fli6«o tyf cGt/fli6«o lgjf{rg cg\'udg, kqsf/x?nfO{ dtbfg s]Gb|df ;/n kx\'FrÙ
  • :jtGq lgjf{rg cfof]u jf sfof{no dfkm{t lgjf{rg sfo{Ù pko\'Qm dtbfg s]Gb| / dtkqsf] Joj:yf,
  • dtkq / dtbfg :yn, dtbftf / pDd]bjf/sf] ;\'\'/Iff,
  • k};f, kb, k|efj Go"lgs/0f, bf]xf]/f], utn / cgflwsf/ dtbfgdf /f]sÙ
  • dtu0fgf / k\'g dtu0fgf :ynsf] ;\'/IffÙ
slide59
j}1flgs dtu0fgfsf] k|of]uÙ
  • r\'gfj ;DaGwL cfrf/ ;+lxtfÙ
  • lgjf{rg ck/fw P]gsf] Joj:yf / ;f]sf] lgZkIf ;\'g\'jfO{Ù
  • wf+wnLo\'Qm dtbfg ePdf k\'gM dtbfgsf] Joj:yfÙ
  • clwstd j}1flgs dtkq / dtbfg ljlwsf] k|of]u -h:tf] dtkqdf lrGx nufpg], Kjfn kfg]{, ljWo\'tLo ;+oGq "Touch screes/push buttom" /fVg], clzlIft dtbftfnfO{
  • Wofgdf /fvL dtkqdf pDd]bjf/sf] t:jL/ /fVg], dtbfgsf] lbgdf sf/0fj; pkl:yt x\'g g;Sg] dtbftfn] cluNnf] lbg dt /fVg kfpg] Joj:yf ug{] cfbL_.
slide60
UN Millennium Declaration
  • :jtGqtf -clwsf/sf] clwstd /Iff ub}{ dfgjf~5Lt k|hftflGqs / ;xeflutfd\'ns zf;gdf ;xefuL x\'g]_,
  • ;dfgtf -dlxnf k\'?if ;a}nfO{ clwsf/ / cj;/_Ù
  • ;Ddfg -Ps csf{sf c;dfg ljrf/, ;+:s[lt / efiff_ /

;f}xfb{tf sfod ub}{] e"ldsf tyf bfloTjnfO{ ;d]t lgZkIf / plrt9+af6 Gofok"0f{ ljt/0f ul/g\' kg]{ .

  • Venice commission
  • jflns, ;dfg, :jtGq, uf]Ko / k|ToIf dtbfgnfO{ cfwf/e"t kfFr l;4fGtsf] ?kdf 3f]if0ff,
slide61
Inter Parliamentary Union, Geneva

:jtGq / lgZkIf lgjf{rgsf ;"rfFsx?sf]{ 3f]if0ff,

!_ lgjf{rg P]g / Joj:yf,

@_ lgjf{rg If]q Joj:yf,

#_ lgjf{rg Joj:yfkg,

$_ dtflwsf/,

%_ dtbftf gfdfjnL,

^_ gful/s lzIff / dtbftfsf] hfgsf/L,

&_ pDd]bjf/, /fhg}lts bn, ;+u7g / vr,

*_ r\'gfj k|rf/ k|;f/,

(_ dtkq, ;\'k/Lj]If0f / kl/0ffd,

!)_ ljjfb / lg/f]k0f,

@ lgjf rgsf cgt fli6 o dfkb08 gd gf of uo k of u
@= lgjf{rgsf] cGt/fli6«o dfkb08 / gd"gf of]Uo k|of]u

!= ljZjJofkL dfgj clwsf/sf] 3f]iff0ff !($*

  • k|:tfjgf ædfgj k|lti7f, ;Ddfg / clwl5Gg clwsf/sf] dfGotf g} ljZjdf :jtGqtf, Gofo / zflGtsf] cfwf/ ePsf]Æ / æcTorf/ / bdgsf] lj?4 c? pkfio gkfP/ ljb|f]x ug\'{ g} clGtd pkfo 7fGg dflg; afWo x\'g,]Æ
  • wf/f @!-!_ æk|To]s JolQmnfO{ cfˆgf] b]zsf] ;/sf/df k|ToIf ?kn] jf :jtGq ?kn] r\'lgPsf k|ltlglw dfkm{t efu lng] clwsf/ x\'g]5,Æ
  • pkwf/f -#_ æhgtfsf] OR5f ;/sf/sf] ;Qfsf] cfwf/ x\'g]5 / o:tf] OR5f cfd tyf ;dfg dtbfgåf/f ;do ;dodf ul/g] lgZkIf r\'gfj dfkm{t cleJoQm ul/g]5 / To:tf] r\'gfj u\'Kt dtbfg jf To:t} :jtGq dtbfg k|0ffnLaf6 ul/g]5 Æ eGg] Joj:yf .
slide63
wf=!* /fhg}lts ljrf/, cGts/0f,
  • wf= @) -!_ zflGtk"0f{ tl/sfn] ;ef ug]{, ;+:yf vf]Ng] clwsf/,
  • [email protected] hflt, j0f{, ln+u, efiff, wd{, /fhg}lts jf cGo dt, /fli6«o jf ;fdflhs pTklt / ;DkQL jf cGo s\'g} dof{bfsf] cfwf/df e]befj gu/L k|To]s JolQmnfO{ o; 3f]if0ffdf pNn]lvt clwsf/ / :jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ x\'g]5 eGg] Joj:yf .

@= ;a} k|sf/sf hflto e]befj cGt ug]{ cGt/fli6«o cle;GwL – !(^%

slide64
wf= @ /fHon] hflt, /Ë, /fli6«otf jf hflto pTktLsf] cfwf/df e]befj gu/L lgjf{rgdf efu lng], dt nufpg], pDd]bjf/L lbg], ;a} txsf] ;fj{hlgs ;]jf / ;/sf/df efu lng] clwsf/, ljrf/ / clwJolQmsf] :jtGqtf, zflGtk"0f{ e]nf x\'g] / ;ef ug]{ :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt ug}{ k5{ .

#+ gful/s / /fhg}lts clwsf/ ;DaGwL cGt/fli6«o dxf cg\'jGw !(^^

wf/f # / @% n] gful/s tyf /fhg}lts clwsf/sf] k|of]u ug{ k\'?if tyf dlxnfx?nfO{ ;dfg ?kdf /fHon] k|Tofe"t ug\'{ kg]{] / plrt sf/0f tyf ljgf e]befj k|ToIf jf k|ltlglw dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs sfo{x?df efulng, jflns dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df x\'g] cfjlws lgjf{rgdf OR5Lt AolQmnfO{ dtlbg] jf lgjf{rLt x\'g uf]Ko dtbfgsf] k|Tofe"t u/]sf] 5 .

slide65
k|hftGqdf hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d\'x / cNk;+Vosx?sf] clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg cfjZos 5 . of] /fhg}lts ljifoa:t\' dfq xf]Og . To:tf JolQmx? JoQm efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ efjgfn] ;fdflhs :yfO{TjnfO{ dha\'t ;d]t agfpF5 (Butros Butros Ghali, Angenda for Peace, UN, 2nd ed. para 81, 1995)

o:sf] k|of]usf yk k|yf;x?

  • jf;f{ 3f]if0ffkq @))),
  • zf]n Nkfg ckm Ps;g @))@
  • ;flG6ofuf] ;Dd]ngn] r/d ul/jL, cfly{s d]befj, ;fdflhs (Exclusion), cNkljsf; / l;dfGttfsf] cGt / e]befj lj/f]wL l;4fGtsf] s8fOsf ;fy kfngf gu/];Dd k|hftGqn] :jfO{Tj k|fKt gx\'gfn] dlxnf, o\'jf ;d]t ;j}nfO{ /fhlgltdf ;dfj]z ug{ u?/L 5 [1] eGg] lg:sif{ lgsfn]sf] kfOG5 .

1] The communities of Democracies, 2005, Santiago Ministerial Commitment and Cooperating for Democracy, CD/April 30, 2005.

slide66
clk|msg o\'lgogsf] nf]d] -6f]uf]_ sfg\'g [email protected])))_, ;f] o\'lgog ;/sf/ k|d\'vx?sf] ;Dd]ngåf/f kfl/t æclk|msfdf k|hftflGqs lgjf{rg ug]{ l;4fGtsf] 3f]if0ffÆ / blIf0f clk|msg ljsf; ;d\'bfon] æk|hftflGqs lgjf{rg ug{ ckgfPsf l;4fGt tyf dfu{bz{g–@))$,Æ æcGt/ cd]l/sg k|hftflGqs j8fkq–))!Æ lndf, jfl;ª\6g k|f]6f]sn / /fi6«d08n (Common Wealth Nation) sf] x/f/] 3f]if0ff– !((!, sf] ljz]if dxTj 5 .
  • o"/f]lkog dfgj clwsf/ ;GwL, e]lg; cfof]u– o\'/f]lkog kl/ifb / o\'/f]lkog o\'lgogsf] df}lns clwsf/ ;DaGwL j8fkq–@))) wf/f–(–!! åf/f k|fbt clwsf/ /fHon] vf]:g ;Qm}g egL j]nkm]o/ kf6L{ lj= 6sL{{{ sf] d\'bfdf[1] JofVof u/]sf] kfOG5 . [1] 13 Feb. 2003, Judgement, Para 87, 89
slide67
$= dlxnfx?sf] /fhg}lts clwsf/x? ;DaGwLt cle;GwL–!(%@

;+o\'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] j8fkq / dfgj clwsf/ ;DaGwL ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ff kqdf pNn]vlt k|fjwfgnfO{ lhjGQtf k|bfg ug{ of] cle;GwL ul/Psf], k|:tfjgfdf .

%= dlxnf lj?4sf ;j} k|sf/sf e]befjx? leq ug]{ cGt/fli6«o cle;GwL !(&(, # ;]K6]Da/ !(*!,

  • wf/f & /fhg}lts tyf ;fj{hlgs lhjgdf dlxnfx? lj?4sf] e]befj cGt ug{ / ;j} lgjf{rg, hgdt ;+u|xdf dt lbg / lgjf{rLt x\'g kfpg], ;/sf/sf] gLlt lgdf{0f, To:sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xefuL x\'g], ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{, b]zsf] ;fj{hlgs / /fhg}lts hLjg;+u ;DaGwLt ;+u7g, +;+:yfx?df ;xeflu x\'g kfpg] clwsf/ /fHokIfn] ;\'lgZrLt ug\'{ kg]{ .
u gd gfof uo lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf k of u
u_ gd"gfof]Uo lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u

a9Ldt k|0ffnL (First Past the Post)

  • cGo lgjf{rgx?sf] t\'ngfdf a9Ldt k|0ffnL ;/n ePsf] sf/0f ;+;f/sf @!& d\'n\'sx? dWo] *! d\'n\'sx?df o:sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5 .
  • j]nfot, Sofg8f / lt d\'n\'sx?af6 k|efjLt b]zx?df of] k|0ffnL nf]slk|o eP klg dtu0fgf ljB\'lto pks/0f dfkm{t ul/g yfn]kl5 of] k|0ffnL qmdz sd nf]slk|o x\'g nfu]sf] 5 .

a]nfotdf o:sf] k|of]u M

  • a]nfotsf] k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:o lgjf{rgdf of] ljlw k|of]u ul/O{Psf] . pDd]bjf/ dWo] Ps hgf 5fGg Ps hgfsf] r\'gfj lrGxdf dtbfg ul/G5 / dtsf] ;+Vofsf] cg\'kftdf lgjf{rgsf] t\'?Gt} 3f]if0ff ul/G5 . of] k|s[ofn] 7"nf b\'O{ bnsf] ar{Zj sfod /fV5 ljz]if cj:yfdf ;fgf /fhg}lts bnx?n] klg cNkdtsf] ;/sf/ jf u7aGwg ;/sf/ jgfpg ;S5g t/ To:tf] ;/sf/ :yL/ / alnof] x\'Fb}g .
slide69
;/sf/df u+le/ c:tJo:ttf x\'g ;S5, o;}] sf/0f O6nL / Oh/fonn] a9Ldt k|0ffnL cGt u/]sf] kfOFG5 .
  • a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf cNkdtn] ax\'dt pk/ zf;g u/] klg To; oyfy{nfO{ of] k|0ffnLn] s\'g} ;/f]sf/ /fVb}g .
  • !(%! df 6f]/L / !(&$ df n]j/ kf6L{n] cNkdtdf ax\'dt NofP . !((& sf] lgjf{rgdf n]j/ kf6Ln] $#[email protected]Ü dtdf ^#=^Ü ;+;bLo l;6 lht]sf] / 6f]/L + lnj/n 8]df]qmof6n] n]j/ kf6L{sf] eGbf $Ü a9L $&=%Ü dt NofP klg #@=# l;6dfq lht]sf] / @))! sf lgjf{rgdf n]j/ kf6L{n] $#Ü dtdf $!# / %&Ü dtdf @$^ l;6 lht]sf] kfOG5 . @))% sf] lgjf{rg kl/0ffd klg ;dfg vfnsf] #^Ü dtn] g} ax\'dt l;6 lht]sf] kfOG5 .
  • a]nfotsf] ;+;lbo r\'gfjsf] Oltxf;df !(#% b]lv xfn;Dd s\'g] klg ;/sf/ ax\'dtsf] cfwf/df u7g uPsf] kfOb}g . pQm k|s[ofn] cNkdtsf] ;fgf /fhg}lts bnx? a9Ldtsf] ælgjf{rLt lg/Í\'ztfÆaf6 ;bf lkl8t k/]sf] 5 .
slide70
lnj/n 8]df]qmof6;n] @))! df k|fKt dtsf] ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj x\'g] xf] eg] ;+;bdf :jt [email protected]) l;6 lhTg] cj:yf x\'G5 . a]nfotdf ax\'bnLo k|hftGq ePklg zf;g k|0ffnL Psblno lg/ª\s\'ztf ePsf] kfpF5f}+ . vf; u/L dfu+/]6 Yofr/ / hf]g d]h/sf] ;dodf -!(&(–!((&_ / -!((&–@))@_ df o:tf] lg/Í\'ztf kfpF5f}+ . ;+ejt o;} sf/0f x\'g ;S5 !(((–@))) ljrdf ePsf] dt ;+u|xdf ^)Ü dtbftfx?n] a9L dt Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj k|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g ug\'{ kg]{ dt hfx]/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .
  • Psn :yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rt k|0ffnLsf cltl/Qm ax\':yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rg ug{ Psd\'i6 k|0ffnL / blno Psd\'i6 k|0ffnLx? k|of]udf 5g\ . Psn dt / ax\'dt tyf JoQmLnfO{ / bnnfO{ dt k|bfg ug{ ljlwo\'Qm leGgtf afx]s cGo k|of]u / k|s[ltsf cfwf/df Psn :yfg lgjf{rg / a9L:yfg lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf vf;} km/s 5}g .
slide71
/fhg}lts bn lgjf{rg aif{

!((& @))!

dt % ;+Vof dt % ;+Vof

lnj/n 8]df]qmof6\; !^=* $^ !( %@

6f]/L #)=& !^% – –

n]j/ $#[email protected] $!( $# $!#

slide72
a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnL k|0ffnLsf kmfObfx? M

!_ ;/ntf M ;/n dtbfg tyf u0fgf ljlw, 5l/tf] / sd vlr{nf]M ;fwf/0f dtbftfx?sf] nflu a\'emfpg ;lhnf] x\'g] / kf6L{ /fhgLlt eGbf AolQmsf] 5gf}6 ug{ dtbftfx?sf nflu of] pko\'Qm ljlw dflgG5 .

@_ pko\'Qm JolQm dfkm{t zf;gM pDd]bjf/ kf6L{;+u ;DaGwLt eP klg dtbftfn] kf6L{sf] pDd]bjf/ dg gk/fpg ;S5g\ / kf6L{nfO{ lhtfP/ JolQmnfO{ x/fpg jf kf6L{nfO{ x/fP/ JolQmnfO{ lhtfpg ;S5g\ . kmntM nf]slk|o dflgPsf] pDd]bjf/ xfg{ ;S5 . rfx]sf] JolQm dfkm{t zf;g ug]{ of] /fd|f] pkfo x\'G5 .

slide73
#=dtbftf;Fusf] k|ToIf ;DaGw / hjfkmb]xLtfM dtbftfsf] dtsf] sb/ ug\'{ pDd]bjf/sf] bfloTj ePsf] / pQm bfloTj k"/f gu/]df csf]{ lgjf{rgdf g/fd|f] kl/df0fsf] ;fdgf ug\'{ kg]{x\'Fbf pDd]bjf/nfO{ dtbftf;Fu k|ToIf ;DaGw agfO{ plgx?k|lt a9L lhDd]jf/ x\'g afWo agfpF5 . /fli6«o dxTjsf pDd]bjf/ cfkm\gf] lgjf{rg If]qdf xfg\'{sf] d\'n sf/0f oxL xf] .

$=dhj\'t ljkIfLsf] ;\'?jft M ax\'dtsf] cfwf/df s\'g} bnn] ;/sf/df k|e\'Tj hdfpg] x\'Fbf bf]>f] 7"nf] /fhg}lts bnn] ljkIfLsf] e"ldsf v]Ng] / ;/sf/nfO{ l7s af6f]df Nofpg ;xof]u k\'¥ofpF5 .

slide74
%= Ps JolQm Ps dtsf] k|of]u M Psd\'i6 jf bnLo Psd\'i6 lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf afx]s Psn :yfg a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLdf Ps JolQm Ps dt k|0ffnL k|of]udf x\'G5 .

^= If]lqotfM ef}uf]lns ?kdf If]lqo :t/df /x]sf kf6L{x?sf] ;f] If]qdf pRr k|efj x\'g / k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;S5g . cWokL /fli6«o ?kdf x]g]{ xf] eg] Tof] dtn] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg g;Sg] klg x\'g ;S5 .

a9ldt lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf a kmfobfx
a9Ldt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf a]kmfObfx?

!= lgjf{rg b\'O{ kf6L{df l;ldt x\'g], a9Ldt k|0ffnL dfkm{t cGgt lgjf{rgdf b\'O{ kf6L{sf] k|lt:kwf{ x\'g] ub{5 . a]nfotdf !(@@ b]lv xfn;Ddsf @@ cfd lgjf{rgsf] !* j6f kl/0ffdn] ;+;bdf :ki6 ax\'dt lbP/ ;/sf/ agfP klg cGo ;fgf bnx?n] ;/sf/df ;xeflutf hgfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .

@= dtsf] cgfb/M a9Ldt k|0ffnLsf] ;a} eGbf 7"nf] sdhf]/L g} lgjf{rg dfkm{t JoQm ;a} eGbf a9L dtsf] sb/ gx\'g\' xf] . lgjf{rgdf cNkdts} ;/sf/ algg] / ;f]xL k|s[of ! jf @ kf6L{df dfq 3\'ld/xg] ub{5 . kmntM ax\'dt v]/ hfG5 . a]nfotsf] @))% sf] lgjf{rgdf %@Ü dt xfg]{x?sf] / !*Ü dt lhGt]x?sf] a9L ;d]t &)Ü dt v]/ uPsf] b]lvG5 .

slide76
#= plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] cefj M lgjf{rgdf JoQm efjgf cg\'?k k|ltlglwTj gx\'g] jf JoQm k|ltztsf] t\'ngfdf k|ltlglwTjsf] k|ltzt gx\'g] ;fgf bn, ju{, ;d"x, hfltx?sf] slxNo} k|ltlglwTj x\'g ;Qm}g . k|s[ofs} ?kdf æ;fgfÆx?sf] x}l;ot l;ldt / cGt ug]{ jf æ7"nfÆsf] bofdf e/ kg]{ x\'G5 .

$= lgjf{rg If]qd\'vL agfpF5 M lglZrt lgjf{rg If]qn] g} lglZrt pDd]bjf/sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] x\'g] x\'Fbf /fli6«o :t/sf] JolQmTj To; If]qdf l;ldt x\'g]5g\ / cfkm\gf] If]qsf] ultljlw k|lt a9L ;+j]bgzLn x\'g afWo agfpF5 . cGtt /fli6«o dxTjsf] JolQmTj lgjf{rgsf] k|fljlws sf/0fn] l;ldt / a]nfjvt ljjflbt x\'g] ub{5 .

slide77
%= ;\'/IfLt If]qsf] vf]hL / ljs[ltsf] >[hgf M k|hftflGqs k|lqmofdf v]b hgs cfr/0f of] lgjf{rg ljlwsf] pkh dflgG5 . h;/L klg lhTg 7"nf g]tfn] ;\'/lIft If]qsf] vf]hL ug]{, cGo pDd]bjf/x?n] klg h;/L klg a9L dt Nofpg k|of; ug]{ jftfj/0f aGb5 . ljslzt d\'n\'sdf klg ;\'/Iflt If]qsf] vf]hL ug]{ / ul/a, cNkljszLt d\'n\'sdf an, wfs,, wg / k|efjsf] clwstd b\'?kof]u x\'g] u/]sf] kfO{G5 .

^= dlxnfsf] Go"g k|ltlglwTjM ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj gePsf] sf/0f dlxnfx?sf] Go"g k|ltlglwTj x\'g] ub{5 . cd]l/sL k|of]u ;d]t @))@ sf] lgjf{rgdf %)Ü dlxnf hg;+Vofaf6 s]an !$Ü l;6df k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] kfO{G5 . a]nfot, ef/t cflb d\'n\'sx?df klg of] ;d:ofsf] plQs} hl6n ?kdf /x]sf] kfpF5f}+ .

slide78
&= lgjf{rg If]qsf] kl/jt{g M

cd]l/sL lgjf{rgsf] kl/0ffd dtbftfn] s;/L dt lbP eGbf klg lgjf{rg If]q s;/L lgwf{/0f ul/of] eGg] cfwf/df a9L k|efljt x\'G5 . h:tf] !(() sf] lgjf{rgdf 8]df]qmof6n] 6]S;f;df $(=(Ü dt dfkm{t &)Ü l;6 sAhf u/] . /fhg}lts bnn] cfkm\gf] k|efjsf] cfwf/df cfkm" cg\'s"n lgjf{rg If]q agfO /xG5g\ / dtbftfx?sf] ckdfg x\'g] ub{5 . ctM lgjf{rg If]q c:yL/ kfg]{ / h;/L klg lhTg] æh]/Ld]08/LË ljlw ck|hftflGqs / cGofok"0f{Æ dflgFb} cfPsf] 5 .

dfg kflts lgjf rg k 0ffnl
;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL
  • ;+;f/sf &$ d\'n\'sdf ;dfg"kflts / @# d\'n\'sdf cw{;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLnfO{ hf]8]/ x]g]{ xf] eg] ;+;f/df ;jf{lws (& b]zx?df k|of]udf cfPsf],
  • ljszLt k|hftflGqs b]zx? cli6«of, a]NhLod, ;fOk|;, 8]gdfs{, lkmgn}08, hd{gL, lu|;, cfo/n}08, Oh/fon, nShDju{, dfN6f, g]b/n}08, gj]{, kf]r"{un, :k]g, :jL8]g, :jLh/n}08n] k|of]u u/]sf] .
slide80
Go"hLn]08n] ;o aif{ klxnfaf6 k|of]u u/L cfPsf] a9L dt k|0ffnLsf] sdhf]/Lx? 5fgljg ug{ cfof]usf] u7g -!(*)_ / !((# sf] hgdt ;+u|x dfkm{t a9Ldt k|0ffnLsf] abnfdf ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL :yflkt u/]sf], a]nfotdf ;d]t lgjf{rg ;\'wf/ ;dfhn] a9Ldt k|0ffnL gckgfpg ;Nnfx lbPsf] / 6f]gL An]o/4f/f u7Lt h]lsG; cfof]un] !((* df cw{ ;dfg"kflts k|0ffnL l;kmf/L; u/]sf] Tof] l;kmf/L; xfn sfof{Gjog geP klg :s6n]08 / a]N;n] cw{ ;dfg\'kflts k|0ffnL ckgfO{ ;s]sf 5g\ .
  • lgjf{rgdf JoQm dt k|ltztsf] cfwf/df k|ltlglwTjsf] k|ltzt u/fpg kf6L{ ;"rL, Psn ;+qmd0fLo / ld>Lt ;b:o ;+Vofsf] ljlw k|of]udf 5g\ .
hd gldf dfg kflts lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf k of u
hd{gLdf ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u

hd{gn]] a\'G8]:6fu lgjf{rgsf nflu ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj ld>Lt 9fFrfsf] ckgfPsf] 5 . ;f+;bx? dWo] cfwf k|ToIf lgjf{rgsf] dfWodaf6 / cfwf kf6L{n] k|fKt u/]sf] dtsf] cg\'kftdf lgjf{rg ul/G5 . @))@ df %(* l;6sf nflu @(( lgjf{rg If]q (Wahlkreise) / xfn #!Ü dlxnfsf] a\'G8]:6fudf k|ltlglwTj 5 . pQm ld>Lt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLn] kToIf, :jtGq, ;dfg / uf]Ko dtbfgnfO{ ;\'lglZrt u/]sf] kfpFb5f}+ . sDtLdf !* aif{ pd]/ k\'u]sf JolQm s\'g} lgjf{rg If]q jf kf6L{ lni6df pDd]bjf/sf] ?kdf :6]6 sfps;n] dgf]lgt ub{5 . hd{gdf /x]sf ;fgf kf6L{x?sf] ;d]t ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] o; k|0fflndf s\'g} Ps lgjf{rg If]qdf dfq lhTg] ;fgf kf6L{x? klg of] lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL x\'G5g, h:tf] lk|m 8]df]qmfo6 kf6L{, oWokL sDtLdf %Ü dt k|fKt gu/L of] ;\'ljwf pkof]u ug{ ;lsb}g .

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dtsf] cg\'kftdf sd pDd]bjf/ lgjf{rLt ePdf dfq ;dfg\'kflts ?kdf k|ltlglw ug{ ;lsG5 .

hd{gLdf ;a} dtbftfx?n] @ dt k|of]u ub{5g, Ps dt lgjf{rg If]qsf] ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug{sf nflu / csf]{ dt kf6L{sf] nflu . kf6L{df k|fKt nf]slk|otf tyf bIftfsf cfwf/df kf6L{4f/f qmdfg\';f/ tof/ u/]sf] ;+;b pDd]bjf/sf] ;"lrsf [1] pDd]bjf/ kf6L{n] b]ze/L k|fKt u/]sf] dtsf] cg\'kftdf qmdzM lgjf{rLt x\'G5g . lgjf{rg If]qaf6 lgjf{rLt ePsf ;b:o ;+Vofaf6 gk\'u ;+Vofsf nflu dfq ;"rLaf6 afFsL ;+Vof ykL lgjf{lrt ul/G5 . lgjf{rg If]q / kf6L{ ;"rL b\'j}lt/ pDd]bjf/L gfd ePsf]df lgjf{rg If]qaf6 lgjf{rLt geP dfq ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ul/G5 . pDd]bjf/sf nflu cfjZos eGbf a9L dt lgjf{rg If]qx?af6 k|fKt ePdf a9L ePsf] dt a/fa/ yk pDd]bjf/ lgjf{lrt ul/G5 . o;/L lgjf{lrt ePsf cltl/Qm ;+VofnfO{ Overhung Seat elgG5 h\'\'g ;+Vofn] ;fljssf] ;f+;b ;+Vof a9g hfG5 . 2]

[1] oWokL jfefl/ofdf pDd]bjf/sf] ;"rL v\'Nnf /flvG5 / w]/} ;+3Lo /fHox?df b\'j} dt Pp6} dtkqdf g} lbg] ul/G5 .

2] hd{g afx]s Go"lhn}08sf] tNnf] ;bgdf klg of] k|rng 5 . @))% sf] lgjf{rgdf [email protected]) ;b:oLo tNnf] ;bgsf] ;+Vof [email protected]! x\'g k\'Uof] . a]nfotsf] :s6 ;+;b, a]N; / n08gsf] ;efdf a9Ldt cfO{ kf6L{x?nfO{ lbO{G5 / hDdf ;b:o ;+Vofdf kl/jt{g x\'Fb}g .

ld lt b o dfg kflts lgjf rgsf kmfobf m
ld>Lt ;b:o ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rgsf] kmfObf M

!= dtbftfn] :yfgLo / /fli6«o k|ltlglw 5fGg kfpF5g\ .

@= :yfgLo k|ltlglw4f/f :yfgLo / /fli6«o k|ltlglw4f/f /fli6«o ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ ;S5g\ tyf lgjf{rg If]qsf] k|ltlglw ;+Fusf] ;DaGw klg ;hLj /xL/G5 . s\'g} cj/f]w x\'Fb}g .

#= a9Ldt / ax\'dtsf] cju\'0fsf] cGt / ;dfg"kflts k|ltlglwTj x\'G5 / k|ltlglwTjdf Gofo kb{5 .

ldl t b o dfg kflts lgjf rgsf a kmfobf m
ldl>t ;b:o / ;dfg\'kflts lgjf{rgsf a]kmfObf M

!= /fli6«o k|ltlglwx? / dtbftfaLr k|ToIf ;DaGw gePsf] sf/0f ;DaGw dha\'t x\'Fb}g .

@= ;"rL tof/ ul/Fbf kf/bzL{ dfkb08 geP kf6L{ lg/+s\'z / e|i6 aGg ;S5 .

#= v\'Nnf ;"rLdf ;fdfGo dtbftfn] k|fyldstfqmd tf]Sg ;Sb}gg\ .

$= /fHo g} lgjf{rg If]q x\'Fbf ;"rLs[t pDd]bjf/ ;DaLt dtbftfn] glrGg] x\'Fbf kf6L{n] unt pDd]bjf/ agfpg klg ;S5 .

%= ;fgf ;d\'x, hft, kf6L{n] k|ltlglwTj kfpg] x\'Fbf kf6L{ 6\'qmL/xg ;S5 .

^= ;+o\'Qm ;/sf/sf] k|jn ;Defjgfsf sf/0f ;/sf/ sdhf]/ x\'G5 .

&= o:tf k|ltlglwåf/f ;+;bLo sfd sf/jfxLnfO{ ;\':t agfpF5 .

k fyldstfk 0f lgjf rg k 0ffnl m
k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg k|0ffnL M
  • dtbftfsf] dt b\'?kof]u gxf]; / OR5Lt pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|ltlglw agfpg ;lsof]; eGgsf nflu k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rgsf k|s[of ckgfOG5 .
  • dt JolQm ul/Fbf ljsNkdf ;d]t dt lbg ;lsg] x\'Fbf o;nfO{ j}sNkLs dt k|0ffnL klg elgG5 .
  • of] ljlwdf qmd jf :t/ -!,@,# jf A, B, C_ Psn :yfgsf nflu / ax\':yfg ePdf k|fyldstfsf dt qmdfg\';f/ ;+qmd0fLo x\'g klg ;S5 .
ci6 lnofdf k fyldstfk 0f lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf k of u m
ci6«]lnofdf k|fyldstfk"0f{ lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u M

ljZjsf yf]/} b]zx? dWo] ci6«]lnofdf dtbfg clgjfo{ 5 . dtbfg ug{ g;s]df To;sf] :kli6s/0f lbg jf hl/jfgf ltg\'{ kg]{ Joj:yf ePsf]n] % % eGbf sd dtbftfn] dfq dt k|of]u ub}{gg\ jf cg}krfl/s dt -vfnL pDd]bjf/ dtbfg_ xfN5g\ .

ci6«]lnofdf tTsfn rqm k|0ffnL / Psn ;+qmdl0fo ljlw qmdz Psn :yfg / ax\':yfg lgjf{rgdf k|of]u ul/G5 . tTsfn rqm k|0ffnL cg\';f/ !%) ;b:oLo k|ltlglw ;ef Psn ;b:o[1] lgjf{rg If]qsf ;Dk"0f{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ -!) eP ! b]lv !), @) eP ! b]lv @)_ nfO{ qmd jf :t/ tf]sL k|fyldstfk"0f{ dt lbg] ul/G5 . dtkqsf] gfdqmds} cfwf/df !, @, # qmd n]lv dt lbg] u/]sf] x\'Fbf pDd]bjf/sf] gfdfjnL qmd gfdsf] cfwf/df dtkqdf /fVg ylnPsf] 5 .

[1] /fHo ljwfg ;ef, :yflgo gu/ ;efdf ;d]t oxL ljlw ckgfOG5 .

3 ljwodfg cgtl d ljwfg lgjf rg joj yf ljutdf epsf hgcfgbf
3= ljWodfg cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / lgjf{rg Joj:yfljutdf ePsf hgcfGbf
  • cfGbf]ng tyf ;+3if{sf] kl/0ffd :j?k)^#.*.% df g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf dfcf]jfbL_ jlr ePsf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf,
  • g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] k|:tfjgfn] æcfkm\gf] nflu cfkm} ;+ljwfg agfpg] / eod\'Qm jftfj/0fdf ;+ljwfg ;efsf] :jtGq lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL x\'g kfpg] clwsf/Æ k|bfg u/]sf],
  • ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f ^# -!_ n] æcfkm}n] gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{,Æ
  • pkwf/f -#_ df æld>Lt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf cfwf/df lgjf{lrt $)(Æ ;b:ox? lgjf{rg ug]{ / To; dWo] @)% hgf xfn sfod /x]sf lgjf{rg If]qaf6 / @)$ hgf ;dfg\'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL cg\';f/ lgjf{lrt ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
lgjf rgsf ljz iftf m
lgjf{rgsf ljz]iftf M
  • != cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] cfd lgjf{rgsf nflu ld>Lt lgjf{rg k|0ffnL , cfwf ;+;b k|ltlglw [email protected])%_ ;DaGwLt lgjf{rg If]qaf6 lgjf{lrt u/fpg] .
  • dtbftf / pDd]bjf/x? aLrsf] ;f}xfb{ ;DaGwnfO{ oyfjt /fVg] / pQm Joj:yfnfO{ plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] dfkb08 dfGg] ;}4flGts dfGotf sfod u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
  • of] lgjf{rg a9Ldt ljlw -klxnf] x\'g] lgjf{rLt x\'g]_ g} ePsf] x\'Fbf t\'ngfTds k|lt:kwf{sf v/fjLx?, vf; u/L kbsf] b\'?kof]u, an, wgsf] b\'?kof]u x\'g] ;DefjgfnfO{ OGsf/ ug{ ;lsGg .
  • @= ;+;bsf] cfwf ;+f;bx? [email protected])$ hgf_ ;dfg\'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf cfwf/df lgjf{lrt x\'g],
  • b]znfO{ g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q If]q dfgL /fhg}lts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg\'kflts lgjf{rg x\'g] x\'Fbf b]ze/ /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ cNk;+Vos hftL, au{, ;d"bfo / bnsf] ;d]t plrt k|ltlglwTj x\'g] clwstd ;Defjgf 5 .
slide89
#= P]ltxfl;s ?kdf dlxnf pDd]bjf/Lsf] ;+Vof Go"gtd, Ps ltxfO{, clgjfo{ ul/Psf] x\'Fbf %)Ü hg;+Vof eP/ klg ljutdf !)Ü dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj x\'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf of] Joj:yf k|ultzLn dfGg\' kb{5, oWokL ;dfg\'kflts l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df pQm ;+Vof cem} klg k"0f{ dfGg ;lsGg .

$= a9L dt ljlw cGt/utsf] @)% ;b:oLo lgjf{rgdf /fhg}lts bnn] ;dfj]zL l;4fGt kfngf u/L pDd]bjf/sf] rog ug\'{ kg]{ clgjfo{ Joj:yfnfO{ ;sf/fTds k|of; dfGg\' kb{5 . oWokL ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] ;"rgfx? s] x\'g eGg] ;ki6 Joj:yf eg] kfOb}g .

slide90
%= ;dfg\'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL cGt/ut lgjf{rLt x\'g] @)$ ;b:osf] ;"rL ;DalGwt /fhg}lts bnx?n] tof/ ubf{ dlxnf, blnt, pTkLl8t, cflbjf;L hghflt, lk5l8Psf If]q, dw]zL / cGo au{x? ;d]tsf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] Joj:yfnfO{ lgQfGt k|hftflGqs / Gof]lrt dfGg ;lsG5 .

pQm ;"rLsf If]qx? to ul/P klg lt If]qaf6 ;"rLt ug{sf nflu cfjZos cGt/ laifoj:t\' dfkb08 s] x\'g, s:tf] x\'g\' kb{5 eGg] :ki6tf gePsf] x\'Fbf lt If]qnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL ck|hftflGqs tyf ck/fbzL{ 9+|uaf6 kf6L{;"rL tof/ x\'g;Sg] vt/fsf] eg] cGt ePsf] 5}g .

lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf c ki6tf
lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf c:ki6tf
  • xfn a9L dt / ;dfg"kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLnfO{ ckgfOPsf] eP klg of] dtsf] k|of]u Psn dtkq jf b\'O{ dt kq dfkm{t ul/g] eGg] ;ki6 5}g . ;dfg ?kdf kf6L{ ;"rL dt ljlw v\'Nnf u/L k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg ;lsg] xf] jf ;"rLsf] gfd x]g{, k9g afx]s s]xL ug{ g;lsg] u/L aGb 9fFrfsf] x\'g] xf], :ki6 5}g .
  • v\'Nnf kf6L{ ;"rL a9L k|hftflGqs eP klg l;+uf] /fi6« g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q ePsf] cj:yfdf sDtLdf @)$ hgf pDd]bjf/sf] k|fyldstf qmd tf]Sg] sfo{ c;+ej g} b]lvG5 . cWokL pQm lgjf{rg If]qnfO{ $ jf ^ If]qdf ljeflht u/L s]xL ;+Vof sd ug{ ;lsG5 .
slide92
;fIf/tfsf] cfwf/df k|fyldstf tf]Sg] v\'Nnf ljlw Jojxf/Ls gx\'g ;S5 .
  • aGb ;"rL pko\'Qm / Jojxfl/s ljsNk eP klg tf]lsPsf If]qaf6 gfdfjnL ;"rLs[t ug{ ;\'rf+sx? 3f]lift / ;a} /fhg}lts bnsf nflu Ps} vfnsf x\'g h?/L 5 .
  • aGb ;"rL ckgfpFbf kf/bzL{ ;"rf+sx? g/flvg] xf] eg] a9L dtsf] lg/+s\'ztf ;Dj4 /fhg}lts bnsf] lg/+s\'ztfdf kl/0ft x\'g afx]s jf:tljs ;dfg\'kflts k|ltlglwTj gx\'g;S5 .
slide93
;fdGtL ;+:sf/sf] lg/Gt/tf

!= dtsf] cfwf/df dfq pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 ul/g\' kg]{df !^ hgf ;b:o dgf]lgt ug]{ Joj:yf .

@= wf/f !$! n] /fhg}lts bn vf]Ng, ;+rfng ug{ / To:sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ /f]s gnufP klg wf/f [email protected] sf] pkwf/f % n] bn btf{ ug{ sDtLdf bz xhf/ dtbftfx?sf] ;dy{g ;lxtsf] x:tfIf/ o\'Qm lgj]bgsf cfwf/df bn btf{ ug]{] zt{nfO{ ;bljj]so\'Qm, Gofof]lrt / k|hftflGqs dfGg ;lsGg .

jtgq jr5 lgjf rgsf rf
:jtGq / :jR5 lgjf{rgsf ;"rfÍ
  • :jtGqtfk"j{s :jR5 jftfj/0fdf lgZkIf lgjf{rgdf ;xefuL x\'g !* aif{nfO{ of]Uo dtbftf dflg uf]Ko dtbfg ug]{,
  • dtbfg nufPt lgjf{rg ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ug{ ;+a}wflgs lgsfosf] ?kdf lgjf{rg cfof]usf] Joj:yf / cfof]unfO{ ef}lts, cfly{s / hgzlQmsf] k"tL{ ug]{ ;d]tsf] Joj:yf wf/f [email protected]*, [email protected]( / !#) df ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
  • eo / qf; /lxt aftfa/0f >[hgfsf k|of;,
slide95
;+ljwfg ;ef ;b:o pDd]bjf/sf] of]Uotfsf] k|Zg lg/f]k0f ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfntn] ug]{, wf/f ^^ t/ wf/f !!*-!_ n] ælgjf{rg ;DaGwL ph\'/L x]g{ Ps ;+ljwfg ;ef cbfnt u7g ul/g]5Æ eGg] Joj:yfsf] kl/k|]Iodf wf/f ^^ sf] k|of]hg s] sf nflu c:ki6,
  • lgjf{rgdf :jR5, lge{o jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ / xltof/sf] ;Defljt b\'?kof]unfO{ /f]Sgsf nflu wf/f !$& df pNn]v ul/Psf] æxltof/ tyf ;]gfsf] Joj:yfkg cg\'udg ;DaGwL ;Demf}tf – )^#Æ -d+l;/ @@_,
  • g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ jLr ;DkGg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf – )^#Æ -d+;L/ %_ nfO{ ljWodfg cj:yfdf lgikIf / :jtGq lgjf{rgsf] cfwf/:tDe dfGg ;lsG5,
  • ;+o\'Qm /fi6« ;+3 ;d]t cGt/f{li6«o cg\'udgstf{x?sf] cg\'udg .
d of ljj rgf dtsf plrt k ltlglwtjsf cefj m
$= ;d:of ljj]rgf!= dtsf] plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] cefj M
  • ljutdf /fHon] ckgfPsf] unt lgjf{rg k|0ffnL / /fHosf] ;+/rgfsf sf/0f /fi6«sf tdfd hflt, ju{, ;d\'bfo, cNk;+Vos / If]lqo ;Gt\'ng sfod x\'g ;s]g .
  • jkmfbf/ /Ifssf ?kdf l;ldIf JolQmx?nfO{ b]zsf cnu cnu If]q / ju{af6 dgf]lgt ug]{ k|rng .
  • %) % eGbf a9L dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj tLg cfd lgjf{rgdf %=*% clwsQd / /fli6«o ;efdf !!=& % clwsQd x\'g\'n] pRr n}lu+s lje]btf /x]sf].
slide97
#)=( % hg;+Vof ePsf] kxf8L afx\'g / If]qLsf] Go"gtd %% / a9Ldf ^# % / !!=^ % /x]sf t/fO{ tyf kxf8sf blntx?sf] )=% % dfq k|ltlglwTj x\'g\',
  • @# % eGbf a9L kxf8L cfbLjf;L hghfltsf] clwsQd !& % / $=# % d\':nLdsf] a9Ldf @=% % dfq k|ltlglwTj ePsf] hflto / jlu{o lje]b,
  • %=% % hg;+Vof ePsf] g]jf/sf] ^=* % ;Dd k|ltlglwTj ePsf],
  • !% % t/fO{jf;Lsf] a9Ldf [email protected] % /
  • * % t/fO{jf;L cfbLjf;Lsf] *=* % ;Dd k|ltlglwTj ePsf],
  • k|ltlglwTjsf] k|ltzt !((!, !(($ / !((( sf] lgjf{rgdf kxf8L afx\'g If]qL / t/fO{jf;Lsf] qmdzM pRr ljGb\' tkm{ / g]jf/ afx]s cGo hfltx?sf] pRraf6 Go"g ljGb\' tkm{ ;+qmdLt ePsf] kfOG5 .
slide98
kl/0ffd

!= c;dfg k|ltlglwTj

  • hg;+Vofsf] cg\'kftdf hflt, ju{, ;d\'bfo / If]qsf] k|ltlglwTj gx‘g],
  • hflt / tyf ln+u jLr pRr e]befj x\'g],
  • pTkLl8t, blnt hftnfO{ cjx]lnt Jojxf/ ug]{,
  • cfGbf]ngsf] b\'/L ;fy} l;dfGt, cNk;+Vos, hghflt, cflbjf;L, dw]zL, blnt hfltx? zf;g / cfly{s >f]tsf] kx\'Fraf6 cnUofpFb} n}hfg],
  • tL ju{, hftsf] cj;/, ;Ddfg / Ifdtf ;+s\'rg kfg]{,
  • OR5Lt pDd]bjf/sf] ;bf cefj x\'g] jf dtbfgdf OR5Lt ljsNk gx\'g],
  • dtsf] pRr sb/ gx\'g] /
  • ;a} hgtf ;fa{ef}d geP/ l;ldt JolQmx?dfq ;fa{ef}d ePsf] .
@ cnkdtsf lg s ztf m
@= cNkdtsf] lg/+s\'ztf M

@= cNkdtsf] lg/+s\'ztf M

  • ljutsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnLn] cNkdtåf/f ax\'dt pk/ zf;g ug]{ ck|hftflGqs Joj:yf ;+:yfut u/]sf],
  • !((!, !(($ / !((( sf] ;+;bLo lgjf{rg dWo] g]kfnL sf+u|];n] k|yd / t];|f] lgjf{rgdf #&=&% / #^=!$ % dt k|fKt u/]sf]df qmdz !!) -%#=^ %_ / !!! -%[email protected] %_ k|ltlglw 5flg ax\'dt pk/ zf;g u/]sf],
  • dtåf/f JoQm rfxgfsf] ;dfg\'kflts ;Ddfg gx\'g] / ul0flto a9L dt k|0ffnL dfkm{t k|ltlglwx?sf] 5gf}6 x\'g] x\'Fbf k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qdf k|To]s pDd]bjf/n] ax\'dtsf] k|ltlglwTj gu/]sf],
slide100
k|To]s k|ltlglw bnLo l;ldt ;+Vofsf lxt, cfTdLotf, ;\';DaGwsf nflu ax\'dtnfO{ cgfbf/, ckdfg ug]{ / ;+:yfut?kdf g} :yflgo :t/af6s]Gb|;Dd cNkdtsf] lg/+s\'ztf yf]kb{5 .

kl/0ffdtM

!= /fHosf] 7\'nf] lx:;f /fhlso sfo{sf] ;fem]bf/Laf6 cnlub} uPsf,

@=ax\'dt v]/ ,

#= k|fljlws sf/0fn] 7\'nf] dt ;+Vof k|ltlglw ljlxg ePsf,

$=;fgf bnx? 7"nf bnsf] / yf]/} l;6 ;+Vof ePsf] ;fgf] bn w]/} l;6 ;+Vof ePsf] 7"nf] bnsf] lg/+s\'ztfdf lkl;Psf,

%=;Dk"0f{, ju{, If]q hfltsf] k|ltlglwTj k|foM gePsf],

^= /fhg}lts bndf ljrng / sfo{stf{df ljWj+;fTds ;f]r a9\b} uPsf], /

&= lx+;fTds If]adf lta| cfs{if0f / a[lb ePsf] Jojxf/af6 k|dfl0ft .

afx n ljrf tyf fdflhs rgfsf k ltljda gx g m
#= afx\'n ljrf/ tyf ;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] k|ltljDa gx\'g\' M
  • a9L dt lgjf{rgn] k|lt:kwf{sf pRr b\'O{ /fhg}lts bn g} ;lqmo agfpg] / ;/sf/sf] xsbf/ agfpg] x\'Fbf b]zleq /x]sf ljrf/, wd{, ;+:s[lt, hft, ju{sf] afx\'n :j?k ;+;b tyf ;/sf/df k|ltljlDat x\'g ;s]g / gofF ljrf/, rfxfgf /fVg] /fhg}lts bnsf] :yfloTj ;bf ;d:ofk"0f{ ePsf]5 .
  • !((( sf] cfd lgjf{rgdf /fk|kf / Pdfn]af6 cnUuLPsf] -/fk|kf rGb_ / g]skf -dfn]_ n] #=# % / ^=$ % s\'n dt NofP/ klg Ps l;6 ;Dd k|fKt ug{ ;s]gg\ .
  • !((!, !(($ / !((( df qmdz [email protected], !( / #@ j6f /fhg}lts bnx?n] Ps pDd]bjf/ klg lgjf{lrt ug{ ;s]gg\ .
slide102
lgjf{rgdf ljhoL bn / ;xefuL pDd]bjf/n] ;fdflhs tyf If]lqo ;+/rgfsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;s]gg,
  • /fhg}lts bnx?;Fu c;Dj4tf hfx]/ ug]{ :jtGq pDd]bjf/x?sf] ;+Vof qmdz @!(, #*% / ^## k\'Ug\'n] klg lgjf{rgsf] cnf]slkotf :ki6 x\'‘G5 .

kl/0ffdtM

!= 7\'nf afx]s cGo /fhg}lts bndf ljt[i0ff k}bf u/]sf] b]lvG5,

@= gofF bn tyf :jtGq pDd]bjf/L k|lt cfs{if0f a9\g] b]lvG5,

#= plrt ;Ddfgsf] cefjdf c;+Vo pko\'Qm /fhg}lts ljrf/ / pDd]bjf/nfO{ knofg ug]{ jftfj/0f yKb} hfG5 .

a9l dt lgjf rg k 0ffnlsf kl 0ffd m
a9L dt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] kl/0ffd M
  • ljutaf6 k|of]u ul/Psf] a9L dt lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] bf]]if :j?k g]kfn h:tf] !)! hft hflt, ;d\'bfo, cNk;+Vos, wd{, ePsf] d\'n\'sdf clwsf+z To:tf ju{, hflt, ;d\'bfox? b]zsf] /fhg}lts, cfly{s / ;fdflhs d\'n k|jfxaf6 cnu x\'g k\'u] .
  • b]zsf] lgjf{rgx?df dtbftfsf] ;xeflutfdf ;Gtf]ifhgs a[l4 x\'g ;s]g .
  • dtbftfx?sf] ;xeflutf @)!%, @)#^ -hgdt;+u|x_, @)#*, @)$# -/f=k+= lgjf{rg_, @)$*, @)%) -cfd lgjf{rg_ df qmdzM [email protected]=*, ^^=(@, %@[email protected]&, ^)=#*, ^%=!% / ^@=)! %u/L clwsQd ^& %dtbftfx?n] dfq dtbfg u/]sf] kfOG5 .
slide104
;dfg\'kflt / ldl>t lgjf{rg ckgfpg] hd{gLsf] %) jif{sf] Oltxf; x]g]{ xf] eg] pQm dtbfg 36Ldf &&=* % / a9Ldf (!=! % ;Dd kfOG5 .
  • clgjfo{ dtbfg ePsf] ci6«]lnofdf (% % ;fdfGotof dtbfg x\'g] k|;+udf g]kfnsf] dtbftfx?df dtbfg k|lt pT;fx x\'g g;Sg\' cfkm}df k|0ffnLsf] g} bf]if dfGg\' k5{ lsgsL a9Ldt k|0ffnL ckgfpg] a]nfotdf klg @))! sf] lgjf{rg kl/0ffdn] %(=$ % dfq dtbfg ePsf] b]lvG5 . hd{gLdf dtbfg k|ltzt

!($( -&*=%_, !(%# -*&_, !(%& -*&=*_, !(^! -*&=(_, !(^% -*^=*_, !(^( -*^=&_, !(&@ -(!=!_, !(&^ -()[email protected]_, !(*) -**=^_, !(*# -*(=!_, !(*& -*$=#_, !(() -&&=*_, !(($ -&(_ / !((* -*@[email protected]_

Federal Election in German, German Embassy, Washington DC, www.germany.info.org

lgzsif
%= lgZsif{

lgjf{rg k|0ffnLsf] 9fFrfM

  • cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] ldl>t lgjf{rg dWo] a9L dt / ;dfg\'kflts k|0ffnL ckgfpg] Joj:yf ul/ ;s]sf] x\'Fbf s:tf] a9L dt k|0ffnL / ;dfg\'kflt k|0ffnL ckgfpg] eGg] k|Zgdfq lg/f]k0f ug\'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
  • xfn k|of]udf /x]sf] &% lhNnfsf] ;+/rgf kl/jt{g u/L #÷$ dlxgfleq lgjf{rg ;DkGg ug{ c;Dej 5 / xfns} lhNnf oyfjt /fvL @)% lgjf{rg :yfgnfO{ ax\':yfg lgjf{rgdf kl/jt{g ul/Pdf
  • Ps} lhNnfsf] cnu cnu lgjf{rg If]qsf] k|ltlglw aLrsf] åGb ;dfKt x\'g] / ;f] lhNnfsf] ;Dk"0f{ dtbftf k|lt ;a} k|ltlglw ;dfg ?kdf lhDd]jf/ x\'g] cj:yf >[hgf x\'g ;S5 .
  • Ps lgjf{rg If]qaf6 ax\' lgjf{rg If]qsf] Joj:yf ugf{;fy dtbftfx?df 5gf}6sf] a9L cj;/ k|fKt e} Psn :yfgdf eGbf a9L of]Uo pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 x\'g ;S5 .
slide106
pDd]bjf/n]] l;ldt If]qnfO{ dg, wg / ansf] cfwf/df ;\'/IfLt /fvL jkf}tLsf] g]tf x\'g] tyf bn, /fHodf c/fhs x\'g] cj:yfsf] cGt x\'g ;S5 .
  • of] ljlwn] g]tfsf] rft\'{o >]i7tf eGbf dtbftfsf] ul/df / ;j{ef}lds x}l;ot :yflkt ub{5 .
slide107
afFsL @@) [email protected])$ ++ !^_ ;b:o g} ;dfg\'kflt lgjf{rgsf nflu /fvL ;/sf/af6 dgf]lgt ug]{ u}|x| k|hftflGqs k|s[ofsf] cGt ug]{ .
  • /fHonfO{ g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL dlxnf, blnt, pTkLl8t, cflbjf;L hghflt, lk5l8Psf If]q / dw]zLx?sf] kf6L{ ;"rL tof/ ubf{ ljBdfg !)! hfltx? dWo] sd;\'lawfk|fKthfltx?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg], .
  • ;Dk"0f{ b]z g} Ps lgjf{rg If]q x\'Fbf ;"rL nfdf] x\'g] / ;DaGwLt hflt, ;d\'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf ;a} dtbftfn] lrGg sl7gfO{ x\'g] x\'Fbf b]znfO{ ^÷& lgjf{rg If]q agfO{ r\'gfj ug]{,
  • dtx?sf] u0fgf / pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf}6 Psd\'i6, s]lGb|s[t u/L dtbftfsf] :t/sf] sf/0f v\'Nnf ;"rL Jojxfl/s gx\'g] x\'Fbf aGb ;"rL k|of]udf Nofpg] /
  • ;"rL agfpg k|o\'Qm ju{, If]q, hfltx? aLr 5gf}6 ug{ pgLx?sf] Ps?ktfk"0f{ ;"rf+s agfpg]] .
slide109
cGo

@=! b\'j} k|s[ofaf6 lgjf{lrt k|ltlglw b]z / bn k|lt hjfkmb]xL agfpg hjfkmb]xLsf ;"rf+s ljsfz ug]{ .

@[email protected] cfwf eGbf a9L hg;+Vof cf]u6]sf] dlxnfx?sf] Go"gtd ## % / a9Ldf hg;+Vofsf] cg\'kftdf k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] .

@=# pDd]bjf/sf] tl:j/ dtkq / dt ;"rLdf clgjfo{ /fVg] .

@=$ dtbftfsf] ;\'ljwfsf nflu dtbfg s]Gb|sf] plrt Joj:yf ug]{ .

@=% of]Uo dtbftfsf] clwsQd ;xeflutfsf nflu dtbfg lzIff, dtbftf ;\'/Iff / dtkqsf] ;/nLs/0f ug]{ .

@=^ cnu cnu dtkqsf] k|of]u ug]{ .

@=& dtbftfsf] gfdfjnL tof/L j}1flgs 9+uaf6 u/L ;dodf g} dtbftfsf] If]qdf pknAw u/fpg] .

slide110
@=* c:yfoL a;f]jf; u/]sf] If]qaf6 dtbfg ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] .

@=( unt dtbfg pk/ s7f]/ lgoGq0f ug]{ .

@=!) lgjf{rg ko{j]Ifs, kqsf/ / dfgj clwsf/ 6f]nLnfO{ lgjfw ?kdf dtbfg s]Gb|sf] ko{j]If0f ug{ lbg] .

lgjf{rg cfof]u k|ltj]bg, @))! / sf]kgx]ug ;Dd]ng -!(()_ n] Joj:yfdf cfwfl/t .

slide111
@=!! dtbfg s]Gb|, dtk]l6sf / dtu0fgf :ynsf] kof{Kt ;\'/Iff k|aGw ug]{,

@[email protected] dtkqdf dtbfg clws[tsf] dtbfg s]Gb|df g} x:tfIf/ u/L dtbftfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] .

@=!# dtbfg s]Gb| / cf;kf;df lge{otfk"j{s, :jtGqtfk"j{s / :jlj]j]sk"j{s uf]Ko dtbfg ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg] .

@=!$ dtbftf / pDd]bjf/sf] kof{Kt ;\'/Iff Joj:yf ug]{ .

@=!% l;dfGt hflt / cNk ;+Vos hfltsf] nflu ;dfg\'kflt lgjf{rgdf ljz]if dt sf]6f 5\'6\ofpg] .

@=!^ pDd]bjf/sf] cof]Uotf ;DaGwL cgfjZos Joj:yf x6fpg] .

slide112
@=!& pDd]bjf/L lbg] / lgjf{rg k|rf/ k|;f/, cfd;ef, h\'n\'z / 5nkmn ljgf cj/f]w :jtGqtfk"j{s ug{ lbg\'kg]{ .

@=!* dtbftf tyf pDd]bjf/sf] ph\'/L, lg0f{o pDd]bjf/ tyf dtbftfsf] clGtd gfdfjnL lgsfNg\'k"j{ ug\'{kg]{ / lgjf{rg ;DaGwL lg0f{o # dlxgf leq ug\'{kg]{ .

@=!( /fhg}lts bn btf{ ug{ xfn Jojl:yt !) xhf/ dtbftfsf] x:tfIf/ Joj:yf vf/]h u/L ;fdfGo 9+uaf6 bn btf{ ug{ lbg] .

@[email protected]) lgjf{rg ;+rfng ;DaGwL lgod tyf cfrf/ ;lxtf agfpg] / lgjf{rg ;DkGg ug{ cfjZos k|fljlws, k|zf;lgs / cfly{s Joj:yf k|efjsf/L ?kdf ug]{ .

@[email protected]! /fhg}lts bn tyf pDd]bjf/n] ug]{ lgjf{rgsf] vr{ Jojxfl/s agfpg] / s7f]/ kfngf u/fpg] .

@[email protected]@ /fHo / /fhg}lts bnjLr :ki6 ljefhg sfod u/L lgjf{rgdf cnu cnu x}l;otdf /xg clgjfo{ Joj:yf ug]{ .