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Development and Implementation of a Virtual Advanced Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction. Maria C. Pruchnicki, PharmD, BCPS Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy April 10, 2007. Objectives. Describe a rationale for online educational experiences

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Development and Implementation of a Virtual Advanced Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

Maria C. Pruchnicki, PharmD, BCPS

Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy

April 10, 2007

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe a rationale for online educational experiences
    • Focus on learning and teaching experiences
  • Provide a description of the Virtual (Online) Advanced Teaching Rotation
    • Describe structure and delivery of the online rotation
    • Identify key features of Web-based instruction
  • Discuss outcomes and transfer of the experience
project methods
Project Methods

1. Rationale

step 1 rationale
Step 1: Rationale
  • Penetration of distance education
    • Pedagogy/andragogy
    • Educational technology
  • Challenges to academy
    • “Graying” of faculty
  • Benefits for participants
    • Institutions
    • Student teachers
    • Faculty preceptors
distance education penetration
Distance Education - Penetration
  • e-Learning opportunities more available
  • In higher education institutions:
    • In Ohio, 64,000 students estimated to have completed an online course1
    • Nationally, online enrollments in 2005 increased to a high of 3.2 million2,3
      • 2.35 million in 2004
      • 1.98 million in 2003
    • Nearly 60% of institutions identify e-learning as a long term educational strategy2

1. Expanding delivery: e-learning in Ohio, Annual report of the Ohio Learning Network. [Internet] ; 2006 December. Available from: http://www.oln.org/about_oln/pdf/Expanding_Delivery.pdf. [Accessed 4/9/07]. 2. The Sloan Consortium. Making the grade: online education in the United States, 2006. Needham, MA: Sloan-C; 2006. Available from: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/index.asp. [Accessed 3/15/07]; 3. The Sloan Consortium. Growing by degrees: online education in the United States, 2005. Needham, MA: Sloan-C; 2005 2005. Available from: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/index.asp. [Accessed 10/20/06].

distance education penetration1
Distance Education - Penetration
  • Variety of formats
    • all online ( > 80% online, no face-to-face)
    • blended/hybrid (30 – 79% online with some face-to-face)
    • web-facilitated (1 - 29% online, usually supplement a face-to-face class)
  • Variety of technologies
    • course management systems
    • internal web-pages
    • Internet-based conferencing software (1997)
      • participants are part of a social learning community.
benefits for institutions
Benefits for Institutions
  • ~ 400 vacant faculty positions (04-05)4
    • 55.7% of vacant positions due to lack of qualified candidates
    • One mechanism to identify and nurture appropriate candidates5
  • Increases number of experiential sites
  • Provides a model for peer teaching

4. Roche VF. Securing our future. Am J Pharm Ed 2001;65:202-3.

benefits for individuals
Benefits for Individuals
  • For student teachers
    • Pedagogical foundation for teaching
    • Application to clinical education
    • Opportunity for career mentoring
  • For faculty preceptors
    • Pedagogical foundation for teaching
    • Opportunity for student mentoring
    • Enhance professional satisfaction
goal good teaching
Goal: “Good Teaching”
  • Transferof content knowledge
  • Core skills6 for the classroom
    • Learning styles and teaching strategies
    • Course construction/administration
    • Student assessment and teaching evaluation
  • Scholarship of teaching
    • Study in field of learning
    • Reflection and evaluation

6. Lee et al. Final report and recommendations of the 2002 AACP Task Force on the Role of Colleges and Schools in Residency Training.Am J Pharm Ed 2004;68:S02.

existing resources
Existing Resources
  • OSU and College of Pharmacy:
    • Faculty and TA Development (FTAD)
    • Orientation on Teaching & Learning
    • Technology Enhanced Learning & Research (TELR)
    • 2-Day Teaching Workshop
    • Elective teaching rotations
    • Computing and Educational Technology group
the gap
The “Gap” . . .
  • Non-traditional students
    • Practicing B.S. pharmacists → Pharm.D.
    • Distance-based (online) curriculum
    • 8 months of experiential rotations
  • Other student teachers, new faculty
    • Winter, Spring quarters
    • Outside lecturers, facilitators
key features
Key Features
  • Identify the need/purpose
    • Web-assisted vs. Web-based
    • Flexible, access from distance
  • Identify existing resources
    • Teaching experts
    • Technology infrastructure
  • Define additional needed resources
    • Rotation preceptor(s)
    • Instructional design expert
step 2 development
Step 2: Development

Overview - 2 required components

Teaching

Skills

Curriculum

Teaching

Activities

teaching skills curriculum
Teaching Skills Curriculum
  • Web-based curriculum
    • Course management platform
      • Carmen (WebCT)
    • Seven content modules
  • Course management tools:
    • Rotation syllabus
    • Calendar
    • Assignment “dropbox”
teaching activities
Teaching Activities
  • Rotation responsibilities:
    • Write a Teaching Philosophy
    • Keep a teaching journal
    • Attend weekly team meetings
    • Lead a discussion on teaching
teaching activities1
Teaching Activities
  • Class responsibilities:
    • Draft a syllabus
    • Write learning objectives
    • Plan lecture and/or workshop
    • Identify assessment methods
    • Write exam questions and grade assignments
    • Create teaching evaluation tools
live teaching
Live Teaching
  • Plan and deliver live teaching sessions:
    • Case discussions
    • Lectures
    • Review sessions or office hours
  • Online classroom
    • Elluminate Live™ eLearning Platform
key features1
Key Features
  • Reconceptualize learning material
    • Making decisions about how content will be presented/shared online
    • NOT “slapping class content online”
  • Build in interactivity
    • Student with content
    • Student with instructor
    • Student with other students

50%

50%

step 3 implementation
Step 3. Implementation
  • Live students!
  • Meet weekly for discussions
    • Additional meetings as needed
  • Direct observation of teaching
  • Electronic teaching portfolio
  • FTAD consultation
    • Summative, individualized feedback
evaluation of students
Evaluation of Students
  • Timesheet (160 hrs = 5 Cr)
  • Periodic evaluations
    • Self-evaluation (student teacher)
    • Student evaluation
    • Peer and preceptor evaluation
  • Teaching Skills rubric
    • Formative assessment tool
    • Based on primary trait analysis7

7. Baughin et al. Primary trait analysis: a tool for classroom-based assessment. Coll Teach 2002;50:75-80.

key features2
Key Features
  • Plan up front
    • Training (technology)
    • Contingency plans
    • Flexibility
      • “Just in time” learning
      • Required vs. negotiable
  • Budget extra time
    • Preparation
    • Communication
    • Feedback and evaluation
step 4 project assessment
Step 4: Project Assessment
  • 16 completions since Au 2003
    • 4 completions from residential program
  • Rotation requests
  • Rotation evaluations - students
    • Summative (experiential office)
  • Iterative process for content/function
    • Ongoing development and modification
    • Consulted with FTAD in Dec. 2004
outcomes rotation evaluations

Likert Rating‡

Preceptor characteristics: adequate attention to student, outlined expectations, provided constructive feedback, and attitude of professionalism and respect.

1

Rotation/ site characteristics: rotation environment, sufficient professional interactions, access to support services, appropriate level of responsibility, and opportunity for professional growth.

1

Evaluation Criteria:

Evaluation Criteria:

Evaluation Criteria:

Rating‡

Rating‡

Rating‡

Preceptorcharacteristics, including attention, expectations, constructive feedback, and respect.

Preceptorcharacteristics, including attention, expectations, constructive feedback, and respect.

Preceptorcharacteristics, including attention, expectations, constructive feedback, and respect.

1

1

1

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

1

Rotation/site characteristics, including environment, professional interactions, support services, responsibilities, and professional growth.

Rotation/site characteristics, including environment, professional interactions, support services, responsibilities, and professional growth.

Rotation/site characteristics, including environment, professional interactions, support services, responsibilities, and professional growth.

1

1

1

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

1

1

1

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent)

to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

Outcomes: Rotation Evaluations

Characteristics

outcomes student teachers
Outcomes: Student Teachers
  • Gain teaching experience
  • Increases confidence in abilities
    • Successful use of teaching strategies
    • Utilizing active learning techniques
    • Enhancing learning through collaboration
  • May facilitate adjunct faculty process and future teaching opportunities
self confidence survey
Self-Confidence Survey
  • Administered pre- and post-rotation
  • Assesses 9 teaching dimensions
    • Ability to identify and achieve teaching goals (self) and learning goals (students)
    • Ability to identify and implement appropriate teaching strategies
    • Ability to help students “construct” knowledge and assess learning
  • Tracks changes on a Likert-type scale
    • 1 = Very confident to 4 = Not at all confident
survey results
Survey Results

*Using scale of 1 = Very confident to 4 = Not at all confident

slide31

Survey Results

N=13

Very confident

Not at all confident

Q. 5: How confident do you as an instructor feel in achieving the

Following: use active learning techniques to enhance student learning?

outcomes
Outcomes
  • Transferability
    • Teaching Curriculum modules
    • Residential Pharm.D. rotations
    • Website vs. Carmen (WebCT)
  • Limitations
    • Model may be “best fit” for only a few types of teaching experiences
    • Rotation reaches a small number of students
    • Teaching Curriculum has restricted access through WebCT/Carmen
      • Only @osu.edu
      • May be considered a benefit
key features3
Key Features
  • Recruit successful online students
    • Motivated, independent learners
    • Good time management skills
    • Able to adapt to environment
    • Open minded and communicative
  • Be prepared to be involved
    • Requires as much (more) time than residential class
  • Monitor outcomes and limitations
  • Evaluate success
    • “No significant difference” phenomenon8,9

8. Russell T. No significant difference: Phenomenon as reported in 248 research reports, summaries, and papers (4th ed.). Raleigh: North Caroline State University;1998. 9. Merisotis JP and Phipps RA. What’s the difference? A review of contemporary research on the effectiveness of distance learning in higher education. Washington D.C.; The Institute for Higher Education Policy; 1999.

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Faculty Collaborators
    • Prof. Marialice Bennett
    • Dr. Julie E. Legg
    • Dr. Dennis Mungall
  • Student teachers
  • FTAD Office
    • Dr. Alan Kalish
    • Instructional consultants:
      • Kathy Harper
      • Kathryn Plank
      • Stephanie Rohdieck
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