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The Iliad Book 9 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Iliad Book 9. Lines 16-28 & 31-51. Katie Collins, Joseline Mata, Mauricio Salazar Period: 6. Lines 16-28. In these lines Agamemnon is speaking. He is addressing the leaders of the Achaians .

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The Iliad Book 9

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The Iliad Book 9

Lines 16-28 & 31-51

Katie Collins, Joseline Mata, Mauricio Salazar

Period: 6


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Lines 16-28

  • In these lines Agamemnon is speaking.

  • He is addressing the leaders of the Achaians.

  • The Achaians are extremely dispirited and Agamemnon calls the men to the assembly to deliver his speech:

  • Paraphrase

  • Groaning heavily, Agamemnon spoke to the Argives: ‘Friends, who are leaders of the Argives and offer council and advice to the soldiers: Zeus, son of Kronos, has trapped me in an unpleasant and bitter situation.

  • Continued…

*Achaians: Greeks *Argives: Greeks, Achaians


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Lines 16-28

‘He is stern and harsh: before now he promised me that I might overtake the strongly guarded city of Troy and I may sail homeward. Now he has devised a cruel deception and wants me to return to Argos, only to face the dishonor at having lost so many of my people. This would be pleasing to Zeus, who is too strong and has destroyed many cities and will continue to do so, since his power is beyond all others. Come then, and let us give in to his wish. Let us run away on our ships and back to our homeland since we shall no longer capture the city of Troy.’

*Deception: to be mislead by false statement

*Argos: the home of the soldiers, “Greece”


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Lines 16-28

The purpose of Agamemnon’s speech is to try to convince the Achaians to go home. Though in the past he has tested them and tried to encourage fiercer battle, in this passage he seems to have truly given up.

Following this passage, Diomedes completely disagrees with Agamemnon and begins his speech on how Agamemnon can go home if he wishes, but the brave Achaians, including Diomedes, will see the battle through until the end.


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Lines 16-28

  • Repeated words and phrases:

  • Non positive references to Zeus and his ways

  • “Now he has devised a vile deception” ; “Zeus, son of Kronos, has caught me in bitter futility- (incapable of producing result; unsuccessful)” ; “…Zeus, who is too strong, who before now has broken the crests of many cities…”

  • Mentioning that Troy can no longer be captured

  • “…since we will no longer capture Troy of the wide ways” ; “…before this time promised me that I might sack strong-walled Ilion…”

  • (This repetition is Agamemnon’s way of persuading the Argives to agree that staying and fighting against the Trojans is no longer a good option and that putting faith in Zeus is not a good idea since he betrayed Agamemnon).


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Lines 16-28

  • Greek Values

  • Agathos: (in this case Agathoi): “Friends who are leaders of the Argives…” therefore the assembly is a group of superior social class or noble station among the Greeks.

  • Tîmé: “…and bids me go back to Argos in dishonour, having lost many of my people.” Zeus would be taking Agamemnon’s tîmé from him by having him return home without a victory (and thus stripping his chance of kleos-glory), therefore damaging his honor.

  • Aréte: Using the same example from tîmé: because his excellence and superiority as maintained through war is being threatened he proposes: “Let us run away with our ships…since no longer now shall we capture Troy of the wide ways.”


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Lines 16-28

  • Persuasive Techniques

  • Ethos: “Friends, who are leaders of the Argives…”

  • Here Agamemnon refers to the council as his friends in developing his ethos so he may seem more trustworthy and sincere.

  • Pathos: “Come then, do as I say, let us all be won over; let us run away with our ships to the beloved land of our fathers since no longer now shall we capture Troy of the wide ways.”

  • He appeals to the emotions of his audience by making the situation seem hopeless, but then gives them firm guidance and seems trustworthy so they will listen to him.


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Lines 16-28

  • Persuasive Techniques

  • Pathos: “Zeus, son of Kronos, has caught me in bitter futility. He is hard: who before this time promised me and consented me that I might sack strong-walled Ilion and sail homeward. Now he has devised a vile deception and bids me go back to Argos in dishonour having lost many of my people. Such is the way it will be pleasing to Zeus…”

  • By using vivid language he appeals to the emotions of the leaders of the Argives by making them feel sorry for him, since he is disliked by the most powerful god.


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Lines 31-51

  • In these lines Diomedes is speaking in response to Agamemnon’s speech in lines 16-28.

  • He is addressing Agamemnon and to an extent the Achaians.

  • Agamemnon had just spoken in an effort to convince the Greeks to sail homeward with him when Diomedes responds with his speech:

  • Paraphrase

  • Diomedes of the great war cry addressed them: ‘Agamemnon: I will be the first to say that is completely ridiculous and foolish, as it is in my right to say so since I am in this assembly. So do not be angry.

  • Continued…


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Lines 31-51

‘I was the first of the Achaians whose valor you insulted- saying I had no courage and was un-warlike. All men in the Argives know you have said this. Zeus, son of devious Kronos has given you a gift: the scepter which instills incomparable honor. However, he did not give you a heart, which is truly the greatest of all powers. Do you truly believe, son of Atreus, that the Achaians are so weak in their hearts? If your own heart is so set upon leaving then go. In the water are all of the ships that came with you from your homeland, so leave if that is what you want.

*Valor: boldness in facing great danger

*Scepter: a rod that symbolizes regal or imperial power

Continued…


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Lines 31-51

‘The rest of the flowing-haired Achaians will stay here until we finally take the city of Troy. And even if the entire army was to leave and go home to the land of their fathers, Sthenelos and I will fight until we see the end of Troy; for it was with God’s permission that we came here.’

With this speech Diomedes is trying to prevent the Achaians from falling victim to Agamemnon’s persuasion, and instead to stay and fight. We know this because of his appeal to pathos, in which he makes the soldiers feel guilty about the thought of going home knowing he, Diomedes, would remain and fight.


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Lines 31-51

Following Diomedes’ speech, Nestor steps up and begins to speak about how the Argives should let the matter lie and enjoy a meal and sleep. By mentioning his age and maturity he implies the men should listen to him, for he says this is the night that will make or break the army.


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Lines 31-51

  • Repeated words and phrases:

  • Implications that Agamemnon is not a good leader, doesn’t believe in his soldiers, and is not to be listened to: “…but he (Zeus) did not give you a heart…” ; “…can you really believe the sons of the Achaians are so un-warlike and so weak of their hearts as you call them?” ; “But if in truth your own heart is so set upon going, go. The way is there… and yet the rest of the flowing haired Achaians will stay here until we have sacked the city of Troy.”

  • (This is Diomedes’ way of persuading the Argives that Agamemnon should not be trusted, since he only has his own interests at hand if he is so willing to forget these past 9 years of battle simply so his reputation won’t be damaged.)


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Lines 31-51

  • Greek Values

  • Tîmé/Agathos: “I was the first of the Danaans whose valour you slighted and said I was un-warlike and without courage.” ; “…let even these also run away with their ships to the beloved land of their fathers, still… I will fight until…the end of Ilion…”

  • Here Diomedes is defending his tîmé that Agamemnon has insulted. He says will stay and fight to defend his tîmé and continue to be an agathos (a successful warrior) and may therefore demonstrate his arête (excellence/superiority).He is also implying by saying he will stay and fight that he will strive for kleos, or glory.


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Lines 31-51

  • Persuasive Techniques

  • Ethos/Pathos: “…I will be the first to fight with your folly, as is my right, lord, in this assembly, do not be angered. I was the first of the Danaans whose valour you slighted and said I was un-warlike and without courage. The young men of the Argives know all of these things and the elders know it.”

  • Here Diomedes is developing his ethos by providing reliable resources at the start of his argument so that the Argives will see him as trustworthy and listen to him throughout the rest of his speech. He appeals to the emotions of his audience by trying to get them to feel sympathy for him by speaking about how his greatest value was insulted.


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Lines 31-51

  • Persuasive Techniques

  • Pathos: “Sir, sir, can you really believe the sons of the Achaians are so unwarlike and so weak of their hearts as you call them?”

  • Diomedes is appealing to pathos by telling the Achaians that Agamemnon does not believe they are brave, fierce fighters and that instead they are weak hearted so they might essentially choose Diomedes’ “side” and stay and fight.


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The End

Lines 16-28 & 31-51

Katie Collins, Joseline Mata, Mauricino Salazar


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