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Development and Implementation of a Virtual Advanced Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction. Maria C. Pruchnicki, PharmD, BCPS Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy April 10, 2007. Objectives. Describe a rationale for online educational experiences

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Development and Implementation of a Virtual Advanced Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

Maria C. Pruchnicki, PharmD, BCPS

Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy

April 10, 2007


Objectives
Objectives Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Describe a rationale for online educational experiences

    • Focus on learning and teaching experiences

  • Provide a description of the Virtual (Online) Advanced Teaching Rotation

    • Describe structure and delivery of the online rotation

    • Identify key features of Web-based instruction

  • Discuss outcomes and transfer of the experience


Project methods
Project Methods Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

1. Rationale


Step 1 rationale
Step 1: Rationale Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Penetration of distance education

    • Pedagogy/andragogy

    • Educational technology

  • Challenges to academy

    • “Graying” of faculty

  • Benefits for participants

    • Institutions

    • Student teachers

    • Faculty preceptors


Distance education penetration
Distance Education - Penetration Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • e-Learning opportunities more available

  • In higher education institutions:

    • In Ohio, 64,000 students estimated to have completed an online course1

    • Nationally, online enrollments in 2005 increased to a high of 3.2 million2,3

      • 2.35 million in 2004

      • 1.98 million in 2003

    • Nearly 60% of institutions identify e-learning as a long term educational strategy2

1. Expanding delivery: e-learning in Ohio, Annual report of the Ohio Learning Network. [Internet] ; 2006 December. Available from: http://www.oln.org/about_oln/pdf/Expanding_Delivery.pdf. [Accessed 4/9/07]. 2. The Sloan Consortium. Making the grade: online education in the United States, 2006. Needham, MA: Sloan-C; 2006. Available from: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/index.asp. [Accessed 3/15/07]; 3. The Sloan Consortium. Growing by degrees: online education in the United States, 2005. Needham, MA: Sloan-C; 2005 2005. Available from: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/index.asp. [Accessed 10/20/06].


Distance education penetration1
Distance Education - Penetration Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Variety of formats

    • all online ( > 80% online, no face-to-face)

    • blended/hybrid (30 – 79% online with some face-to-face)

    • web-facilitated (1 - 29% online, usually supplement a face-to-face class)

  • Variety of technologies

    • course management systems

    • internal web-pages

    • Internet-based conferencing software (1997)

      • participants are part of a social learning community.


Benefits for institutions
Benefits for Institutions Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • ~ 400 vacant faculty positions (04-05)4

    • 55.7% of vacant positions due to lack of qualified candidates

    • One mechanism to identify and nurture appropriate candidates5

  • Increases number of experiential sites

  • Provides a model for peer teaching

4. Roche VF. Securing our future. Am J Pharm Ed 2001;65:202-3.


Benefits for individuals
Benefits for Individuals Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • For student teachers

    • Pedagogical foundation for teaching

    • Application to clinical education

    • Opportunity for career mentoring

  • For faculty preceptors

    • Pedagogical foundation for teaching

    • Opportunity for student mentoring

    • Enhance professional satisfaction


Goal good teaching
Goal: “Good Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based InstructionTeaching”

  • Transferof content knowledge

  • Core skills6 for the classroom

    • Learning styles and teaching strategies

    • Course construction/administration

    • Student assessment and teaching evaluation

  • Scholarship of teaching

    • Study in field of learning

    • Reflection and evaluation

6. Lee et al. Final report and recommendations of the 2002 AACP Task Force on the Role of Colleges and Schools in Residency Training.Am J Pharm Ed 2004;68:S02.


Existing resources
Existing Resources Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • OSU and College of Pharmacy:

    • Faculty and TA Development (FTAD)

    • Orientation on Teaching & Learning

    • Technology Enhanced Learning & Research (TELR)

    • 2-Day Teaching Workshop

    • Elective teaching rotations

    • Computing and Educational Technology group


The gap
The “Gap” . . . Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Non-traditional students

    • Practicing B.S. pharmacists → Pharm.D.

    • Distance-based (online) curriculum

    • 8 months of experiential rotations

  • Other student teachers, new faculty

    • Winter, Spring quarters

    • Outside lecturers, facilitators


Key features
Key Features Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Identify the need/purpose

    • Web-assisted vs. Web-based

    • Flexible, access from distance

  • Identify existing resources

    • Teaching experts

    • Technology infrastructure

  • Define additional needed resources

    • Rotation preceptor(s)

    • Instructional design expert


Step 2 development
Step 2: Development Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

Overview - 2 required components

Teaching

Skills

Curriculum

Teaching

Activities


Teaching skills curriculum
Teaching Skills Curriculum Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Web-based curriculum

    • Course management platform

      • Carmen (WebCT)

    • Seven content modules

  • Course management tools:

    • Rotation syllabus

    • Calendar

    • Assignment “dropbox”


WebCT View of Curriculum Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction


Module 1: Learning and Teaching Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction


Teaching activities
Teaching Activities Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Rotation responsibilities:

    • Write a Teaching Philosophy

    • Keep a teaching journal

    • Attend weekly team meetings

    • Lead a discussion on teaching


Teaching activities1
Teaching Activities Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Class responsibilities:

    • Draft a syllabus

    • Write learning objectives

    • Plan lecture and/or workshop

    • Identify assessment methods

    • Write exam questions and grade assignments

    • Create teaching evaluation tools


Live teaching
Live Teaching Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Plan and deliver live teaching sessions:

    • Case discussions

    • Lectures

    • Review sessions or office hours

  • Online classroom

    • Elluminate Live™ eLearning Platform


Key features1
Key Features Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Reconceptualize learning material

    • Making decisions about how content will be presented/shared online

    • NOT “slapping class content online”

  • Build in interactivity

    • Student with content

    • Student with instructor

    • Student with other students

50%

50%


Step 3 implementation
Step 3. Implementation Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Live students!

  • Meet weekly for discussions

    • Additional meetings as needed

  • Direct observation of teaching

  • Electronic teaching portfolio

  • FTAD consultation

    • Summative, individualized feedback


WebCT View of Electronic Portfolio Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction


Elluminate Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction™ Classroom


Evaluation of students
Evaluation of Students Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Timesheet (160 hrs = 5 Cr)

  • Periodic evaluations

    • Self-evaluation (student teacher)

    • Student evaluation

    • Peer and preceptor evaluation

  • Teaching Skills rubric

    • Formative assessment tool

    • Based on primary trait analysis7

7. Baughin et al. Primary trait analysis: a tool for classroom-based assessment. Coll Teach 2002;50:75-80.


Key features2
Key Features Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Plan up front

    • Training (technology)

    • Contingency plans

    • Flexibility

      • “Just in time” learning

      • Required vs. negotiable

  • Budget extra time

    • Preparation

    • Communication

    • Feedback and evaluation


Step 4 project assessment
Step 4: Project Assessment Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • 16 completions since Au 2003

    • 4 completions from residential program

  • Rotation requests

  • Rotation evaluations - students

    • Summative (experiential office)

  • Iterative process for content/function

    • Ongoing development and modification

    • Consulted with FTAD in Dec. 2004


Outcomes rotation evaluations

Likert Rating Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction‡

Preceptor characteristics: adequate attention to student, outlined expectations, provided constructive feedback, and attitude of professionalism and respect.

1

Rotation/ site characteristics: rotation environment, sufficient professional interactions, access to support services, appropriate level of responsibility, and opportunity for professional growth.

1

Evaluation Criteria:

Evaluation Criteria:

Evaluation Criteria:

Rating‡

Rating‡

Rating‡

Preceptorcharacteristics, including attention, expectations, constructive feedback, and respect.

Preceptorcharacteristics, including attention, expectations, constructive feedback, and respect.

Preceptorcharacteristics, including attention, expectations, constructive feedback, and respect.

1

1

1

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

1

Rotation/site characteristics, including environment, professional interactions, support services, responsibilities, and professional growth.

Rotation/site characteristics, including environment, professional interactions, support services, responsibilities, and professional growth.

Rotation/site characteristics, including environment, professional interactions, support services, responsibilities, and professional growth.

1

1

1

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

Overall evaluation of preceptor(s) and rotation.

1

1

1

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent)

to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

*Including two entry-level Pharm.D. students

‡Median response to general categories, evaluated on scale of 1 (Excellent) to 5 (Unacceptable); no ratings were below 2.

Outcomes: Rotation Evaluations

Characteristics


Outcomes student teachers
Outcomes: Student Teachers Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Gain teaching experience

  • Increases confidence in abilities

    • Successful use of teaching strategies

    • Utilizing active learning techniques

    • Enhancing learning through collaboration

  • May facilitate adjunct faculty process and future teaching opportunities


Self confidence survey
Self-Confidence Survey Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Administered pre- and post-rotation

  • Assesses 9 teaching dimensions

    • Ability to identify and achieve teaching goals (self) and learning goals (students)

    • Ability to identify and implement appropriate teaching strategies

    • Ability to help students “construct” knowledge and assess learning

  • Tracks changes on a Likert-type scale

    • 1 = Very confident to 4 = Not at all confident


Survey results
Survey Results Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

*Using scale of 1 = Very confident to 4 = Not at all confident


Survey Results Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

N=13

Very confident

Not at all confident

Q. 5: How confident do you as an instructor feel in achieving the

Following: use active learning techniques to enhance student learning?


Outcomes
Outcomes Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Transferability

    • Teaching Curriculum modules

    • Residential Pharm.D. rotations

    • Website vs. Carmen (WebCT)

  • Limitations

    • Model may be “best fit” for only a few types of teaching experiences

    • Rotation reaches a small number of students

    • Teaching Curriculum has restricted access through WebCT/Carmen

      • Only @osu.edu

      • May be considered a benefit


Key features3
Key Features Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Recruit successful online students

    • Motivated, independent learners

    • Good time management skills

    • Able to adapt to environment

    • Open minded and communicative

  • Be prepared to be involved

    • Requires as much (more) time than residential class

  • Monitor outcomes and limitations

  • Evaluate success

    • “No significant difference” phenomenon8,9

8. Russell T. No significant difference: Phenomenon as reported in 248 research reports, summaries, and papers (4th ed.). Raleigh: North Caroline State University;1998. 9. Merisotis JP and Phipps RA. What’s the difference? A review of contemporary research on the effectiveness of distance learning in higher education. Washington D.C.; The Institute for Higher Education Policy; 1999.


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

  • Faculty Collaborators

    • Prof. Marialice Bennett

    • Dr. Julie E. Legg

    • Dr. Dennis Mungall

  • Student teachers

  • FTAD Office

    • Dr. Alan Kalish

    • Instructional consultants:

      • Kathy Harper

      • Kathryn Plank

      • Stephanie Rohdieck


Questions
Questions Teaching Rotation: A Case Study in Web-Based Instruction

Contact: [email protected]


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