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Chapter 13 Probability and Data AnalysisPowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 13 Probability and Data Analysis

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13.1 Probabilities and Odds

- Vocabulary: outcome, event, sample space, probability, odds
- What is probability???

13.1 Continued

- You flip 3 coins. How many possible outcomes are in the sample space? List the possible outcomes.
- You roll a dice three times. How many possible outcomes are in the sample space?

Odds versus probability

- Odds = favorable/ unfavorable
- Probability = favorable/ total outcomes
- A study indicates that out of every 60 telephone calls, 6 result in busy signals and 12 result in no answer. What are the odds in favor of someone answering?
- What are the odds in favor of a busy signal?

13.2 Permutations

- Vocabulary: permutation, factorial
- How many permutations can be formed using the letters in the word DOG?
- In how many ways can you arrange the letters in the word BEAR?
- A garage door has a keypad with 10 different digits. A sequence of 4 digits must be selected to open the door. How many keypad codes are possible?
- There are 12 members on a committee. You want to choose a president, vice-president, and treasurer. In how many ways can you choose the officers?

13.3 Combinations

- Vocabulary: Combination
- You have three seashells. How many different combinations of two seashells can you make?
- You order a pizza at a restaurant. You can choose 3 toppings from a list of 12. How many combinations of toppings are possible?
- A committee must award three students out of 15 students with scholarships. What is the probability that you and your two best friends are awarded the scholarships?

13.4 Compound Events

- Vocabulary: compound event, mutually exclusive events, overlapping events, independent events, dependent events
1) Find the probability of A or B. You roll a number cube. Find the probability that you roll a 4 or a prime number. Rolling a 4 and rolling a prime number are mutually exclusive events because 4 is not a prime number.

13.4 Continued

- You roll a number cube. Find the probability that you roll an even number or a number greater than 3. These are overlapping events.

13.4 continued

- Find the probability of A and B. You roll two number cubes. What is the probability that you roll a 1 first and a 2 second?
- The events are _____________
- You and a friend must each select a golf ball from a bucket to play miniature golf. There are 3 yellow balls, 4 red balls, 5 green balls, and 4 purple balls. You select a golf ball, and then your friend selects a golf ball. What is the probability that both balls are green.
- The events are _______________

13. 5 Analyze Surveys and Samples

- Vocabulary: Survey, population, sample, biased sample, biased question
Sampling Methods:

In a random sample, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

In a stratified random sample, the population is divided into distinct groups. Members are selected at random from each group

In a systematic sample, a rule is used to select members of the population.

In a convenience sample, only members of the population who are easily accessible are selected.

In a self-selected sample, members of the population select themselves by volunteering.

Examples

- A high school is conducting a survey to determine the average number of hours that their students spend doing homework each week. At the school, only the members of the sophomore class are chosen to complete the survey. Identify the population and classify the sampling method.

Biased Questions

Tell whether the question is potentially biased. Explain your answer. If the question is potentially biased, rewrite it so that it is not.

- Do you still support the school basketball team, even though the team is having its worst season in 5 years?
- Don’t you think that dogs are better pets than cats?

13.6 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

- Vocabulary: measure of dispersion, range, mean absolute deviation
- Mean, median, mode= measures of central tendency
- Example: Your last 8 test scores are 81, 87, 91, 93, 95, 98, 100. Find the mean, median, mode.

- Measures of dispersion: range, mean absolute deviation
- The 9-hole scores of golfers on two different high school teams are given. Compare the spread of the data sets using the range and the mean absolute deviation.
Team 1: 51, 46, 40, 49, 55, 47

Team 2: 41, 47, 54, 50, 42, 42

13.7 Interpret Steam and Leaf Plots and Histograms

- Vocabulary: stem-and-leaf plot, frequency, frequency table, histogram
- A survey asked people how many miles they commute to work. The results are listed below. Make a stem-and-leaf plot of the data.
5, 10, 18, 15, 9, 27, 10, 35, 12, 4, 8, 14, 23, 2, 20, 5, 15

- The birth weight (in ounces) of babies born at a hospital are listed below. Make a histogram of the data.
96, 128, 115, 120, 107, 125, 136, 122, 131, 112, 110

13.8 Interpret Box-and-Whisker Plots are listed below. Make a histogram of the data.

- Vocabulary: box-and-whisker plot, quartile, interquartile range, outlier
- Make a box-and-whisker plot of the heights (in inches) of 7 family members: 34, 67, 70, 62, 46, 75, 54
- Identify an outlier: The average monthly high temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit) in Atlanta are: 52, 57, 65, 73, 80, 87, 89, 88, 82, 73, 63, 55

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